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3l. Again, rules A, B, D, apply egually to final r. Thus, prārar 767la becomes prāta/ Kala ; prā/ar chd, prātash cha ; and the preposition nir before ad//a remains unchanged, and before rasa is Changed to m7; thus, ?mirukta, nirasa.
32. But final ar, unlike a/), remains unchanged before any sonant (Bonsonant or vowel); as, prātar asha : and before the sonant r itself, drops the r and lengthens the preceding a ; as, 1)undr rakshati becomes pumā rakshati.
33. It is to be observed further of r, that it may optionally double any consonant (except ह्) that immediately follows it. Thus, निर् दय। may be written fनहॆय.
Hence it appears that the symbol Wisargah (:) may be considered as much a representative of final s and r, when these letters are imperceptible, as of final /. Indeed, all those inflections of nouns and persons of verbs which are said to end in Wisargah, might be said to end in s ; only that, in such cases, the s is silent, or । pronounced with an imperceptible breathing, as in the French Ves, or the English, island, piscount. So again, in many French words, Such as parler, the final r is silent ; and in some English, such as cord, the sound of r is very indistinct ; and in all these cases, s and r would be represented in Sanscrit Dy Wisargah (ले: पालॆ: &c.),
The following Table exhibits the more common combinations of consonants at one view. Observe, that in the top line of initial letters the aspirated consonants have been omitted, because it is an universal rule, that whatever change takes place before any consonant, the same holds good before its aspirate. Final s has also been omitted, as undergoing precisely the same changes with final /.
* Also when k precedes : as, pid with su is nitsn ; but bhuk, bhukshu. Cf. r. l12. c.
* m is only doubled if preceded by a short vowel.
f A final n before.j is wery rarely written in the palatal form न ia. OHAPTER, III.
ON SANSCRIT ROOTS, AND THE CRUDE FORM OF NOUNS.
35. Before treating of Sanscrit nouns, it will be advisable to point out in what respect the peculiar system adopted in their formation reguires an arrangement of the subject different from that to which we are accustomed in other languages.
In Sanscrit nouns, then, there is this great peculiarity, that every one of them has two distinct states prior to the formation of the nominative case : viZ. Ist, a root ; 2dly, a crude form, coming from this root.
In the first place, therefore, let us inguire, what is the root. There are, in Sanscrit, a number of monosyllabic sounds, which are called roots. These are mere artificial inventions, having only an ideal existence ; mere blocks, so to speak, of themselves ५uite useless;* from which, however, are carved out and fashioned all the varieties of nouns and verbs which exist in the language. Every one of these roots conveys some simple idea, which appears under different modifications in the derivatives from it. Thus, to mention a few of the most common : the root kship oonveys the idea of “ throwing '; Kri of “ doing," “ making "; hri of “ seiZing "; yuj, “.joining'; as, prit, “ being "; bhā, “ becoming "; .jic, “ living '; nā, “ leading '; ji, “ conguering '; gam, /ā, char, kram, i, sri, “ going "; cad, pac/, brā, “ speaking "; budh, gyā (ज्ञा), “ knowing '; drish (दृशा), “ seeing '; is/, Kam, “ wishing "; mri, “ dying '; da, " giving '; jam, “ producing '; dhā, “ placing "; ad, bhaksh, bhuj, “ eating "; pā, " drinking "; pach, " cooking ''; han, “ killing"; pa/, “ falling'; gas, “ dwelling "; cis/ (विशत्। ), “ entering "; st/ia, “ standing "; shra (श्रु), " hearing "; ७prish (स्पृशा), “ touching "; sid/, sād/, “ accomplishing ''; Kr? (क्री), “ buying "; Ka/p, krudh, "being
* Except in a fow cases, whore they are used by themselves as nouns.
* It will be convenient, in the following pages, to express the idea contained in the root by prefixing to it the infinitive sign to. But the Student must not suppose that the sound budh denotes any thing more than the mere idea of `* knowing''; nor must he imagine that in deriving nouns from it, we are deriving them from the infinitive, or from any part of the verb, but rather from a simple original Sound, a mere imaginary word, which is the common source of both nouns and verbs.
* This state of the noun will, in the following pages, be called the crude.
numerāls, and participles. Thus, Godho, bodhana, tad, panchan, bhaba/, are the crudes of the nominative cases bodha/, bodhdmam, 8a/), paiicha, Dhagam, respectively. The student should endeavour to understand, at the outset, the meaning and use of this crude form. It is an intermediate state between the root and nominative case, the naked form of the noun, which serves as the basis on which to construct its eight cases, beginning with the nominative. In a Greek or Latin dictionary we look for the noun under the nominative case, but in Sanscrit we look for it under its crude state ; as, for example, sah, “he,' is found under tad. And here let it be distinctly understood, that the orude form of a noun is very far from having a mere ideal existence, like the root. It is of the utmost practical utility. It is that form of the noun which is always used in the formation of compound words ; and as every Sanscrit sentence contains, perhaps, more compound words than simple ones, it may with truth be said, that the crude state of the noun is not only that form under which it appears in the dictionary, but is also the most usual form under which it appears in bookS. We may conceive it guite possible that Greek and Latin grammarians might have proceeded on a similar plan, and that they might have Supposed a root ?\ey, from which was drawn out the nouns A68ts, Aegikos, ?\ekrāc, Kara?\oy), ई?\\oyog, and the verbs A6*ya, Korroं?\6yto, ं?\\oy6o: So also, a root ag, from which was derived the nouns dgmen, actio, dctus ; and the verbs ago, perago : or a root mau, from which would come mauta, nauis, nauticus, mabalis, mauigo. Again, they might have supposed a crude form to each of these nouns, as well as a root; as, for instance, ?\e8ako of Ac8akāc, and maui of natis ; and they might have reguired the student to look for the noun mauis under mabi, and the verb mauigo under mau. Further than this, they might have shewn that this crude form was the form used in the formation of compound words, as in Ae8akoypdंpos, natiger. But Greek and Latin are too uncertain in their construction to admit of such a method of arrangement being extensively applied : Such, however, is the artificial character of the Sanscrit language, that
here it has been done throughout with great regularity and precision.