Imatges de pàgina
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Root कृ. Inf. कर्नु, “ to be made " or "done " (p. 90. 8.). Present.—“I am made.” First Preterite.“I was made.” क्रिये क्रियावहे क्रियामहे अक्रिये अक्रियावहि प्रक्रियामहि क्रियसे क्रियेथे क्रियध्वे सक्रियथाः अक्रियेयां अक्रियध्वं क्रियते क्रियेते क्रियन्ते प्रक्रियत अक्रियेतां अक्रियन्त


Potential.-" I may be made.” | Imperative.—“Let me be made.” क्रियेय क्रियेवहि क्रियेमहि

क्रियावहै क्रियामहै क्रियेथाः क्रियेयायां क्रियेवं क्रियख क्रियेयां क्रियध्वं क्रियेत क्रियेयातां क्रियेरन् क्रियता क्रियेतां क्रियन्तां

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Bened. कृषीय or कारिषीय ; cond. अकरिष्ये or अकारिये.

The following is an example of a passive verb from ending in a consonant.

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DESIDERATIVE VERBS. 119. Although this form of the root rarely appears in its character of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the desiderative base are not uncommon (see p. 23. xiii. r. 40., and p. 141. s.). Some explanation, therefore, of its structure is indispensable. Moreover, there are certain roots which take a desiderative form, without exactly yielding a volitive signification, and these, as being equivalent to primitive verbs (amongst which they are sometimes classed), may occur in the best writers. For example, jugups, “ to blame," from the root gup; chikits, to cure,” from kit; titiksh, to bear," from tij; mīmāns, “to reason," from man ; bībhats, “to abhor," from būdh.

The Terminations. a. Desideratives take the terminations of the regular scheme at p. 63., and their inflection either in the par. or ātm. is determined by the practice of the primitive verb. Thus, the root budh, taking both inflections in the primitive, may take both in the desiderative (bubodhishūmi, &c., or bubodhishe, &c.); and labh, taking only the ātm. in the primitives, may take only the ātm. in the desiderative (lipse, &c.).


Conjugational Tenses. b. The initial consonant and vowel of the root are reduplicated, and if the root inserts i in the primitive (see p. 79.), then ish is affixed : if the root rejects i, then simply s, changeable to q şh, is affixed. Thus, from kship, “ to throw," the base chikships (fararna chikshipsāmi, &c.); but from vid, “to know," taking inserted i in the primitive, vividish (fafafurfa vividishāmi, &c.). The reduplication of the consonant is strictly in conformity with the rules laid down at p. 75., and that of the vowel of the initial consonant follows the analogy of causal third preterites (p. 88.); that is, the vowel i (generally, however, short) is reduplicated for a, ā, i, ī, ri, , e, or ai ; but the vowel u for u, ū, and o.* Thus,

* And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy of the same tense; thus, from ash, ashish, and with ish added, ashishish. See p. 89.


from pach, pipaksh; from yāch, yiyāchish ; from jīv, jijīvish; from drish, didriksh; from sev, sisevish ; from gai, jigās; but from yuj, yuyuksh; from , pupūşh.

c. It has been said that the annexation of işh or 8 to the reduplicated root is generally determined by the assumption or rejection of inserted i in the primitive. When ish is affixed, the radical vowel may in general be optionally changed to Guna. Thus, from mud, either mumodişh or mumudish.

d. When s is affixed to roots ending in vowels it has the effect of lengthening a final i or u, and changing ri or rā to ir ; thus, from chi, chichīsh; from shru, shushrūsh; from kri, chikīrsh; from trī, titīrsh.* When to roots ending in consonants, the radical vowel remains unchanged, but the final consonant combines with the initial sibilant, in accordance with the rules laid down in pp. 67. 68. ; as, from yudh, yuyuts (p. 68. 6.); from dah, didhaksh (p. 69. č.).

e. The following roots form their desiderative bases anomalously. From , “to give,” dits (ditsāmi, “I wish to give "); from āp, to obtain,” īps ; from dhā, dhits ; from ji, “ to conquer," jigīsh ; from chi, chikīşh, as well as chichīsh; from han, “to kill,” jighāns ; from E, FATTET ; from yo, fayraq; from , ; from Ton, “to be able,” fita ; from $4, “to obtain," fon; from TH, fes; 99, fare.

Non-Conjugational Tenses. The second preterite is formed by affixing ām to the desiderative base, as already formed, and adding the second preterite of either one of the auxiliaries kri or bhū (see p. 77.g.). Thus from pach, the 2d pret. pipakshānchakāra, “ I wished to cook.” In all the remaining tenses it is an universal rule that inserted i be assumed after the desiderative base, whether formed by s or ish, except in the bened. par. Thus, 1st fut. of pipuksh, 1st pers. sing. pipakshitāsmi, fc.; 2d fut. pipakshishyāmi, ge.; 3d pret. apipakshisham, &c. (form 1. p. 81.); bened. par. pipakshyāsam, fc. ; ātm. pipakshishīya, fc.; condit. apipakshishyam, &c. So, also, taking vividish (formed with ish from vid), the 1st fut. is vividishitāsmi; 2d fut. vividişhishyāmi; 3d pret. avividishişham, 8c.

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