Imatges de pàgina
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Genitioely Deperademt, l47. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last is e५uivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most common of all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a similar compound in English. They are for the most part composed of two substantives ; as, समुद्रतीरॆ, “ sea-shore " (for समुद्रस्य तीरॆ, “ shore of the sea ') ; स्वच्वःप्रष्ठं, “ horse-back ";

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149. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. They may be composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the manner that one case depends upon another in a sentence ; thus, चक्षुर्विषयातिक्रान्त:, -ता, -न्नं,

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150. This class of compounds has no parallel in other languages.

When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it is usual in Sanscrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical dependence of one case upon another Subsists between the members of Dwandwa compounds, Since they must always consist of words which, if uncompounded, would be in the same case ; and no other grammatical connection exists than that which would ordinarily be expressed by the use of the copulative conjunction and in English, or च in Sanscrit. And it Should be observed, that the chief difference between this class and the last turns upon this dependence in case of the words compounded on each other ; insomuch that the existence or absence of such dependence, as deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the only guide by which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head or to the other. Thus, गुरुशिष्पसेवका: may either be a Dependent compound, and mean “ the servants of the pupils of the Guru,' or an Aggregative, “ the Guru, and the pupil, and the servant." And मांसशोणितं may either be Dependent, “ the blood of the flesh," or Aggregative, “ flesh and blood." This ambiguity, however, can never occur in aggregatives inflected in the dual, and very rarely occasions any practical difficulty.

There are three kinds of Aggregative compounds : Ist, inflected in the plural ; 2d, inflected in the dual ; 3d, inflected in the singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the crude of the word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its gender the particular form of declension ; in the third case it seems to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless the last word ends in a, or in a vowel changeable to a, or in a consonant to which a may be subjoined ; and the gender is invariably meuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word.

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b. In enumerating two gualities the opposite of each other, it is common to form a Dwandwa compound of this kind, by doubling an adjective or participle, and interposing the negative a ; as, चराचरं , “ moveable and immoveable " (for बरम् खचरं च) ; , “ good and evil "; प्रियाप्रिये , “ in agreeable and disagreeable " (for fप्रये सप्रिये च); इष्टाद्दष्टं, “ seen and not seen "; कृताकृतं,

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c. Numerals in their crude state are sometimes found occupying the place of adjectives in the first member of a compound of this

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d. Adjectives, used substantively, sometimes occupy the last place in Descriptive compounds ; as, परमधार्मिमेक:, * a very just man"; परमाहुर्तं, “a very wonderful thing.'' _

e. Compounds expressing comparison fall under this class, and are composed of

two substantives, the last being generally the name ofan amimal denoting Superiority ;

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