Imatges de pàgina

b. But the greater number of complex compounds are used relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; as,

font,144, aft, -t, “whose teeth and eyes were decayed,” the whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving an aggregative; Tonean:, -a, - , “having a white garland and unguents,” the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive ; on :, -, -, “ done in a former birth, the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving a descriptive; fulgts:, -31, , "advanced in learning and age,” the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; Efun.4 ktat:, -71, -, “having fresh garlands, and being free from dust," the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive and dependent; uforange.fitur:, -0:, -1:, “whose head was moist with unction."

C. The substantive wife, “a beginning,” often occurs in complex relative compounds, as in simple relatives (r. 157. b.); thus,

Hifaça:, “parrots, starlings, &c.” (agreeing with ufwu:, “birds beginning with parrots and starlings "), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving an aggregative; afar facuerfę, “peace, war, &c.” (agreeing with an understood); TE.carfc.yi, -TT, - “possessed of houses, temples, &c." Similarly, we in the example Tatuar: (agreeing with s:, “garlands possessing the best odour and other qualities ”).

d. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the last word and proceeding regularly backwards; as in the following HFAYER Front

fargnotfacecretare!ce:, -ET, -Ě, “causing pleasure by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the swarms of joyous bees."

e. Ima or 4, as occupying the last place in a complex relative, denote “composed of "; thus, F

i factory as, “a force consisting of elephants, horses, chariots, infantry, and servants”; P r oin ben ou tout,“ the two actions consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth.”

Certain Anomalous Compounds. f. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst these may be placed those compounds expressive of comparison or likeness, usually included under the Karmadhāraya or Descriptive class. In these the adjective is placed last; as, grare :, -, -, “ fickle as a shadow "; Dang:, -#1, #, “like foam "; 8GBATA:, -, -, “dark as a cloud"; sfatu:, -$T, -fi, “spread out like a mountain ";

o.fars, to 9485:7-01, -3, “unsteady as a trembling drop of water"; afecitgcnitus-JT, -, “tremulous as water on the leaf of a lotus "; the last two examples are complex.

g. There is a common anomalous compound formed by placing wa after another word, to express“ another," "other"; as, KITUM, “another place "; us HE, “ along with another king "; warufu,“ other births." The following examples, also, are not readily assignable to any class : A tlanutit, “a fighter who abandons all idea of life”; alcu, fania., -91, -, “accompanied by the Sārasa ";* verge, “never before seen."

Compound Nouns formed from Roots combined with Prepositions.

163. In the next section it will be shewn that the combination of roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanscrit. From roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be formed ; thus, from , “ to seize," with fa and we, is formed wer:,“ practice,” from a, “to do,” with us, gain, “imitation.” Hardly a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of this kind of compound.

Sect. II.-COMPOUND VERBS. 164. The learner might look over the list of 1900 simple roots, and very well imagine that in some of these would be contained every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be unnecessary. But the real fact is, that there are comparatively very few Sanscrit roots in common use; and that whilst those that are so appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or two or even three prepositions, the remainder are quite useless for any practical purposes, except the formation of nouns.times merely gives intensity to the action; as, afast, "to

* So arenorita: in Nala, translated by Bopp, umbra geminatus.

Hence it is that compound verbs are of more frequent occurrence than simple ones. They are formed in two ways : Ist, by combining roots with prepositions ; 2dly, by combining the auxiliaries , “to do,” and “to be," with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs.

Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions with Roots.

165. The following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in combination with roots : wfa ati, “across," "beyond "; as, wfacut (p. 112.); unit, “ to pass

by," "transgress" (pres. wnfH, &c. p. 112.). wy adhi, “above," "upon,” “over"; as, yfist, “to stand over,” "preside” (p. 107. pres. vfufrifA); w , “to climb upon ”;

first, “to lie upon” (p. 113.); ufura, "to go over towards” (p. 107.); mi, “to go over" in the sense of “ reading" (p. 113.).

anu, “after "; as, wg , “to follow "; 18, “to follow,” in the sense of “performing "; wag,“ to imitate” (p. 102.); ugut,

"to assent." War antar, "within "(cf. inter); as, wordt, “ to place within," "con

ceal” (p. 119.), in pass. "to vanish "; , “to be within"

(p. 104.); w e, “to walk in the midst” (r. 31.). wo apa, “ off," "away " (cf. årò); as, 94, 99, (from wa

and , p. 112.), “to go away "; wanit, “to lead away "; 1994, “to abstract "; w995, “ to bear away." It also implies detrac

tion; as, w996, “ to defame." wfa api, “on,” “over," only used with up and TĘ ; as, way, “to

shut up"; w e, “to bind on." The initial a is generally

rejected, leaving fout, furie. erfor abhi, “to," “ towards” (uf. Èri); as, Efirat, mat,“ to go to

wards ”; worytą, "to run towards "; FTET, “to behold”

(p. 107.); wiras, “ to address," "salute." va ava, “down," "off"; as, wa5€, 999, “to descend ”; wa,

“to look down "; vero, "to throw down," "scatter"; waan, “to cut off.” It also implies disparagement; as, wagi, “ to despise” (p. 123.); waray, "to insult ” (p. 111.).

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abandon altogether.” #pra, “ before," " forward " (cf. tipo, pro, pra); as, pra, TT,“ to

proceed ”; 444, " to set before," "present"; "to begin "; ara, "to run forward "; er, “to set out,” “ advance"; “to be superior," "prevail "; "EST,“ to foresee.” With JH, "to deceive.” In combination with the causal of zu, it drops its final a; as, teruth, “I send." The r influences a following

nasal by r. 21.; as, turn, “to bend before," "salute." ufa* prati, “ against," "towards," " back again "; as, ayy, “ to

fight against "; yait, “to go towards” (pres. Arafa); FATTA,“ to return"; fag, “to counteract"; afara, “to beat back," “repel"; ufaa, “to answer"; africa “to recover "; afrait, “to lead back "; ufanie,“ to re-salute.” With , " to promise ";

with yg, “to arrive at,” “ obtain." fa vi, “ apart,” implying “separation," " distinction," " distribution,"

"dispersion" (Latin dis, se); as, faer, “to wander about "; face, "to vacillate "; face, “to roam for pleasure "; fagi, “to dissipate "; faç, “ to tear asunder "; fact, “to divide "; fafaq, “ to distinguish.” Sometimes it gives a privative signification ; as, faryat, “to disunite "; farm,“ to forget"; fanit, “to sell.” With , “to change for the worse.” Sometimes it has no

apparent influence on the root; as, faciat," to perish." HH sam, “with,” “together with " (ouv, con); as, #fe, we, “to

collect "; Fiya, “to join together"; 767, "to meet together "; HAYE, "to happen "; afsq, “to contract.” With it signifies "to perfect," and # is inserted, High. It is often prefixed without altering the sense; as, HET, “to be produced."

166. Two prepositions are often combined with a root; as, anici, " to open” (fa, ); HH, “to assemble” (HA, , with root 1); ufurua, “to prostrate one's self” (H, fa, r. 21.); uis, “ to raise up" (u, va, with root ).

Occasionally three prepositions are combined ; as, yang, “to predict" (#, fa, t); orygia, “to answer" (ufa, ya, w).

* The final i of the prepositions, afat, oft, fa, is optionally lengthened in forming certain nouns; as, unitar, QUETA, at

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