« AnteriorContinua »
55. Feminine Crudes in u, like dhenu, “a milch cow."
Although there are but few substantives declined like dhenu and madhu, yet it is important to study their declension, as well as that of the masc. noun bhānu; for all simple adjectives like tanu, and all like pipāsu (r. 40.), and all other simple adjectives in u, and all compound adjectives ending in u, are declined like bhānu in the masc. ; dhenu in the fem.; and madhu in the neut. Many adjectives in u, however, optionally follow the declension of nadī, in the fem.; as, tanu makes its nom. fem. either tanuh or tannī.
of There are one or two feminine nouns in ū long, whose declension must be noticed here: as, Ty, “a wife,” declined analogously to nadī. Nom. sing. dual. and plur. vadhuh, vadhwau, vudhwah ; acc. vadhum, vudhwau, vadhūh; ins. vadhwā, vadhūbhyām, vadhūbhih ; dat. vadhwai, vadhubhyām, vadhubhyah; abl. vadhwāh, fc. ;
* The dat. may also be dhenwai ; the ab. and gen. dhenwāh ; the loc. dhenwām.
FOURTH CLASS.—CRUDES IN tri 7, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER.
OBS. Nouns of relationship like pitri only differ from nouns of agency like dātri in the nom. dual and plural, and the acc. sing. and dual, where the former has the penultimate short, the latter, long. Feminine nouns of relationship like mātri, "a mother," are declined like pitri, except in the acc. plural Alq.
mg nội, “a man,” is declined like pitsi (nom. nā, &c.), but usually makes qui in the gen. plural.
The feminine form of nouns of agency in tri is declined like nadī; as, nom. cret, &c. (see r. 49.).
The neuter form follows the declension of vāri; as, nom. acc. ct, çrqut, grafu (see r. 53.).
Sect. II.—DECLENSION OF CRUDES ENDING IN CONSONANTS, OR OF THE LAST FOUR CLASSES OF NOUNS.
General Observations. 58. The first four classes of nouns, whose declension has just been considered, comprise nearly all the substantives in the language. If we except substantives ending in man and as, the last four classes of nouns consist almost entirely of adjectives, participles, and roots, taken to form the last member of compound words. There is one general scheme of terminations applicable to all nouns ending in consonants. It is as follows :
This scheme applies without exception to the few substantives, and to the masculine of the many adjectives and participles, whose crudes end in consonants. It also applies, with the exception of the nom. and acc. cases, to the neuter of these same adjectives and participles; but their feminine generally follows the declension of nadā (r. 49.). The nominative singular admits of so much variation, that no one termination is general enough to be inserted in the scheme.
Many of the terminations will be already familiar to the learner, especially those of the dual and plural. Indeed, certain terminations prevail, with various modifications, in all Sanscrit nouns: and this prevalence of certain sounds, as characteristic of certain cases, has led native grammarians into the error of constructing a technical scheme of terminations, which they apply universally in the declension of every noun in the language. This technical scheme does, in point of fact, correspond with the
scheme we have given above, as applicable to the last four classes ; but when, on comparing this with the scheme belonging to the first class (r. 47.), it is seen how very great is the dissimilarity between the two; and when it is remembered that the first class embraces a much larger number of nouns than all the other seven classes combined, there seems but little reason for any such process of generalization. For surely if any general scheme is given at all, it should be that which is most universally applicable; and if any system of adaptation is to be adopted, it should consist in an adaptation of the smaller number to the larger, rather than the larger to the smaller; or we are led into endless alteration and substitution, and very unnecessary perplexity and confusion.
FIFTH CLASS. —CRUDES IN T AND d, MASCULINE, FEMININE, AND NEUTER. Declined like an karmmakrit, m. f. n. “ a doer of work"; yaraç dharmmavid,
m. f. n. “one who knows his duty”; 1997 dhanavat, m. f. n. “ wealthy." 59. Masculine and Feminine form of Crudes in t and d, declined
like other and afac. N. कर्मकृत् kurmalkrit,* कर्मकृतौ karmakritau, कर्मकृत: karmalkritah. Ac. primo agri karmakritam, I. कम्मकृता karmalerita, कर्मकन्यां karmakridbhyām, कर्मकड़ि: karmakridbhih. D. Britain karmakrite,
dira: karmakridbhyah. Ab. opinigan: karmakritah, G. - - P ant: karmaksitoh, Heimat karmakritām. L. hafa karmakriti, - karmakritoh, ohigang karmakritsu. V. Like the nominative.
* Although r has the effect of doubling the letter immediately under it in the Sanscrit character (r. 33.), it is unnecessary always to double the letter in the Roman type. Strictly, however, this word should be written karmmakrit.
N. धर्मविद dharmavid, धर्मविदौ dharmavidau, धर्मविदः dharmavidah.
The neuter form of nouns like karmakrit and dharmavid is, in the nom. and acc. tinten, omhant, oriefort, vandfat, pafact, parafree. In the other cases it resembles the masc. and fem.
60. All substantives like a marut, m.“ wind,” Haag sampad, f. “success,” and we kumud, n. “a lotus," follow the declension of karmakrit and dharmavid : thus, nom. marut, marutau, marutah ; sampad, sampadau, sampadah ; kumud, kumudī, kumundi, &c.
61. The masculine form of crudes formed with the affixes vat and mat, is declined like van.
N. धनवान् dhanaran, धनवन्तौ dhanavantau, धनवन्तः dhanavantah. Ac. Ta dhanavantam, - dhanavantau, Vien: dhanavatah. Voc. Va dhanavan,
The other cases are like karmakrit; as, ins. Han dhanavatā, &c.
The feminine form of nouns like dhanavat is declined like nadi: thus, nom. dhanavatī, dhanavatyau, dhanavatyah, &c. (see r. 49.).
The neuter form is, in the nom. and ac., dhanavat, dhanavatī, dhanavanti; and in the other cases like the masculine.
62. So, also, all adjectives like an dhimat,“ wise," and all active past participles like aan kritavat,“ he did ” (r. 127,): thus, nom. masc. dhīmān, &c., kritavān, &c.; acc. dhimantam, &c., kritavantam, &c. ; voc. dhīman, &c. So, also, the nom. fem. dhāmatā, &c., kritavatī, &c.; and nom, neut. dhīmat, &c., kritavat, &c.
63. After dhanavat may also be declined present participles like qea pachat, “cooking” (r. 123.), except in the nom. sing., which is pachan instead of pachān. Many of these participles also differ from dhanavat, by inserting a nasal throughout all the cases of the feminine. Thus, nom. pachantī, pachantyau, pachantyah ; acc. pachantīm, pachantyau, pachantīh ; ins. pachantyā, &c.
The adjective Hea mahat, “great," is declined like dhanavat, but makes the penultimate long before the nasal; thus, nom. mahān, mahāntau, mahāntah; acc. mahāntam, mahāntau, mahatah : nom. fem. mahatī, &c. : nom. neut. mahat, mahatī, mahānti.