Imatges de pàgina
PDF
[merged small][ocr errors]

a. Sometimes the final vowel of the substantive is changed to ई ; as, विलोकी,

** the three worlds."

RELATIvE COMPOUNDS (BAHUv Ri HI).

l56. The greater number of compounds in the preceding four । divisions are terminated by substantives, the sense of each being in that case absolute and complete in itself All such compounds may be used relatipely, that is, as epithets of other words, the final substantive becoming susceptible of three genders, like an adjective (p. 32. f. p. 34. *.) : and it cannot be too forcibly impressed upon the student that the terms Relatire and Bahuprāhi have reference to the adjective use of those compounds only which have a Substantive in the last member. This is not to be regarded, therefore, as a distinct division of the subject of compound words, So much as a distinct view of the same Subject, the object of which is to show that all compounds, which are in themselves absolute and complete in sense, and are terminated by substantives, may be used adjectively, and in the relation of an epithet to some other word in the sentence. We have given the name relatire to compounds when thus used, not Only for the obvious reason of their being relatively and not absolutely employed, but also because they usually involve a relative pronoun, and are sometimes translated into English by the aid of this pronoun, and are, moreover, resolved by mative commentators into their e५uivalent uncompounded words by the aid of the genitive case of the relative (यस्य). Thus, महाधनं is a Descriptive compound, meaning, " great wealth'ः and may be used adjectively in relation to पुरूष: ; as, महाधन: पुरुष:, “ a man moho has great wealth ': or to स्त्री ; as, महाधना स्त्री, “ a woman nho has great wealth,' and would be resolved by conamentators into यस्य or यस्या: महद धनं , In English we have similar compounds ; as, “ high-minded,' '' left-handed,' and the like, where the substantive terminating the compound is converted into an adjective. _

Relatice Form 0f Dependent Compounds.

157. Many Dependeut compounds (especially those that are instrumentally dependent) are already in their orcn nature relative, and cannot be used except in connection with some other word in the sentence. But, on the other hand, many others, and especially those which are genitively dependent, constituting by far the largest number of this class of compounds, are in their nature absolute, and yield a sense complete in itself. These may be made relative by declining the final substantive after the manner of an adjective. The following are instances : चन्द्राकृति:, -ति:, -ति, “ moon-shaped " (p. 34. f), from the absolute compound चन्द्राकृति:, “ the shape of the moon "; देवरूप:, -पी, -पं,* “ whose form is god

[ocr errors]

. ८. The substantive स्रादि, " a beginning," when it occurs in

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]

l59. A greater number of compound words may be referred to this head than to any other. Bvery style of writing abounds

* Sometimes eram is prefixed ; as, एवमादीनि प्रलापानि , “ lamentations

beginning thus.''

[ocr errors][ocr errors]

Pelatioe form of Substamtices compounded mpit/ certain 4dterbial Prefices. l6l. This includes a class of compounds possessing no corre

Sponding absolute form,' and composed of an adverb prefixed to a substantive. By far the greater number of these are formed with

* Occasionally the feminine of the adjective appears in the compound ; as, षष्ठीभाययै:, “ hawing a sixth wife.'' f Unless they be regarded as the relative form of Ayayibhava compounds. 7

[ocr errors][merged small]

l62. We have now to speak of those complex Compound words, or compounds within compounds, which form the most remarkable feature in Sanscrit poetical composition. Instances might be given of twenty or thirty words thus compounded together, but these are the productions of the vitiated taste of more modern times, and are only curious as showing that the power of compounding words may often be perverted to the formation of a style the most extravagant and ridiculous. But even in the best specimens of Sanscrit composition,and in the simplest prose writings, four, five, or even six words are commonly compounded together, involving two or three forms under one head, It will be easy, however, to determine the character of the forms involved, by the rules propounded in the preceding pages; in proof of which the student has only to study attentively the examples we are about to give.

a. Instances of absolute complex Compounds, whose sense is complete and unconnected, are not very abundant. The following may be taken as examples : कालान्तण्वृतिशुभाशुभानि, “ good and evil (occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time," the whole being a dependent, involving a dependent and an aggregative ; सेनापतिबलाध्यक्षो, “ the general and the overseer of the forces," the whole being an aggregative, involving two dependents ; शोकारातिःभयाचार्णं, “ the protection from sorrow, enemies, and perils,' the

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]
« AnteriorContinua »