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64. Masculine and Teminine form of Crudes in an, declined like
65. Observe, that it is necessary to give two examples of nouns
in am, because if an be preceded by m or p, and this m or p be conjunct with a preceding consonant, the noun is then declined like atman. Hence, स्रध्वन adhican, m. “ a road," and दृश्वन dris/rcan, m. “ a looker," make in the ins. adhmpanā, drishnamā. But if this m or o be not conjunct, then the noun follows rājam ; as, loghiman, m. “ lightness "; ins. laghimmā. And if an be preceded । by any other consonant than m or p, even although it be conjunct, the noun then also follows rājan ; as, मूर्डन् ?māirddham, m. “ the head"; ins. मूडॆा mārddhna.
* As remarked in p. 8., this word is usually pronounced rāg/ah ; but, for the better illustration of the present subject, ज्ञ is represented by.jn throughout the declension of this noun.
f Or rājani.
There are no simple feminine nouns in am ; but when masculine nouns are taken to form the last member of a compound adjective they take a feminine and neuter form ; as in mahātman, “ magnanimous.`* The feminine form, however, is declined precisely like the masculine, and the neuter follows the declension of kar?man below.
66. Veat/er Crudes ija man, declimed Wike कर्ममेन्। and नामन् (nomen), In the former the m is conjunct, in the latter, not.
So also the neuter nouns, jammam, १’eshmam, ashman, carman, ottrtman, charman, c//tadmam, follow the declension of karmam ; but dāman, stimam, dhāman, ryomam, roman, preman, that of nāman. When neuters in an compose the last member of compound adjectives, they may take the masc. or fem. form."
* Anomalies in am : श्वन् , m. (cf kuaw), “a dog.” Nom. श्वा, श्वानी, श्वानः ; acc. श्वानं, श्वानो, शुनः. In all these anomalies the acc. c. plur. is generally the clue to the form assumed by the noun before the terminations beginning with wowels. Thus, instr. is शुना, घ्वभ्यां, &c. So again, युवन् , m. f. n. (cf. .jutemis) * young” ; nom.J/uti, /urindu, /urānal ; acc. 1/urinam, /urānau, /inal ; inst.jinā, yurabhyām, &c. ब्रह्महन् , “a Brahmicide"; nom. -हा, -हणी, -हण:; acc. -हणे, -हणौ, -म: ; instr. मा &c. अहन्, n. “a day"; nom. and acc. अह:, अही, or सहनी, अहानि ; instr. अह्ा, अहोभ्यां, अहोभि: ; dat. स्रहे &c.
* When rijan is taken to form a compound of this kind, it is declined like dera (r. 48.) ; as, nom. mahārājal s acc. mahārājam, Sc.
f As in the sentence, Wedugarbhanama Brahmaraa āsi', “ There was a Brahmin named Wedagarbha."
67. Masculine form of Crudes in in, declined like धनिन्, “ rich."
So also nouns of agency like kārin. The fem. form of nouns in in is declined like madi ; as, nom. dhanin?, kārip? (see r. 49.). The neuter form follows the declension of pāri ; as, nom. धनि ,
f Pathin, m. “a path,” is declined irregularly ; thus, Sing. panthih, panthānam, pathā, pathe, pathah, pathi, pathin; dual, pamthtinnu, pathillg/tim, pathol s plur. pamthinah, pathah, pathibhih, pathiblig/uh, patham, pathishu.
SEVENTH CLASS.-CRUDES IN os, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTEIt.
Declined like चन्द्रमस् chandramas, m. “the moon”; and मनम् manas, n. “the mind. 68. Mascaline and Feminine form 0f Crades in as, declined like चन्द्रमस् .
N. चन्द्रमाः chandramih, चन्द्रमसौ chandramasau, चन्द्रमस: chandramasah. Ac. चन्द्रमसं chandramasam, - chandramasau, - chamdramasah.
Theother cases are like the neuter below, excepting the woc. dual and plur. (r. 50.).
69. Neater Crudes in as, declined like मनम् (Advos, mens),
Observe, that the masculine noun chandramas is also the model for the fem. noun apsaras, “ a nymph," and for the fem. form of compound adjectives, and that it only differs from the neuter in the nom. and acc. caseS.
Nearly all simple substantives in as are neuter ; but when these substantives are taken to form a compound adjective, they are declinable also in the masculine and feminine like chundramas. Thus, when manas is taken to form the compound adjective imahāmanas, “ magnanimous," it makes in the nom. (masc. and fem.) mahāmamāh, ?mahāmanasau, mahāmanasah. In the same way is formed darmanas, “ evil-minded " (nom. durmanāh, &e) to which a very remarkable analogy is presented by the Greek puoruew)c, m. and f., making in the neut. puouew6s, derived from pt6vog. (Prof. Eastwick's transl. of Bopp's Comp. Gram. S. l40.).
* There are a few neuter nouns in is and us, which are declined exactly like mamas, substituting i and a८ for a throughout, and therefore sh for &, and r for o (r. 80. 27.). Thus, Haris, “ ghee”; nom. and acc. llarill, Harishं, Harinshi ; ins. Harisha, Hatirblijjim, Harirbhih, &c. ; and chakshus, “ the eye"; nom. and acc. chakshuh, chakshushi, chakshanshi ; ins. chakshashā, chakshurbha/tin, chakshurbhih, &c. Ashis, f “a blessing,” makes in the nom. ishill, āshishau, tishishah; acc. āshisham, Gishishau, tishishah, &o. Similarly, dos, m. “ the arm "; but this last is in the ins. cither doshā or doshnā ; dat. doshe or doshne, &c. Pums, “a male" ; nom. puman, pttintinsuu, pumānsah ; acc. pumāmsam, pumāmsau, pumsah s ins.punsā pumbha/tm, &c. Adjectives in the comparative degree, formed by the affix गृ/us (r. 71.), follow the declension of nands, except in the nom. and acc. Thus, bal7gas, ** more powerful'; nom. bal7/tin, bul7a/tinsuu, bal7/insal। ; acc. balāyāmsam, balijinsau, bali/asah ; ins. buliyasti, bali/obl1/tin, &c. The woc. Sing is baliyam. The fem. form is declined like madi (r. 40.). The neut. form isdeclined like mamas throughout. Participles of the 2d preterite (r.127.), like oiridulas (from cid, “ to know ”) and .jngmiras (from gam, “ to go') are declined in some of their cascs as if they were written oicidus, jugmg/us ; and in others as if written piciducat, jagmioat. Thus, nom. ciciduptim, -utimsau,-urānsah s acc. uicidurānsam, -urānsuu, tricidushah ; ins. cicāduslia, triciducadblijjam, citriducadbhil. The root cid,* to know,''hasan irrogular pres. . part. ciduds, used often as an adjective (“ learned'), and declined exactly like triridulus. These participles are declined like nada in the fem. (r. 49.), and in the
nout. like the masc., except in the nom. and acc., which are ariuidurah, oiridush ं, oiriducansi. The advanced student will here observe, that as the 2d preterite of uid, “to know,'' is used as a present tense, So the participle of the 2d preterite is used as a present participle, the reduplicated syllable only being rejected.
EIGHTH CLAss.-CRUDES IN any Consomant e:rcept t, m, s, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER. 70. This class consists principally of roots taken to form the last member of compound words. They are not of very common occurrence, except as ending in t or d (see karmakrit, r. 59.), The only difficulty in their declension arises from their combination with those terminations in the scheme at r. 58., which begin with consonants, viZ. three cases in the dual, and four in the plural. Whatever change, however, takes place in the nominative, is preserved before these consonantal terminations. Thus, masc. and fem. Ghuj, “ an eater ": nom. bhuk ; ins. dual )/ugb/yām ; ins. plur. ८hagbhi/; ; loc. bhukshu. So again sprish, nom. sprik;* and in the other cases, sprig//yām, sprigbhi/, sprikshu. So again rāj, nom. rāt (एद्); and the other cases, rādb/yām, rādbhih, ratsa. And lih, “ a licker,' nom. lit (लिद्); and the other cases, lidbhyām, lidbhi/, litsu. And dah, nom. dhuk;* and the other cases, dhugbhyām, dhugbhih, dhukshu. Before the terminations which begin with vowels, the final consonant of the root, whatever it may be, is always preserved. Thus, acc. ८/ujam, sprisham, rājam, liham, duham, &c. ; ins, Ghuja, sprishā, rājā, lihā, duhā, &c. The neuter is as follows : nom., acc., voc. (sing., dual, and plur), bhuk, bhuji, ८//uriji ; rāt, rāj?, rāiiji ; lit, lih?, lin/ti ; dhuk, du/?, dum/i.