Imatges de pàgina

I67. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, the augment and reduplication do not change their position, but are inserted between the preposition and the root ;* as, पयैणयं, lst pret. of नी, with परि; उपाविशं, lst pret. of विशा, with उप ; स्रन्वतिष्ठं, 1st pret. of स्या, with अनु ; प्रतिजघान, 2d pret. of हन्, with प्रति ; प्रोज्जहार्, 2d pret. of ड्, with प्र and उत्.

168. Grammarians restrict certain roots to particular voices, when in combination with particular prepositions ; as, for example, the root जि, “ to conguer," with वि, and the root विश्, * to enter," with नि, are restricted to the ātmanepada ; but no certain rules can be propounded on this Subject : and in the two epic poems especially, the choice of voice seems So entirely arbitrary and subservient to the purposes of metre, that many ātmanepada primitive, and even passive verbs, are occasionally permitted to take a parasmaipada inflection."

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* There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Mahābhārata; as in स्रन्वसचरत् (Prof. Johnson's Ed. p. 83.).

f Thus, यत् , * to strive,' and प्रायै , “ to beg for,” which are properly ātmanepada verbs, are found in the paras. Instances of passive verbs have been given at p.89. notef. On the other hand, नन्द्, “ to rejoice,” which is properly a parasmaipada verb, is found in the itm.

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distinction.' c. Some of the adverbs at r. l39. may be placed after crude

nouns ; thus, बालकसमीपं, “ near the child `'; रक्षार्थं, ** for the sake

of protection.'' d. A kind of compound adverb is formed by doubling a noun,

lengthening the final of the first word, and changing the final of

the last to i ; as, from दण्ड, “ a stick," दण्डादण्डि, “ mutual striking."


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STRIvE as we may, it is impossible to free the orthographical and etymological part of Sanscrit Grammar from a certain degree of intricacy and complexity. But admitting, as we do, this complexity in the early part of the subject to be greater than is ordinarily found, we at the same time affirm, that, in the aggregate calculation, the preponderance of difficulty is on the side of the classical languages. When the student has onee thoroughly mastered the rules relating to the combination of letters and the inflection of nouns and verbs, the path, in Sanscrit, becomes easy to him, and he passes with the utmost certainty to a complete ac५uaintance with the subject in all its bearings. Not So in Greek or Latim. At the point in Sanscrit where our labours end, at that point in the others do our real labours begin ; and the young Scholar, however versed in the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs, finds, when he enters upon the syntax of these two languages, that he has hardly passed the threshold of his studies. Itः is in the syntax of Greek and Latin that the true test of Scholarship lies. It is here that an almost interminable field of in५uiry opens before the grammarian, and difficulties assail the student, demanding, for their complete mastery, a more than ordinary degree of mental application and capacity. In Sanscrit, on the other hand, the subject of syntax is reducible to a few plain rules, and might almost be merged in that of compound words. The almost entire absence of prepositions in government with nouns removes one fertile source of difficulty ; and such is the extraordinary prevalence of compounds, that the student who has acguired a thorough। insight into their formation has little else to learn, and the writer who has properly expounded this portion of the grammar has already more than half completed his investigation into the laws which regulate Syntactical combinations. We shall endeavour, in the present chapter, to collect together all the most useful rules for the connection and collocation of uncompounded words, preSupposing, as we have done throughout, that the student is ac५uainted with the general principles of the subject before us. Much vagueness and uncertainty, however, may be expected to attach to the rules propounded, when it is remembered that Sanscrit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, and that the laws of Syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of metrical composition. Observe, in the present chapter on Syntax, that the subject may be made as clear as possible, each word will be separated from the next, and vowels will not be allowed to coalesce, although such coalition be reguired by the laws of combination. Whenever compounds are introduced into the examples, a dot, placed underneath, will mark the division of the words. The examples have been, in general, selected from the Hitopadesha, or the Mahābhārata, with the view of serving as an easy delectus, in which the beginner may exercise himself before passing to continuous translation.

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b. Sometimes, when it is placed between two or more nominative cases, it agrees

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c. Wery often the copula, or verb which connects the subject with the predicate, is omitted ; when, if an adjective stand in the place of the verb, it will follow the rules of concord in gender and number ; as, धनं टुलैर्भ, " wealth is difficult of attainment '; त्रावां कृताहारौ, “ we two have finished eating." But if a substantive stand in the place of the verb, no concord of gender or number need take place ; as, सम्पदः पदम् स्रापदां, " successes are the road to misfortunes."


173. An adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, gualifying a substantive, when not compounded with it, must agree with the substantive in gender, number, and case ; as, साधु: पुरुष:, “ a good

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l74 The Relative must agree with the antecedent noun in gender, number, and person ; but, in Sanscrit, the relative pronoun almost invariably precedes the noun to which it refers, and this noun is then put in the Same ease with the relative, and the pronoun स: generally follows in the latter clause of the sentence ; as, यस्य नरस्य बुद्धिः स बलवान्, “ of whatever man there is intellect, he is strong.' The noun referred to by the relative may also be joined with स:, as, यस्य बुद्धिः स नरो बलवान्; or may be omitted altogether, as, यत् प्रतिज्ञातं तत् पालय, “ What you have promised, that abide by"; येषाम् चपत्यानि खादितानि तै: (पझिभि:, understood) जिज्ञासा समारञ्चा, “ By those (birds) whose young ones were devoured, an inguiry was set on foot.'

a. The Relative sometimes stands alone, an antecedent noun or pronoun being understood, from which it takes its gender and num

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