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tad karoti becomes tat karoti; cāg pati/, cāk pati/; ; ks/ad/ pipāsā, /ks/at pipāsā. But as very few words in Sanscrit end in any other consonants than d and d, the nasals, Wisargah, the dental sibilant s, and r, it will be Sufficient for t:ll practical purposes that the attention be confined to the changes of these consonants. To begin, therefore, with t and d.
CHANGES OR FINAL t AND d.
General rade. 14. T becomes d before g, gh, d, dh, U, U/, /, /, r, c, and all vowels.* See example, rule l2. D becomes d before K, kh, ’, ’/, p, ph, s. See example, rule I3. Before the masals, palatals, and the letter l, final t and d
undergo a change in form as well as ५uality, as in the following special rules.
17. If t or d end a word when the next begins with श sh, then
* Before the vowels of terminations t remains unchanged ; thus, the accusativo case of Harit is Haritam, not Haridam ; and the third person singular of tho vorb '/ut is /utute, not /udate.
Changes of finad m.
22. If the letter म् m erid a word when the next begins with any consonant, it may be represented by Anuswāra ('); or it may, optionally, before those consonants which have a corresponding nasal, be changed to this corresponding nasal. Thus, grihama gachchhati is written either गृहं गच्छति or गृहङ्गच्छति.
23. When the next word begins with a vowel, the letter म् is always written. Thus, griham āpnoti, गृहमाप्नोति.
CHANGES OR vISARGAH OR FINAL h.
Almost every nominative case, and nearly half the remaining cases of nouns in Sanscrit, besides many persons of the verb, end in Wisargah (:), or the symbol used to denote the aspirate when final. And this final / is liable to remain unchanged, to be changed to s, to s/, to o, to r, or to be dropped altogether, according to the nature of the initial letter following. At every step, therefore, these changes will meet the student's eye. Thergfore |let him masfer the follorping fipe rules before he attempts to read a single sendence 0f Sanscrit, or /te can neoer /tope to make any rea! progress in the acjuirement 0f t/tis language.
* The letter छ् is, properly, a compound of क् k and ष् ४' ; although, in this Grammar, it is considered as a simple letter, and represented by /sh.
RULE A.- wHEN Is wISARGAH OR FINAL h UNCHANGED? 24. a. Before K, p (and their aspirates), and before the sibilants स् s, श s/. 6. Before a pause, i. e. at the end of a Sentence, or when a word stands by itself.
20. d. Before d (and its aspirate) it is changed to the dental sibilant स् s ; before ch (and its aspirate), to the palatal sibilant शम्। s/.* 6. Also in some books, before the sibilants सं, श, Wisargah is allowed to assimilate with these letters.
RULB C.-wHEN Is wISARGAH CHANGED To o?
20. d. Final a/ is changed to o before all sonant consonants. ८. Also before short a (this a being then cut off),
27. a, I/, ill, ul, i/, eh, aih, oh, aul, before any sonant (consonant or vowel), change the final / to r ; ८. Unless r itself be the sonant following, in which case, to avoid the coalition of two r's, final / is dropped, and the vowel preceding it (if short) is lengthened.
RULE E.-wHEN Is wISARGAH DROPPED ALTOGETHER?
28. a. Final a/), before any other vowel except short o, drops the Wisargah, and leaves the remaining a opening on the initial vowel of the next word without coalition." ८. Final ah, before any sonant (consonant or vowel), drops the Wisargah ; and, if the initial letter of the next word be a vowel, the remaining a is allowed to open upon it without coalition. }
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* So, also, before ट, ठः, Wisargah is changed to the cerebral sibilant प्; as, रविप् टीकते.
f By a special rule स:, “ he,” and एष:, “ this," the notainative cases of the pronouns तद् and एतद्, drop their Wisargah before ang/ consonuut.
In the following Table the mominative cases Narah, “ a man," Narāh, “ men,'' and Harih, “ Wishnu," joined with verbs, illustrate these rules at One view.
WISARGAH BEP0ERE SURD LET TERS. v ISARGA H BEPOR E SO NANT LET TEIRS.
* In a few oompound words a final sibilant takos tho cerebral form bofore k. as prādus krita become prādughlorita.
with krinta, ni hlrantn ; with putra, nishputrn.
Similarly, a final r l)ofore k or p : as, mir