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FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS
CLASSES OF NOUNS
* As remarked in p. 3., this word is usually pronounced rāgyah; but, for the better illustration of the present subject, z is represented by jn throughout the declension of this noun.
† Or rājani.
the noun then also follows rājan ; as, a mūrddhan, m.“ the head”; ins. I mūrddhnā.
There are no simple feminine nouns in an ; but when masculine nouns are taken to form the last member of a compound adjective they take a feminine and neuter form ; as in mahātman, “magnanimous."* The feminine form, however, is declined precisely like the masculine, and the neuter follows the declension of karman below.
66. Neuter Crudes in man, declined like a n ang OTAC (nomen).
In the former the m is conjunct, in the latter, not. N. ( , कर्म karma, s
कर्मणी karmani, कमाणि karmāni. A TIH nāma
नानी namni, नामानि nāmāni. In samun karmanāThe other cases like the masc.; as, gen. plur.
Catat nūminā. karmanām, nāmnām; loc. karmasu, nāmasu.
So also the neuter nouns, janman, veshman, ashman, varman, vartman, charman, chhadman, follow the declension of karman; but dāman, sūman, dhāman, vyoman, roman, preman, that of nāman. When neuters in an compose the last member of compound adjectives, they may take the masc. or fem. form.
SEVENTH CLASS.--CRUDES IN as, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER.
chandramas, m.“ the moon"; and HGTA manas, n.“ the mind."
68. Masculine and Feminine form of Crudes in as, declined like angie.
The other cases are like the neuter below, excepting the voc. dual and plur. (r. 50.).
Observe, that the masculine noun chandramas is also the model for the fem. noun apsaras, “a nymph," and for the fem. form of compound adjectives, and that it only differs from the neuter in the nom. and acc. cases.
Nearly all simple substantives in as are neuter; but when these substantives are taken to form a compound adjective, they are declinable also in the masculine and feminine like chandramas. Thus, when manas is taken to form the compound adjective mahāmanas, “magnanimous,” it makes in the nom. (masc. and fem.) mahāmanāh, mahāmanasau, mahāmanasah. In the same way is formed durmanas, “evil-minded” (nom. durmanāh, &c.), to which a very remarkable analogy is presented by the Greek ovo jevns, m. and f., making in the neut. dvouevés, derived from uévos. (Prof. Eastwick’s transl. of Bopp’s Comp. Gram. §. 146.).
neut. like the masc., except in the nom. and acc., which are vividwah, vividushi, vividwānsi. The advanced student will here observe, that as the 2d preterite of vid, “ to know,” is used as a present tense, so the participle of the 2d preterite is used as a present participle, the reduplicated syllable only being rejected.
Eighth Class.—CRUDES IN any Consonant except t, n, s, MASCULINE,
FEMININE, AND NEUTER. 70. This class consists principally of roots taken to form the last member of compound words. They are not of very common occurrence, except as ending in t or d (see karmakrit, r. 59.). The only difficulty in their declension arises from their combination with those terminations in the scheme at r. 58., which begin with consonants, viz. three cases in the dual, and four in the plural. Whatever change, however, takes place in the nominative, is preserved before these consonantal terminations. Thus, masc. and fem. bhuj, “an eater": nom. bhuk ; ins. dual bhugbhyām; ins. plur. bhugbhih; loc. bhukshu. So again sprish, nom. sprik;* and in the other cases, sprigbhyām, sprigbhih, sprikshu. So again rāj, nom. rāt (07); and the other cases, rūdbhyām, rādbhih, rātsu. And lih, “a licker,” nom. lit (foc); and the other cases, lidbhyām, lidbhih, litsu. And duh, nom. dhuk ;* and the other cases, dhugbhyām, dhugbhih, dhukshu. Before the terminations which begin with vowels, the final consonant of the root, whatever it may be, is always preserved. Thus, acc. bhujam, sprisham, rājam, liham, duham, &c.; ins. bhujā, sprishā, rājā, lihā, duhā, &c. The neuter is as follows: nom., acc., voc. (sing., dual, and plur.), bhuk, bhujā, bhunji ; rāt, rājā, rānji; lit, lihā, linhi; dhuk, duhī, dunhi.
+ The few simple nouns which fall under this class are declined on a similar principle. But asrij, n. “ blood” (nom. asrik), makes in the ins. asrijā or asnā; dat. asrije or asne ; acc. pl. asrinji or asāni: ap, f. “water,” is declined in the plural only; thus, āpah, apah, adbhih, adbhyah, apām, apsu, ūpah : div, f.“ the sky," sing. nom. dyauh; acc. divam or dyām; ins. divā, fc.; dual. divau, dyubhyām, divoh ; plur. nom. acc. divah ; ins. dyubhih, 8c.
* sh and Ę h appear to be nearly allied to k, and often pass into k in Greek and Latin words. Thus, from dasha, “ ten,” deka, “ decem"; from 664, kapora, “cor.”