Imatges de pàgina

formed from the cases of nouns ; 2dly, as formed with affixes ; 3dly, as of uncertain derivation ; 4thly, as prefixes to other words.

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* These are the forms generally used for the ablative case of the personal pronouns, the proper ablative cases मत् , त्वत् being newer used except as substitutes for the orude, in compound words.

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* These, however, admit of derivation, and a few others less obviously. N

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imply “ very," " excessively '; as, सुमहत्।, “ very great."

l36. च cha, “ and," “ also,' corresponding to the Latin ?ue and not et. It can never, therefore, Stand as the first foord in a sentence. It is not, however, like gue, necessarily interposed between the first and second words, but may be admitted to any part of the sentence, being only excluded from the first place.

a. हि, “ for," like च is always placed after its word, and newer admitted to the first place in a sentence.

9. यदि, चेत् , “ if"; स्रय, “ then," “ now," used very commonly as an inceptive particle. ततस् , “ upon that," “ then " (r. 133. a.).

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l38. Of all the internal evidences of the antiguity of Sanscrit, there is none more decisive than the sparing use which this language makes of prepositions, in expressing the dependence of one word upon another. These aids to syntactical combination are always to be regarded as a result of modern refinement, incompatible with the sternness and simplicity of the most ancient languages. Thus, even the Greek, which of all others is the most copiously provided with these auxiliaries, made comparatively small use of them in the days of Homer, and imitated the Sanscrit in expressing a variety of different relations by some of the cases of its nouns. It cannot be doubted that much ambiguity may result from this rigid rejection of any other aid to the construction of Sentences than nominal inflection ; but when, as in Sanscrit, even this inflection is but sparingly used, and long compounds are formed, consisting of words joined together in their crude state, the last only taking any case ; and when even the assistance of a verb is often denied to guide the reader to the nature of the dependence of these words upon each other ; we are forced to admit that this language would gain much in ease and perspicuity, if it were more abundantly supplied with such important elements of syntactical arrangement. But let not the reader imagine that no prepositions exist in Sanscrit. It will be found by a reference to r. l65. that they exist in great abundance, but only as inseparable prefixes, Gualifying the sense of roots, and the nouns and verbs derived from roots. There are only three, out of all this list of prepositions, that are ever used in government with nouns; viZ. स्रा ā, प्रति prati, and चनु anu ; and of these the two last are mever So used, except as postpositioms. a. चा ā, generally signifying " as far as," " up to," governs the ablative case ; as, खासमुद्रात्, " as far as the ocean `; वामनो:, “ up to Manu '; and rarely the accusative, as शतम् अ'ाजाती:, “ for a hundred births." But instances are not common of words in regimen with this preposition. ८. प्रति prati, generally signifying " at," " with regard to,' " against," governs the accusative ; as, गङ्गां प्रति, “ at the Ganges '; धर्मे प्रति, “ with regard to justice "ः शत्रुं प्रति, “ against an enemy.” It sometimes has the force of apud ; as, मां प्रति, "apud me,' “ as far as regards me." c. स्रनु is occasionally found governing the accusative ; as, तदनु, '' after that.' The preposition सा, however, is not separated from the word

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