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Ablatively Dependent, 146. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of an ablative ; as, T TE:, -91, -5, “ fallen from the kingdom ” (for TRUE :); Taçat, “other than you " (for warisan:); Haşi, “fear of you."
Genitively Dependent, 147. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most common of all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a similar compound in English. They are for the most part composed of two substantives ; as, Hugonit “ sea-shore " (for Hoca ati “ shore of the sea "); vagy,“ horse-back ";
auto., “ bow-string "; feature, “brick-house "; furfcaci, “mountain-torrent”; MA:, “ acquisition of wealth "; faugesu,“ state of misfortune "; TESG:,“ separation of friends "; f “on whose brow" (loc. c.); M :, “his words "; faith,“ on what account ? " var, “on account of virtue "; Tera:, “ with hundreds of fools" (inst. c.); valgt, “a couple of shlokas ”; CD, “the surface of the earth "; fuentofar, “lord of the earth "; imitarra, “for his support ” (dat. c.); woment:, “our sons "; AMITÀ, “thy deed "; fugat, “a father's speech"; T.ET “the gate of death "; area, “fulfilment of wishes "; atalari, “a mother's joy."
a. Sometimes an adjective in the superlative degree, used substantively, occupies the last place in the compound ; as, 8: or gottaa:, “ the best of men."
6. In a few instances the genitive case is retained ; as, faiayfa: , “ lord of men "; ferfri, “ lord of day."
Locatively Dependent, 148. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is equivalent to that of a locative case ; as, 4. A:, - , - , “sunk in the mud " (for HTA); prerfaett,“ sporting in the sky ; # TST, “sport in the water "; starHT, “a dweller in a village "; F:, “ born in the water."
a. It is very usual to retain the locative case, especially before nouns of agency; as, agrant, "a villager"; at: , "going in
the water ";
frufani, -a, -, “ornamented on the breast”
Dependent in more than one Case. 149. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. They may be composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the manner that one case depends upon another in a sentence ; thus, Furuytfarsiteti, oli, “passed beyond the range of the eye" (for un fairyn wan:);
19 :, “ standing in the middle of the chariot "; wayfaluga Igarafusa:, “skilful in censuring the means of rescuing those in danger."
AGGREGATIVE COMPOUNDS (DWANDWA). 150. This class of compounds has no parallel in other languages.
When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it is usual in Sanscrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical dependence of one case upon another subsists between the members of Dwandwa compounds, since they must always consist of words which, if uncompounded, would be in the same case; and no other grammatical connection exists than that which would ordinarily be expressed by the use of the copulative conjunction and in English, or q in Sanscrit. And it should be observed, that the chief difference between this class and the last turns upon this dependence in case of the words compounded on each other ; insomuch that the existence or absence of such dependence, as deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the only guide by which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head or to the other. Thus, yo forectaat: may either be a Dependent compound, and mean “the servants of the pupils of the Guru,” or an Aggregative, “the Guru, and the pupil, and the servant." And ta guifunt may either be Dependent, “ the blood of the flesh," or Aggregative, “flesh and blood.” This ambiguity, however, can never occur in aggregatives inflected in the dual, and very rarely occasions any practical difficulty.
There are three kinds of Aggregative compounds : Ist, inflected in the plural; 2d, inflected in the dual ; 3d, inflected in the singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the crude of the word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its gender the particular form of declension; in the third case it seems to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless the last word ends in a, or in a vowel changeable to a, or in a consonant to which a may be subjoined ; and the gender is invariably neuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word.
Inflected in the Plural. 151. When more than two animate objects are enumerated, the last is inflected in the plural; as, grafa.YAAT., “Indra, Anila, Yama, and Arka " (for go ufc 4: Wa:); TH.HUACAT:, “Rāma, Lakshmaņa, and Bharata "; MATTHAT :, “the deer, the hunter, the serpent, and the hog.” The learner will observe, that although the last member of the compound is inflected in the plural, each of the members has here a singular acceptation. But a plural signification may often be inherent in some or all of the words constituting the compound ; thus, fraternitara:, “friends, neutrals, and foes” (for faafu, ucretat:, yra:); PHECIEHETOTT:, “lions, tigers, and serpents ";
ace. THITTATUS14ht:, “dogs, vultures, herons, ravens, kites, jackals, and crows."
a. So also when more than two inanimate objects are enumerated, the last may be inflected in the plural; as, ya TUCTA at:, “virtue, wealth, enjoyment, and beatitude” (for Yui, wt., A, Ata:); 1 46 gratta, “sacrifice, study, and liberality” (for Ti, Waptri, Sti). In some of the following a plural signification is inherent; as, gayicofa, “flowers, roots, and fruits"; YANGING TUI, “ of the unborn, the dead, and the foolish ” (for w atai, Antai, TETUI); aqua:autat:, “eyes, mind, and disposition "; digitayfun garro , “ sickness, sorrow, anguish, bonds, and afflictions."
6. So also when only two animate or inanimate objects are enumerated, in which a plural signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the plural; as, 29.16 otti, “gods and men"; gautat, “sons and grandsons "; variati, “falls and rises "; OTACO FCETT: , “ramparts and trenches "; geçeny,“ in pleasures and pains ” (for hay, gay); 97.geafa, “sins and virtues."
Inflected in the Dual. 152. When only troo animate objects are enumerated, in each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the dual; as, Unwut, “Rāma and Lakshmana " (for TA: Jou:); ungen , “the moon and sun "; Marant, “a deer and a crow."
a. So also when only two inanimate objects are enumerated, in each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the dual; as, ugunit, “affection and enmity " (for ugut.,
error:); ufura, "hunger and thirst” (for un fouth); at, “ hunger and sickness "; maart,“ by standing and sitting" (for Pia, wata); aut,“ honey and ghee "; vag:,“ pleasure and pain."
b. In aggregating two nouns of relationship, formed with the affix 7 (r. 41.), the first is placed in the nominative case instead of the crude; as, ATATA, “mother and father.”
Inflected in the Singular Neuter. 153. When two or more inanimate objects are enumerated, whether singular or plural in their signification, the last may either be inflected as above, r. 151. a. b. r. 152., or in the singular number, neut. gender; as, gan is, "flowers, roots and fruits” (for guttu, Hoifa, picofa); CHENG Ti, “grass, food, water, and fuel" (for TH, WE, T66, FAT); WERTEI, “a day and night” (for WE:, of:); frasi, “quarters and countries" (for fest, str.).
a. Sometimes two or more animate objects are thus compounded; as, quoti, “sons and grandsons"; FFRIVİ, “elephants and horses"; especially inferior objects, as 2 AIRBT, “a dog and an outcast.”
b. In enumerating two qualities the opposite of each other, it is common to form a Dwandwa compound of this kind, by doubling an adjective or participle, and interposing the negative a; as, qui, “moveable and immoveable” (for gewi );
PuTTI, “good and evil "; furentford, “in agreeable and disagreeable” (for furu wfu ); TUTET, “seen and not seen "; ontott, "done and not done."
DESCRIPTIVE COMPOUNDS (KARMADHĀRAYA). 154. In describing, qualifying, or defining a substantive by
means of an adjective or participle, it is common in Sanscrit to compound the two words together, placing the adjective or participle in the first member of the compound in its crude state ; as, HGG:, “a good man" (for Hry ra:); fenfit, “an old friend" (for fari fori); foreartet*, " a dear wife” (for furat MTWT); ena redt*, "a beautiful wife” (for gant aftZWT); Harga:, “a troubled ocean "; yeah, “a holy act "; vM!TAT, “the infinite soul"; seleti, “polished speech "; gegenfu,“ holy acts” (for gena antifa); FEMMUUT, “of the best men " (for JAHIT pui).
a. Het is substituted for the crude HET, “great,” in the first member of a Descriptive compound ' ; as, महापुरुषः, not महत्पुरुषः, " a great man" (for FETT 964:); HET , “a great crime” (for HER ); Felg, “a great family."
b. When the substantive 157, "a king," is taken to form the last member of a Descriptive compound, it loses its proper form of declension as a noun of the 6th class (p. 41.), and is declined like a noun of the 1st class (see p. 42. note *.). Hre, “a friend ";
fUG, “a road"; wa, “the eye"; ofa, “the night,” and some other words undergo a similar change in inflection, and become nouns of the 1st class; as, furuhe, “a dear friend"; eV, “a long night.” When these latter words form the last member of Dependent or Collective compounds the same holds good; as in VALUT:, wfra He:, Tera:.
c. Numerals in their crude state are sometimes found occupying the place of adjectives in the first member of a compound of this class; as, well., “the four castes"; vastuti, “five arrows."
d. Adjectives, used substantively, sometimes occupy the last place in Descriptive compounds; as, rifatto, “a very just man"; MALET, “a very wonderful thing."
e. Compounds expressing comparison fall under this class, and are composed of two substantives, the last being generally the name of an animal denoting superiority; as, 164.
59:, gefäc:, Terů:, equivalent to “an illustrious man.”
* Feminine nouns are rarely compounded in this way; and there can be no question that forget and granit are the proper crudes of the feminine form of the adjective. When the feminine of an adjective is used substantively, it does not give place to the crude; as, af FNSTA:, “a wanton woman.”
† But hen is retained in a Dependent; as, HEGIWA:, “ recourse to the great.”