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By adding to NoUNS,
I. but (nom. -tām, -oati, -bat), if the crude end in a or ā,* forming innumorable adjectives : as, from dhana, “ wealth," dhanarat, “ possessed of wealth." This and the next affix are universally applicable, and are of the utmost utility to form adjectives of possession. Sometimes oat is added to crudes in s and t : as in tejasupat, tridyutucat (violating r. 20. 29. and 14.).
II. mat (nom.-min, -mati, -mat), if the crude end in i, ग्, or u, to form adjectives like the preceding : as, from dhi, “ wisdom,” dhimat, “ wise'; from amshu, **a ray,”
43. SIxTH CLAss.-Crudes in an and in, Masculine, Feminine, and Neufer. Formed by adding to Roors, r. man (nom. -ma), after Guna of the root, forming substantives of the neuter gender: as, from Kri, “ to do"; karman, “a deed.” This affix corresponds to the Latin men, in regimen, stumen, &c. One or two nouns in man are masculine : as, itman, ** soul ” (nom. -mā) ; and a few masculine nouns are formed with an instead of man : as, rājum, **a king '' (nom. .ji), from rfij, ** to shine.' A few adjectives are formed with cum : as, drishuittm, ** seeing '' (nom. -tā, -ta, -ba)By adding to NoUNS, rr. imam (nom. -imā), forming masculine abstract substantives. If the noun onds in a or u, these vowels are rojected : as, from ktila, “ black,' kālimam, “ blackness"; from laghu, “light,'' laghimam, “ lightness''; from mridu, “ Soft,'' maradimam.f If it end in a consonant, this consonant, with its preceding vowel, is rejectod: as, from mahat, “ great,' muhimam, “ greatness.' By adding to IRoors, Im. in (nom. -, -ini, -i), after Wriddhi of a final wowel and medial a, and Guna of
trin, “ splendid.' . This last example violates r. 26. and 20.
45. EIGHTH CLASS.–Crudes in any Consonant, except t, d, n, S, IMusculine, Feminine, and Veuter.
46. There is no indefinite article in Sanscrit.* Thus, “ a man" can only be expressed by the simple noun पुरूष: purusha/. The definite article is usually expressed by the pronoun sa, as स पुरूप: sa purashah, “ the man." The indefinite pronoun कश्चित् kashchit may be used like the English expression " a certain "; thus, कश्चित् पुरूषः “ a certain man."
AS, in the last chapter, nouns substantive and adjective were arranged under eight classes, according to the final of their crudes (the first four classes comprising those ending in vowels, the last four those ending in consonants), so it will be the object of the present chapter to give the eight systems of declension arising out of this arrangement. Moreover, as every Class of crudes comprised adjectives as well as substantives, So it is intended that the examples of a masculine, feminine, and neuter Substantive, exhibited under each system of declension, shall serve as the model for the masculine, feminine, and neuter of adjectives coming under the same class.
The learner will have already gathered that the noun has three genders, and that the gender is, in many cases, determinable from the termination of the crude. Thus, all crudes in a, ?, and those formed with the affix ti (r. 30.), are feminine : nearly all nouns whose crudes end in ama, tna, /o, dra, as, is, ats, and man, are neuter ; all in imam are masculine ; but those in a, i, ad, and ?”i, are not reducible to rule. The nominative case is, however, in the first of these instances a guide to the gender : as, depa/),
* In modern Sanscrit oka is very commonly used as an indefinite article, as rkah purushal, “ a man."
“ a deity," is masculine ; but danam, “ a gift," neuter. And in other cases the meaning of the word : as, pitri, “ a father," is masculine ; and mātri, “ a mother," feminine. In Sanscrit, all the relations between the words in a sentence are expressed by inflections. A great many prepositions exist in the language, but these are very rarely used alone in government with any case, their chief use being as prefixes to verbs and nouns. This absence of Syntactical auxiliaries leads to the necessity for eight cases. These are called, I. nominative ; 2. accusative ; 3. instrumental ; 4. dative ; 5. ablative ; 6. genitive ; 7. locative ; S. vocative.* Of these, the third and seventh are new to the classical student. The instrumental denotes generally the instrument by which a thing is done ; as, dena kritam, “ done by him." The locatipe generally refers to the place or time in which any thing is done ; as, -4yodhyāyām "in -4yod/yā'; ;)iiruakale, “ in former time'; bhāmaad, “ on the ground."" Hence it follows that the ablatice is restricted to the sense from, and cannot be used, as in Latin and Greek, to express b/, mpi//, in, at, on, &c. The noun has three numbers, Singular, dual, and plural.
SEcr. I.–DECLENSION OF CRUDES ENDING IN VOWELS, OR OE' THE FIRST FOUR OI,ASSES 0F NOUNS.
FIIRST CLASS.-CRUDES IN (m, MASCULINE AND NEUTER ; IN 7 AND ?, FEMININE.
Declined like देव deca, mas. “ a dei// "; जीवा jarā, fem. “/ife"; नदी nadi, fem. “ a ricer"; and दान dana, neuter, “a gifo.” 47. By far the greatest number of masculine and neuter nouns, in Sanscrit, end in a in the crude form ; and by far the greatest number of feminine nouns end in either a or ?. These we have arranged under the first class, and the examples we are about to
give will serve as the model, not only for Substantives, but also
* OBS. That these cases will sometimes be denoted by their initial letters. Thus, N. will denote nominative, I. instrumental.
f Both these cases are used to denote various other relations. Sce the Chapter on Syntax.
for all the adjectives given at r. B8. as falling under this class. For all adjectives which make a in the crude form of the masculine and neuter make a or o in the feminine. Thus, taking the adjective sundara, “ beautiful.' The masculine is declined like depa (nom. sundarah); the feminine like jipā or nadi (nom. sandarā or sundar); `the neuter like dāna (nom. sundaram). So great is the importance of this first class of nouns, that, to make its declension clearer, it will be advisable to give, in the first place, the following general scheme of its terminations.
The classical student will recognise in this scheme many resemblances to the terminations of nouns in Latin and Greek, when it is remembered that the Sanscrit a corresponds to the Latin at and the Greek o ; the Sanscrit m to the Latin wa and the Greek y ; the Sanscirt o7 or ? to the Latin a and the Geek १, or stoः, or oं, or in the gen. plur. co ; the Sanscrit ८/ or ८// to the Latin ) ; and that the Sanscrit Wisargah, or final /, is eduivalent to s.