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which it governs, and may be regarded as forming with it a kind of adverbial compound, especially as instances are not uncommon of other prepositions united in composition with the neuter form or accusative case of nouns ; as, प्रतिस्कन्धं, " upon the shoulders '';
C HAPTER, Ix.
CoMPOUNDs abound in Sanscrit to a degree wholly unegualled in any other language, and it becomes necessary to study the principles on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope to understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. In the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, and simple adverbs. We have now to treat of compound nouns, compound verbs, and compound adverbs. Observe, that in this chapter a dot placed underneath marks the division of the words in a compound.
SEcr. I.-COMPOUND NOUNS.
141. The student has now arrived at that portion of the subject im which the use of the crude state of the noun becomes most strikingly apparent. This use has been already noticed at r. 36., pp. 19, 20 ; and its formation explained, pp. 2l-27. In all compound nouns (with some few exceptions) the last word alone admits of declension, and the preceding word or words reguire to be placed in the crude form, this crude form admitting of a plural as well as singular signification.
Native grammariams class compound nouns under five heads : the lst they call rArटण्म्aणं A, or those composed of two nouns, the first of which (being in the crude) would be, if uncompounded, in a case different from, or dependent on, the last ; as, चन्द्रप्रभा , “ moon-light " (for चन्द्रस्य प्रभा, “ the light of the moon '); शस्त्रकुशल:, -ला, -लं,* “ skilled in arms " (for शस्त्रेषु कुशलः); मणिभूषित:, -ता, -सैं,ral parts or members of the division. For it is plain, from the examples given, that the 5th class of compounds may often be regarded as another name for the first three, when they take the form of adjectives declinable in three genders; and that the second Species of the 4th class is for this reason referrible to the 5th. The student, moreover, finds it difficult to understand why, if the definition of the 5th class of compounds be, that they are epithets of other nouns; such compounds as शस्त्रकुशल and मणिभूषित should not be comprehended under it. And further, he is often at a loss to refer a compound to its proper head,* from the inadeguacy of the definitions to express all the cases included under each class. In the following pages the subject is discussed according to a different method, although it has been thought desirable to keep the native arrangement in view. Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or comple:rty compounded. The latter have reference to a class of compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving two or three species of simple compounds under one head.
* Observe, that in this chapter the nom. case, and not the crude, of a substantive terminating a compound will be given, and in the instance of an adjective forming the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc., fem., and neut. The examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopadesha, and sometimes the obligue cases
in which they are there found have been retained
* These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of compounds, or give some sort of definition of them. Thus, तत्पुरूष:, “ his servant,” is an example of the Ist kind (for तस्य पुरूष:); द्वन्द्वः is a definition of the 2d kind, meaning **conjunction”; कम्मेधाय: is a definition of the 8d kind, i.e. “ containing the object,” (कर्म) ; द्विगुः is an example of the 4th kind, meaning “ any thing to the value of two cows'; बहुव्रीहिः is an example of the 5th kind, meaning “ possessed of much rice." There is a 6th class of compounds called स्रव्ययीभाव: aryayib/apah, i. e. “ the indeclinable state''; but these will be noticed under the head of compound adverbs.
SIMPLY COMPOUNDED NOUNS.
142. These will be divided into, lst, Dependent in case (corresponding to Tatpurusha); 2d, Aggregative (Droandica) ; 3d, Descriptivef (corresponding to Karmadhāraya) ; 4th, Collective (corresponding tO Drcigu) ; 5th, Relative (corresponding to Baha८orihi). This last includes, a. Relative form of absolute Dependent compounds, terminated by substantives ; b. Relative form of Aggregative compounds ; c. Relative form of Descriptive compounds ; d. Relative form of Collective compounds ; e. Relative form of substantives in composition with certain adverbial prefixes.
* As, for instance, Such a compound as कृष्णशुज्ञ:, -ज्ञा, -द्रॊ, “any thing black and white."
f As being composed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and always descriptive of the Substantive. Prof Bopp calls them “ Determinativa,'' a word of similar import. The names “ Dependent '' and “ Collective” were suggested by Prof. Bopp's “ Dependentia'' and “ Collectiva.”
DEPRNDENT CoMPOUNDS, oR CoMPOUNDS DEPRNDENT IN CAsE
143. These comprehend all those compounds in which the relation of the first word (being in the crude) to the last is eguivalent to that of an accusative case. They are generally composed of a noun in the first member, and a participle or noun of agency in the last ; as, खगैप्राप्न:, -प्ना, -प्नं, “ one who has obtained heaven'' (eguivalent to खगॆ प्राप्न:); fप्रयवादी, " one who speaks kind words _