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FORMATION O F THE CRUIDES OF SIMPI,E NOUNS.
37. Nouns substantive and adjective are of two kinds, Simple and compound. Simple nouns are those which stand alone, and uncompounded with any other. Compound, are those made up of two or more nouns, the last only receiving inflection.*
It may be easily understood, from the preceding remarks, that the consideration of simple nouns divides itself into two heads : lst, The formation of their crudes ; 2dly, The formation of their cases ; or, in other words, the enumeration of the different systems of declension which belong to each variety of crude form.
Observe, that it is not intended that the student should dwell long, at first, on the following pages, printed in Small type. It will be essential for him, however, to read them over with attention, as a necessary introduction to the subject of declension in Chapter IW. Their importance will not be fully appreciated till he arrives at a more advanced period of his studies.
The crudes of nouns are formed in two ways, either by adding certain affixes to the RooT, the wowel of which is liable, at the same time, to be changed to its Guna or Wriddhi Substitute, or by adding certain affixes to onumEs or NOUNs already formed. It must be remembered, however, that, although every single word in the Sanscrit language is derived from some root, there are many in which the connection between the noun and its source, either in sense or form, is by no means obvious.f With the derivation of all such we shall not concern ourselves ; and the following rules have only reference to those classes of nouns whose
formation proceeds on clear and intelligible principles.
38. FIRST CLAss.– Crudes in a, IMasculine and Neuter ; in a and ं, Feminime.
Formed by adding to R00T8I. a, forming, Ist (nom. -al), after the Wriddhi of medial a of a root, and the Guna of any other vowel, a large class of substantives masculine : as, from the
root dit', “ to sport,” deca, “ a deity.” If a root end in ch or j, these letters
* Compound nouns are treated of in Chapter IOK. on Compound Words. f Thus, पुरूषः, **a man,” is said to come from pur, ** to precede "; shrigala,
*a jackal,” from 8rij, ** to create”; shina, “ the god Shiva,” from shi, “ to sleep.”
ure changed to k and g respectively : as, from pach, “ to cook,"pāka, “ cooking "; fon 3/uj, ** to join,' /07a, **.joining.” Forming, 2dly (nom. masc. -ah, fem. -ā, neut. -am*), after Guna of a final, and sometimes Guna of a medial vowel, nouns of agency : as, from plu, ** to swim,' placa, “ what swims "; from srip, “ to creep," sarpa, “ what creeps” (see r. l8I. 1.). Forming, Bdly (nom. -ah -ā -am), adjectives: as, from shubh, “ to shine,” shubha, “ beautiful.” Sometimes there is great change of the root: as in shita, “ propitious,'' sundara, “ beautiful ; and sometimes the feminine may be formed in । : as, sundari. There are very few adjectives formed with this affix. II. aku (nom. -akah, -akā or -ikā, -akam), after Wriddhi of a final vowel or medial a, and Guna of any other vowel. Still more common than a to form adjectives and nouns of agency : as, from tap, “ to burn,' tāpaka, “ inflammatory "; from kri, * to do,” kāraka, *a doer" (r. 181.8. b.) ; OBs. -aka is the feminine of the adjectives, and -ikā of the agents: as, tāpaka, kārikā. III. ana (nom. -anam), after Guna of the root, forming, Ist, a large class of neuter substantives: as, from mi, “ to guide,” nayama, “ guidance"; from di, “ to give,” dina, **a gift.” Forming, 2dly (nom. -amah, -ama, -anam), nouns of agency and adjectives : as, from mrit, “ to dance,” martana, “a dancer” (r. 181. 8. c.) ; from shubh, “ to shine," shobhana, “ bright.' The.feminine of the agents may be in an7. ॥v. tra (nom. -tram), after Guna of the root : as, from pti, “ to drink,"pātra, **a vessel"; from shru, “ to hear," shrotra, “ the organ of hearing." This affix is used to form neuter nouns denoting some instrument or organ, and corresponds to the Latin trum in aratrum, plectrum, &c. v. There are other uncommon affixes to roots to form adjectives in a (nom. -ah, -ā, -am) : as, ala, oara, ra, ura, ira, uka, tra, ma, nka. The following are examples of adjectives formed with these affixes; chapala,.jiturura, namra, bhidura, ruchira, Darshuka, chitra, bhtma,.jigaraka. Formed by adding to NoUNS, wr. tua (nom. -turam), forming neuter abstract substantives from any noun in the language : as, from purusha, ** a man,' purushatuca, ** manliness.' In adding this affix to crudes ending in nasals, the nasal is rejected : as, from dhamim, ** rich,”
dhamitura, “ the state of being rich.”
* Ons. When there are three gendors, it will be sufficiont, in future, to place
the hyphen between them.
wiI. Va, forming, Ist (nom. -yam), neuter abstract substantives and a few collectives, the first syllable of the noun taking Wriddhi : as, from sularid, **a friond,” ।suuhridyu, “ friendship.” When the crude ends in a vowel, this wowel is rejected before ga is affixed : as, from uichitra, “ various," 0aichitrya, “ variety.” Forming, 2dly (nom--'/a,-ga,-gam), adjectives expressing some relationship to the noun: as, from dhama, “ wealth,” dhanga, “ wealthy.” Sometimes Wriddhi takes place : as, from soma, “ the moon,” saumg/a, *lumar.' In this case the fem. is -ृ/i. wmn. a (nom. -ah,-ः,-am), after Wriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming innumerable adjectives expressing some relationship to the noun. When the crude ends in a, no further affix is reguired, and the only change is the Wriddhi of the first syllable : as, from purusha, “ a man," paurusha, “ manly.” When in ā or i, this a or i must be rejected : as, from sikatā, “ Sand," saikata, “ sandy.” When in u, this u is changed to at; before this and the three following affixes : as, from Wishau, “ the god Vishnu,” Jaishnata, “ a worshipper of Wishnu.” Sometimes the neuter form of this adjective is taken as an abstract substantive : as, nominative case, paurushum, “ manliness '; or, as a collective : as, kshaitram, *fields,” collectively, from kshetra. This applies to the two next affixes. rx. ika (nom. -ikah, -ikम्, -ikam), after Wriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming numerous adjectives. Before this affix is added, the final wowel of the crude must be rojected : as, from dharma, “ religion,” dhārmika, “ religious.” x. eya (nom. -eyuh, -eyi, -eyam), after Wriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, forming many adjectives. The final wowel of the crude must be rejected: as, from purugha, “ a man," paurusheya, “ manly "; from dgmi, “ fire," Time)a, “fiery.” xI. ।/a (nom. -H/ul, -iyā, -iyum), without any change of the noun, except the rejection of final a : as, from paroatu, “a mountain,' parpatiya, “ mountainous.” Sometimes there is Wriddhi : as, from sukha, “ pleasure,” samukhi/a, “ pleasurable.” When the final of the crude remains, k is prefixed to the last two affixes. xII. There are other uncommon affixes to nouns forming adjectives in a (nom. -ah, -ā, -am): as, ina, toula, tanu ; forming, from grtimu, “a village,'' gramina, “ rustic''; from shikha, “a crest," shikhācala, “ crested'; from shuras, “ to-morrow,'' &hucastana, “ future.' This last corresponds to the Latin tinus, and has reference to time. Ka is Sometimes added to words to form adjectives and collective nouns, and is often redundant. Mag/u (nom. -mag/ah, -magi, -magyam) is a common affix added to any word to denote made of': as, from /oha, “ iron,'' lohamag/o, “ made of iron"; from tojus, “ light,'' tejomuya, “ consisting of light,” “ full of light.” By adding to IROOTs, _ xIII. i (nom. -ā), with no change of the root, forming feminine substantives: as,
xIv. tā (nom. -tā), forming feminine abstract Substantives : as, from purusha, * a man," purushata, “ manliness.” This affix may be added to any noun in the language, and corresponds to the Latin tas in celeritas, &c.
xv. । (nom. -i), forming a large class of feminine Substantives, usually derived from masculines in a, by changing a to ।। : as, from mada, **a river,” fem. mada ;
39. SECOND CLAss.-Crudes in i, IMasculine, Feminime, amd Neuter. Formed by adding to RooTs, I. i, forming, lst (nom. -ih), a few masculine Substantives, often not connected with their roots either in form or Sense : as, from umrk, “ to mark', dgmi, “ fire.” When this affix is added to the root dhti, iि is dropped, and warious prep0sitions are prefixed ; as sundhi, tridhi, nidhi. Forming, 2dly (nom. -i), one or two neuter Substantives : as, from tri, “ to surround ''; otiri, ** water.” Forming, Bdly (nom. -ih,-ih,-i), a few adjectives : as, from shuch, “ to be pure "; shuchi, “ pure.'' m. ti (nom. -tih), forming an useful class of abstract substantives feminine. This affix bears a great analogy to the passive participle (r. I25.). The same changes of the root are reguired before it as before this participle ; and, in fact, provided the passive participle does not insert i, this substantive may always be formed from it, by changing ta into ti. But if i is inserted before ta, no such। Substantive can be formed. Thus, from ouch, ** to speak,'' ukta, ** spoken,” ukti, “ Speech "; from mam, “ to imagine,” mata, “ imagined,” mati, “ the mind.” And where ma is Substituted for ta of the passive participle, mi is substituted for ti ; as, from glai, “ to be weary,'' glima, “ wearied,'' glimi, “ weariness.' This affix corresponds to the tio of the Latin, added, in the same way, to passive participles:
as uctus, actio.
40. THIRD CLASS. –Crudes in u, Musculine, Feminine, und Neuter. Formed by adding to RooTs, r. u, forming, Ist (nom. -uh), ofton with considerable change of the root, a fow
41. ToURTH CLAss.–Crudes in tri (तृ), Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter. Formed by adding to RooTs,
tri, forming Ist (nom. -ta, -tri, -tri), nouns of agency of three genders, the same change of the root being reguired which takes place in the first future (r. 181. 2.). Thus, from kship, “ to throw,” ksheptri, “ a thrower; from dā, “ toogive,” dātri, *a giver.' This corresponds to the Latin affix tor.
Forming 2dly (nom. -tā), a few nouns of relationship, masculine and feminino :
42. FIFTH CLASS.-Crudes in t and d, Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter.
Formed by adding to Roors,
* (nom--', in all genders), if the root end in a short roupa/: forming nouns of agency of three genders: as, from kri, ‘t to do,” krit, “a doer"; from ji, “t to conguer,".jit, “ a congueror.” This class of nouns are never used, except as the last member of a compound: thus, karmakrit, “ a doer of work.” Roots alroady ending in t or d, taken to form nouns of agency, fall under this class : as, from ", " to know,"dharmatrid, “one who knows his duty.” There are also a fownouns falling under this class, formed by prefixing propositions to roots ending in t or d : as, from dyut, “ to shine,” uidyut, “ lightning”; from ptud, ** to go,"sampad, **success.