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Although there are but few substantives declined like dhenaa and madhad, yet it is important to study their declension, as well as that of the masc. noun ८/āmu ; for all simple adjectives like danu, and all like pipāsu (r. 40.), and all other Simple adjectives in a, and all compound adjectives ending in a८, are declined like ८/āna in the mase, ; d/enu in the fem. ; and madhu in the neut. Many adjectives in a, however, optionally follow the declension of ?aado, in the fem. ; as, damu makes its nom. fem. either tama/। or dammo7.
* There are one or two feminine nouns in ।। long, whose declension must be noticed here : as, वघू, “a wife," declined analogously to madi. Nom. sing. dual. and plur. padhih, badhurau, toudhurah ; acc. badhim, pudhucau, toadhāh ; ins. padhura,
oadliiiblig/am, oudhiibhih ; dat. cadhunai, pudhāibhg/tim, cadhillyahy abl. toadhuctih, &c. ;
* The dat. may also be dhenuai ; the ab. and gen. dhenurah ; the loc. dhenutam.
OBS. Nouns of relationship like pitri only difer from nouns of agency like datri in the nom. dual and plural, and the acc. sing. and dual, where the former has the penultimate short, the latter, long. Feminine nouns of relationship like mātri, “ a mother," are declined like pitri, except in the acc. plural मातॄः.
Spor. II.–DECLENSION OR ORUDES BNDING IN CONSONANTS, OR OF THE LAST FOUR CIASSES OF NOUNS. General Obsert;dfioms. 58. The first four classes of nouns, whose declension has just been considered, comprise nearly all the Substantives in the language. If we except substantives ending in inam and as, the last four classes of nouns consist almost entirely of adjectives, participles, and roots, taken to form the last member of compound words. There is one general scheme of terminations applicable to all nouns ending in consonants. It is as follows :
This scheme applies without exception to the few substantives, and to the masculine of the many adjectives and participles, whose crudes end in consonants. It also applies, with the exception of the nom. and acc. cases, to the neuter of these same adjectives and participles; but their feminine generally follows the declension of nadi (r. 49.), The nominative singular admits of so much variation, that no one termination is general enough to be inserted in the Scheme.
Many of the terminations will be already familiar to the learner, especially those of the dual and plural. Indeed, certain terminations prevail, with various modifications, in all Sanscrit nouns : and this prevalence of certain Sounds, as characteristic of certain cases, has led native grammarians into the error of constructing a technical scheme of terminations, which they apply universally in the declension of erery moun in the language. This technical scheme does, in point of fact, correspond with the scheme we have given above, as applicable to the last four classes ; but when, on comparing this with the scheme belonging to the first class (r. 47.), it is seen how very great is the dissimilarity between the two ; and when it is remembered that the first class embraces a much larger number of nouns than all the other seven classes combined, there seems but little reason for any such। process of generaliZation. For surely if any general scheme is given at all, it should be that which is most universally applicable; and if any system of adaptation is to be adopted, it Should consist in an adaptation of the smaller number to the larger, rather than the larger to the smaller ; or we are led into endless alteration and substitution, and very unnecessary perplexity and confusion.
* Although r has the effect of doubling the letter immediately under it in the Sanscrit character (r. 83.), it is unnecessary always to double the letter in the Roman type. Strictly, however, this word should be written karmmakrit.