Imatges de pàgina

८. But the greater number of complex compounds are used relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence ; as,

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actions consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth."

Certain 4nomalous Compoun:ls.

f There are certain eompounds which are too anomalous in their formation to admit of ready Classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst these may be placed those compounds

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103. In the next section it will be shewn that the combination of roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanscrit. From roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be formed ; thus, from ड्, “ to seiZe," with वि and स्रव, is formed व्यवहार:, “ practice," from वृ; “ to do," with चनु।, अनुकार्, “ imitation.' Hardly a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of this kind of compound.

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l64. The learner might look over the fist of I900 simple roots, and very well imagine that in some of these would be contained every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be unnecessary. But the real fact is, that there are comparatively very few Sanscrit roots in common use ; and that whilst those that are so appear in a multitude of diferent forms by the prefixing of one or two or even three prepositions, the remainder

* So छायाद्वितीय: in Nala, translated by Bopp, umbra ?eminarns,

are guite useless for any practical purposes, except the formation of nouns.

Hence it is that compound verbs are of more freguent occurrence than simple ones. They are formed in two ways : lst, by combining roots with prepositions ; 2dly, by combining the auxiliaries वृ, “ to do," and भू, “to be," with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs.

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* The final i of the prepositions, प्रति, परि, नि, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nouns ; as, प्रतीकाग्, परीहास, नीकाग्.

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