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167. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, the augment and reduplication do not change their position, but are inserted between the preposition and the root;* as, ohut, Ist pret. of नी, with परि; उपाधिशं, 1st pret. of विश, with उप; अन्वतिष्ठं, Ist pret. of स्था, with अनु; प्रतिजधान, 2d pret. of हन्, with प्रति ; प्रोजहार, 2d pret. of , with u and ya.
168. Grammarians restrict certain roots to particular voices, when in combination with particular prepositions; as, for example, the root fet, “to conquer," with fa, and the root fall, “to enter," with fri, are restricted to the ātmanepada ; but no certain rules can be propounded on this subject : and in the two epic poems especially, the choice of voice seems so entirely arbitrary and subservient to the purposes of metre, that many ātmanepada primitive, and even passive verbs, are occasionally permitted to take a parasmaipada inflection.
Compound Verbs formed by combining Adverbs with the Roots a and *.
169. These are of two kinds ; Ist, those formed by combining adverbs with = and 4; 2dly, those formed by combining nouns used adverbially with these roots. Examples of the first kind are,
0,"to adorn"; wifesa, “to make manifest " (cf. note, p. 15.); arena, “to eject"; yram, “to place in front” “follow"; fagia, " to deprive "; api, “to entertain as a guest"; THEI, "to revere "; HatE, HIER“ to become manifest,” &c.
170. In forming the second kind, the final of a crude word being a or ā, is changed to 7; as, from Hm, amita, "to make ready;"' from grau, galiah, “to blacken"; or, in a few cases, to ā, as fueron from fera. A final i or u are lengthened ; as, from fa, ri, "to become pure "; from y, pag,“ to lighten.” A final ri is
* There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Mahābhārata; as in w hen7 (Prof. Johnson's Ed. p. 33.).
+ Thus, 77, “to strive,” and TO,“ to beg for,” which are properly ātmanepada verbs, are found in the paras. Instances of passive verbs have been given at p. 89. notet. On the other hand, tag,“ to rejoice,” which is properly a parasmaipada verb, is found in the ātm.
changed to i rī; as, from HTT, Alait, “ to become a mother.” A final as becomes either 7, as, from HTÆ, Hargitay, “to be of good mind "; or asă, as, from farce, forchet, “to place on the head.”
a. But the greater number of compounds of this kind are formed from crude nouns in a. The following are other examples : quiz, “to esteem as a straw "; Frantani, “to stiffen "'; cafeany,“ to fix the mind on one object."
b. Sometimes Hta, placed after a crude noun, is used to form a compound verb of this kind; as, from , “ water," SHIPM, " to reduce to liquid "; from , “ashes,” W HIT, "to reduce to ashes." Sect. III.-COMPOUND ADVERBS (CORRESPONDING TO
AvyavībuĀva Compounds). 171. Compound adverbs are formed by combining adverbs, prepositions, or adverbial prefixes with nouns in the singular number neuter gender.
a. The greater number are formed with the adverbial preposition Fe saha, contracted into # sa; as, from ata, “anger,” Hatta, “angrily "; from vica“ respect,” Hiçi,“ respectfully"; from U TA, “prostration of the limbs,” HET FIT, “reverentially." As, however, the neuter of all adjectives may be used adverbially, these compound adverbs may be regarded as the neuter of the fifth form of relative compounds (r. 161.).
6. The following may be taken as examples of compound adverbs formed with other prefixes: 19., “according to seniority”; UMA“over every limb”; gfa HT, “every month "; tortafy, “according to rule "; 1e09f, or ramai, “ according to one's power "; 491.3, “happily "; FAT,“ before the eyes" (ww being substituted for ufa, cf. p. 165. 6.); wÅNIU, “undoubtedly "; fara itu, “ without distinction.”
c. Some of the adverbs at r. 139. may be placed after crude nouns ; thus, ato Hall, “near the child "; ani, "for the sake of protection.”
d. A kind of compound adverb is formed by doubling a noun, lengthening the final of the first word, and changing the final of the last to i; as, from çe, “a stick,” çeicfis, “mutual striking."
e. Complex compound adverbs, involving other compounds, are sometimes found; as, Eyefaragrau, “not differently from one's own house"; स्तनभरविनमन्मध्यभानपेक्षं, " regardlessly of the curving of her waist bending under the weight of her bosom."
f. The indec. part. wrong, “having begun,” is joined with wa, " to day" (warz), in the sense of “ from this time forward.” of is placed adverbially after words, in the same sense; as,
aufa, “ from birth upwards."
Strive as we may, it is impossible to free the orthographical and etymological part of Sanscrit Grammar from a certain degree of intricacy and complexity. But admitting, as we do, this complexity in the early part of the subject to be greater than is ordinarily found, we at the same time affirm, that, in the aggregate calculation, the preponderance of difficulty is on the side of the classical languages. When the student has once thoroughly mastered the rules relating to the combination of letters and the inflection of nouns and verbs, the path, in Sanscrit, becomes easy to him, and he passes with the utmost certainty to a complete acquaintance with the subject in all its bearings. Not so in Greek or Latin. At the point in Sanscrit where our labours end, at that point in the others do our real labours begin ; and the young scholar, however versed in the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs, finds, when he enters upon the syntax of these two languages, that he has hardly passed the threshold of his studies. It is in the syntax of Greek and Latin that the true test of scholarship lies. It is here that an almost interminable field of inquiry opens before the grammarian, and difficulties assail the student, demanding, for their complete mastery, a more than ordinary degree of mental application and capacity. In Sanscrit, on the other hand, the subject of syntax is reducible to a few plain rules, and might almost be merged in that of compound words. The almost entire absence of prepositions in government with nouns removes one fertile source of difficulty; and such is the extraordinary prevalence of compounds, that the student who has acquired a thorough insight into their formation has little else to learn, and the writer who has properly expounded this portion of the grammar has already more than half completed his investigation into the laws which regulate syntactical combinations. We shall endeavour, in the present chapter, to collect together all the most useful rules for the connection and collocation of uncompounded words, presupposing, as we have done throughout, that the student is acquainted with the general principles of the subject before us. Much vagueness and uncertainty, however, may be expected to attach to the rules propounded, when it is remembered that Sanscrit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, and that the laws of syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of metrical composition.
Observe, in the present chapter on Syntax, that the subject may be made as clear as possible, each word will be separated from the next, and vowels will not be allowed to coalesce, although such coalition be required by the laws of combination. Whenever compounds are introduced into the examples, a dot, placed underneath, will mark the division of the words. The examples have been, in general, selected from the Hitopadesha, or the Mahābhārata, with the view of serving as an easy delectus, in which the beginner may exercise himself before passing to continuous translation.
CONCORD OF THE VERB WITH THE NOMINATIVE CASE.
172. The verb must agree with the nominative case in number and person, as in the following examples: We refu, “I must perform ;" AA warię, “ do thou attend ”;* # Goula," he gives "; wat ga., “we two say "; FIAT reg, “the pigeons said "; trait
pagi, “the king and minister went": 4199 Troian faen:, "as long as the moon and sun remain "; yait foreneri, “ do you two reflect "; 944 wrra, “do ye come "; 7961: yarat, “ good men are honoured "; aifa yeni, “the wind blows "; fufa lei, “the moon rises "; fat gran, “the flower blossoms."
a. When a participle takes the place of the verb, it must agree with the nominative in number and gender; as, # TA:, “ he went"; सा गता, “ she went"; नार्याव् उक्तवत्यौ, “ the two women spoke"; राजा EN:, “the king was killed "; tarafa faalfa, “the bonds were cut."
b. Sometimes, when it is placed between two or more nominative cases, it agrees with one only; as, aay: cafon TV, “his wife and son were awakened.”
C. Very often the copula, or verb which connects the subject with the predicate, is omitted; when, if an adjective stand in the place of the verb, it will follow the rules of concord in gender and number; as, mi hai, “wealth is difficult of attainment "; wrai INTETT,“ we two have finished eating." But if a substantive stand in the place of the verb, no concord of gender or number need take place; as, HYG: 462 WiFi,“ successes are the road to misfortunes."
. CONCORD OF THE ADJECTIVE WITH THE SUBSTANTIVE. 173. An adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, qualifying a substantive, when not compounded with it, must agree with the substantive in gender, number, and case; as, ary: 959., “a good man ”; HET TRO, “ great pain "; eng ugy, “in these beforementioned countries "; fu fraifu, “three friends."
CONCORD OF THE RELATIVE WITH THE ANTECEDENT. 174 The Relative must agree with the antecedent noun in gender, number, and person; but, in Sanscrit, the relative pronoun almost invariably precedes the noun to which it refers, and this noun is then put in the same case with the relative, and the pronoun #: generally follows in the latter clause of the sentence; as, URTAR E: # 1991, “of whatever man there is intellect, he is strong." The noun referred to by the relative may also be joined with #:, as, yet is: Hard 1896; or may be omitted altogether, as, un sfasuri na Tig, “What you have promised, that abide by”; 2014 wafa aifafa a: (grafer, understood) FASTHT HATCOM, “ By those (birds) whose young ones were devoured, an inquiry was set on foot."
a. The Relative sometimes stands alone, an antecedent noun or pronoun being understood, from which it takes its gender and num