Imatges de pàgina



WE are accustomed in Greek and Latin to certain euphonic changes of letters. Thus in, combined with rogo, becomes irrogo ; rego makes, in the perfect, not regsi but reksi, contracted into re:ri s ueho becomes ceksi or peai ; oruv with "ywd)un becomes ouryyva)um ; āv with ?\८,amro, d?\Aं,umro. These laws for the combination of letters are applied very extensively throughout the Sanscrit language ; and that, too, not only in combining two parts of one word, but in combining all the words in the same sentence. Thus the sentence “ Para at;is in terris' would reguire, by the laws of combination (called, in Sanscrit, Sandhi) to be written thus, I?arāpir ins terri/ ; and would, moreover, be written without separating the words, Earāpirinsterrih. The learner must not be discouraged if he is not able thoroughly to understand all the numerous laws of combination at first. He is recommended, after reading them ower with attention, to pass at once to the declension । of nouns and conjugation of verbs ; for to oblige him to learn by heart a number of rules, the use of which is not fully seen till he comes to read and construct semtemces, must Only lead to a waste of time and labour.


l. Newertheless, there are some changes of letters which come into immediate application in the formation and declension of nouns, and the conjugation of verbs ; and amongst these, the changes of vowels called Guna and Wriddhi should be impressed on the memory of the student, before he takes a single step in the study of the Grammar. When the wowels i and o are changed to e, this is called the Guna change, or a change in Guality ; when i and ? are changed to ai, this is called the Wriddhi change, or an increase, Similarly, u and ii are often changed to their Guna o, and Wriddhi au ; ri and rā to their Guna ar, and Wriddhi ar ; and a, though it have no corresponding Guna change, has a Wriddhi Substitute in ā. 2. Let the Student, therefore, never forget the following rule, or he will be confused at every step. There is no Guna substitute for a, but a is the Wriddhi substitute for a ; e is the Guna, and aā the Wriddhi Substitute for i and ? ; o is the Guna, and aad the Wriddhi substitute for ad and ā ; ar is the Guna, and ār the Wriddhi substitute for ri and ri. Again, let him never forget that y is the semi-wowel of i and ं; o is the semi-vowel of a and ā ; r is the semi-vowel of ri and rā. 3. Lastly let him bear in mind that the Guna dipthong e is supposed to be made up of a and i, and the Guna o, of a and a ;* so that a and i may often coalesce into e, and a and a into o. He will now understand the reason for the arrangement of vowels and semi-vowels given in the first Table. This Table is here repeated in the Roman character.

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* In the same way the Wriddhi diphthong ai is supposed to be made up of a or d and e, and the Wriddhi au of u or d and o.

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9. If a word end in e or o, when the next begins with a short, then e and o remain unchanged, and the initial a is cut off. Thus, te api are written te pi (ते-पि); so api are written so pi (सो-पि),

10. If a word end in e, when the next begins with any other vowel except a short, then e is supposed to be first changed to ay ; but the y is usually dropped, leaving the a uninfluenced by the following vowel. Thus, te āgatāh becomes ta āgatāh, (त स्रागता:),

* It so happens that o, as the final of a complete word, is newer likely to come in coalition with any initial wowel but short a. But in the case ofe or o, as the finals of roots or crude forms, when the termination to be annexed begins with any wowel, whether o, d, i, or any other, then e is changed to ag/, and o to au. Thus,.je ati become.jayati, bho ati become bhattati.

The following Table exhibits all the combinations of vowels at one view. Supposing a word to end in ii, and the next word to begin with au, the student must carry his eye down the first column (headed “ final vowels ") till he comes to i, and then along the top horiZontal line of “ initial vowels," till he comes to au. At the junction of the perpendicular column under au and the horiZontal line beginning ai, will be the reguired combination, viZ. o aa.

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* Observe, that in this table the final letter, in its changed state, has been printed, for greater clearness, Separate from the initial ;
except in those cases (in the second and third lincs), where the blending of the two vowels made this impossible.
they must be written without any Beparation, as nlready seen in the opposite page.

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11. Before proceeding to the rules for the combination of consonants, let the alphabet be regarded attentively as divided into two grand classes, as exhibited in the following Table.

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12. If any surd letter end a word when any sonant bogins the next, the hard is changed to its own unaspirated soft ; thus, karmakrit liharati becomes karmakrid bhacati ; rāk: asti, pāg asri ; c/ti/ralikh asti, c/itralig asti.

+ It may be proper here to remark, that in writing a Sanscrit sentence, whon the words have undergone those changes which the laws of combination demand, they may either be written separately, as in the examples.just given, or often more correctly without any separation ; as, karmakridhhatati (कमैकृद्भवति); rāpasti (वागस्ति), The student is therefore to observe, that although in the following examples, each word will, for greater clearness, be printed separately from the next, it would accord more with the practice of the natives of India to print them without any separation. There are two cases, however, in which there remains no option, but in which words must always be written together without separation, Ist, when a final and initial wowel blend togother into ono sound (see examples, r. 4-8) ; 2dly, when either crude forms or adverbs aro joined

with other words to form compounds (see Chap. Ix. on Compound Words).

l3. If any sonant letter end a word when any surd begins the next the soft is changed to its own unaspirated hard.* Thus,

* If the final be an aspirated sonant lettor, and belong to a root whose initial is {/, d, or '), the aspirate. which is suppressod in the final, is transferrod l)ack to the initial letter of the root. Thus, pedabudh asti bocomos roda),aa a,/;.

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