Imatges de pàgina
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220. The following two stories, taken from the 4th Book of the Hitopadesha, will conclude the chapter on Syntax. A literal translation is given to both stories, and to the first a grammatical analysis is subjoined. All the rules of combination are observed, but the words are separated from each other, contrary to the usual practice of the Hindus. In the two cases where such separation is impossible, viZ. where a final and initial vowel blend together into one sound, and where crude words are joined with others to form Compounds, a dot placed underneath marks the division :

I. स्रस्ति गौतमस्य मुनेस् तपोवने महातपा नाम मुनि:, “ There is in the sacred grove of the sage Gautama a holy-sage named Mahātapāh (Great-devotion),'

2. तेनाश्रमसन्निधाने मूषिकशावक: काकमुखाद् भ्रष्टो दृष्ट:, “ By him, in the neighbourhood of his hermitage, a young mouse, fallen from the beak of a crow, was seen.'

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elass, masc., nom. case. Wis. remains by r. 24. b.

Second sentence.-Tema, “ by him," instr. case of the pronoun tat, p. 51. r. 77. Ashramasannidhāne, “ in the neighbourhood of his hermitage,” genitively dependent compound, p. 161., the first member formed by the crude noun ashrama, “ hermitage''; the last member by the loc. case of sammidhāna, “ neighbourhood," noun of the first class, neut. (p. 82.). The initial ā of this word blends with the final of tema into a, by r. 4. p. 7. Minghikashāpakah, “ a young mouse," or “ the young of a mouse,' genitively dependent compound, p. 161., the first member formed by the crude noun māंhika, “a mouse "; the last, by the nom. case of sharaka, ** the young of any animal," noun of the first class (p. 81.). Wis. remains hy r. 24. a. JKaikomukhad, “ from the beak (or mouth) of a crow,” genitively dependent compound, p. 161. ; the first member, formed by the crude noun kāka, “*a crow "; the last, by the abl. case of mukha, “ mouth,” noun of the first class, neut. (p. 82.), # being changed to d by r.14. p. 11. Brashto, “ fallen," nom. case, sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the root Dhramsh, p. 140. n. ; al changed to o by r. 26. a. JDrishtah, “ seen," nom. case, Sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the root drish। (डशर्), p. 189. i. Wis. remains by r. 24. b. Third sentence.-Tato, “ then,” adv. p. 152. a. ; as changed to o by r. 29. and 26.a. JDayāyuktema, “ touched with compassion," instrumentally dependent compound, p. I60. ; the first member formed by the crude noun dayā, **compassion''; the last, hy the instr. case of yukta, “ endowed with," pass. past part. of the root angj, p. 189. i. Tema, see second sentence. Muminā, “ by the sage,' noun of the second class, masc. gend. instr. case (p. 88.). Viutirakamaih, “ with grains of wild rice," genitively dependent compound, p. 16I. ; the first member formed by the crude noum mācāra, “ wild rice"; the second, by the instr. plur. of kama, noun of the first class, masc. Wis. remains by r. 24. a. Sanuarddhitah, “ reared," nom. case, sing. of the pass. past part. of the causal form of the root oridh, p. 14l. Wis. remains by r. 24. b. Fourth sentence.-Tadamantaram, “ soon after this," compound adverb, the first member formed with the pronoun tat, “ this"; the second by the adverb anandaram, “after.' Mishikam, noun of the first class, masc. gend., acc. case (p. 81.). JKhāditum, ** to eat,' infinitive mood of the root khād, p. 85. r. 106. and r. 200. Amudhātam, **pursuing after,' * running after," nom. case, Sing. masc. of the pres. part. paras. of the root dhāt', “ to run," with the preposition anu, “after,” p. 186. b. Widalo, ‘’ a cat," noun of the first class, masc. (p. 81.), nom. case; ah changed to o by r. 26. a. Munina, see third sentence. Drightah, see second sentence. Fifth sentence.-Tam, acc. case of the pronoun tat (p. 51.), used as a definite article, p. 28. r. 46. Mighikam, see fourth sentence. Bhātam, “ terrified,' acc. case, Sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the root bhi, p. 188. b. Alokyo, “ perceiving," indeclinable part. of the root lok, with the prep. ā, p. 145../ं Tapalprobhāptit, “ through the efficacy of his devotion" (p. 184. c.), genitively dependent compound, p. I61. ; the first member formed by the crude noun tapas, “devotion," s being changed to Wisargah, by r. 20. and 24. a. ; the second, by the abl. case of prabhāro, noun of the first class, masc. (p. 81.). Tema, see second sentence. Munindi, see third sentence. Māshiko, nom. case, ah changed to o by r. 26. a. Balishtho, “ very strong," nom. case, masc. of the superlative form of the adj. balin, “ strong '' (see p.47.), ah changed to o by r. 26. a. Widalah, see fourth sentence. Wis. remains by r. 24. a. Kritah, “ changed,” “ made,” nom. case, sing. of the pass. past part. of the root kri, p. 188. b. Wis. remains by r. 24. b. Sixth sentence.-Sa, nom. case of the pronoun tat (p. 51.), used as a definite article, p. 28. r. 46. Wis. dropped, by note f, p. 14. Pidalah, see fourth sentence. JKukkurād, “ the dog," noun of the first class, masc. (p. 81.), abl. case after a verb of fearing (p. 198. d.), t changed to d by r. 14. Bibheti, “ fears,” 8d sing. pres. tense of the root bhā, 8d conjः p. 119. Tatah, ** upon that,” adw. p. 152. a. ; as changed to ah, by r. 29. and 24. a. Kukkurah, “ the dog,” nom. case (p. 81.). Wis. remains by r. 24.d. Kritah, see fifth sentence. Kukkurasya, “ of the dog,"gen. case (p. 81.). J?/āghrin, “ for the tiger," noun of the first class, masc. (p. 81.), abl. case, after a noun of ** fear ” (p. 184. 7.), t changed to n by r. 15. Mahad, “great,' noun adj. of the fifth class, r. 08. nom. case, sing. neut. t changed to d by r. l4. Bhag/am, “fear," noun of the first class, neut. (p. 82.), nom. case. Tadamantaram, see fourth sentence. Wyaghrah, nom. case. Wis. remains by r. 24. ८. Kritah, see fifth sentence. Seventh sentence.-Atha, “ now," inceptive particle, p. 154. b. Wijaghram, acc. case. Api, “evem," adw. Mimshikamirrishesham, “ as not differing at all from the mouse," compound adverb; the first member formed by the crude noun māshika ; the second by the neut. form of the substantive oishesha, “ difference,” with mir prefixed, see p. 177. b. Pas/gati, 8d sing. pres. tense of the root drish, lst conj. p. 107. Munih, see first sentence. Eighth sentence.-Atah, “ then," adv. p. 152. a. Sarue, “ all," pronominal adj. nom. case, plur. masc. p. 54. r. 87. Tatrastha, “ residing in the neighbourhood," anomalous compound, in its character resembling a locatively dependent; the first member being formed by the adverb tatra (p. 152. b.), “ there," or “ in that place''; the second by the nom. plur. masc. of the participial noun of agency of the root stha, “ to remain," p.149. 1. Wis. dropped by r. 28. b. Jamas, ** persons,” noun of the first class, masc. gend. (p. 81.) nom. case, plur. Wis. changed to s by r.25.d. Tam, acc. case of the pronoun tat (p. 51.), used as a definite article. P?/āghram, “ tiger,’’ noun of the first class, masc. gend. (p. 81.) acc. case. Drishtacā, “ having seen," B E

indeclinable past participle of the root drish। (दृश्), p. 143. a. Vadanti, “ they say,” 8d plur. pres. of the root pad, Ist conj. Ninth sentence.-Anema, “ by this,” instr. case of the demonstrative pronoun ayam, p. 52. Mumina, see third sentence. Mishiko, nom. case, ah changed to o by r. 26. b. Ajam, “ this,” nom. case of the demonstrative pron., p. 52. The initial a cut off by r. 26. D. Wi/ājhratām, “ the condition of a tiger,” fem. abstract noun of the first class (p. 81.), acc. case, formed from the substantive ryāghra, “ a tiger,' by the affix tā, p. 24. xiv. Vita/), “ brought," nom. case, Sing. masc. of the pass. part. of the root mi, p. 188. b. Tenfh sentence.-Etach, “ this,' acc. case, neut. of the demonstrative pron. etat, p. 52. r. 70., t being changed to ch by r. I7. Chhrutuca, “ overhearing," indeclinable participle of the root shru। (श्रु) p. I48. a. श्रुत्वा becomes चुत्वा by r.17. Wyāphrah, nom. case. Wis. remains by r. 24. ८. Sari/at/to, ** uneasy,' relative compound, formed by prefixing the preposition saha to the fem. substantive tyatha, p. 100. r. 161. See also p. 82. *, ah changed to o by r. 20. b. Achintayat, “ reflected," 8d sing. lst pret. of the root chint, 10th conj. p. 87. e ; the initial a cut off by r. 26. b. Eleventh Sentence.-Warad, ** as long as," adv. p. 151. a., t changed to d by r. l4. Anema, see ninth sentence. Jacitaryam, “ to be lived," nom. case, neut. of the fut. pass. part. of the root.jit', p. 146. a. See also r. 215. c. d. Tirat, “ so long," adw. correlative to /ātat, p. 151. o. 7dam, ** this,' nom. case, neut. of the demonstrative pron. ayam, p. 52. Mama, “ of me," gen. case of the pronoun aham, “ I," p. 50. Sucariiptik//tinam, “ story ofmy original condition,"genitively dependent compound, p. I6l. ; the first member formed by the crude noun suarāpa, “ natural form" (cf. r. 88.) ; the second by the nom. case of fikhyāma, noun of the first class, neuter, m retained by r. 28. Akirtikaram, “ disgraceful,” accusatively dependent compound; the first member formed by the crude noun akārti, “ disgrace"; the second by the nom. case, neut. of the participial noun of agency kara, p. 140. I. Va, “ not," adv. p. 158. a. Palāyish/ate, “ will die away,'' 8d sing. 2d fut. ātm. of the compound verb palti/, formed by combining the root i with the prep.pard, p. l74. Twelfth Sentence.-7ti, “ thus,” adv. p. I58. e. See also r. 219. a. Samalochya, “ reflecting," indeclinable part. of the compound verb samaloch (p. 145..f), formed by combining the root loch with the prepositions sam and a, pp. 174. I75. Atunin, acc. case. Hantum, “ to kill," infinitive mood of the root han, pp. 85. and I l5. and r. 200. Samudyata/, “ prepared,” nom. case, sing. masc. of the pass. past part. of the compound verb samudyam (p. 140. o.), formed by combining the root /otm with the prepositions sain and ut.

Thirteenth sentence.-Munis, nom. case. Vis. changed to s by r. 25. a. Tasya,

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