Imatges de pÓgina

the manner in which they combine. And to assert that the alcohol which condenses in the worm of the still from the vapor of boiling wine is the very same thing to the drinker of it-to his stomach, brain and nerves-that it would have been if it had remained united with all those other constituents, with the sugar, acids, tannin, resin, salts and ethers which were its companions in the vine sap, were elaborated with it in the leaf, and ripened with it in the grape, is to say what requires the strongest proof to sustain it. But no such proof exists, while the contrary can be abundantly shown."

As conducive to health, our light wines possess a special value deserving of more general appreciation. It has been said, with too much truth, that we are a nation of dyspeptics. For the cause of the frequency of dyspepsia, we may rationally look to the habit of eating fast, bolting the food in a half-masticated condition, drinking too largely of water and other liquids, the too common use of salt meat, particularly salt fat pork, among the hard-working classes, &c. There is a large portion of our population who, although not confirmed dyspeptics, are yet persons of feeble digestive powers-a condition sometimes brought upon themselves by their own improprieties or bad habits, and quite as often inherited from parents, for the progeny of such people are sure to inherit the "family failing." Now it generally happens that this class of people are under the necessity of accomplishing more work, either bodily or mental, than they are physically capable of doing without loss of vigor. Their powers of assimilation are unequal to the task of appropriating of each meal sufficient to meet the interstitial destruction or necessary out-goings of the system. Hence, they are always overworked, and live a life of fatigue. Their muscles are soft and flabby, and their vessels deficient in tonicity. They are liable to disease from various causes; the circulation in the extreme vessels being weak, they are unable to resist the effects of cold, and are hence liable to congestions. They have no power to resist malaria or contagious diseases. Under a feeling of relaxation and fatigue, they often resort to distilled spirits to their injury.

It is certain that the habitual daily use of a small allowance of such a stimulus as our pure wines afford, would bestow upon such persons the nervous energy necessary to enable them to digest more food to economize the waste of the system to perform the duties of life with more ease and comfort, and would make them more useful members of society instead of the mere drones they often are and must continue to be under a total abstinence regimen. It would also better enable them to resist disease, which is an important consideration in malarious districts. When moderately taken with a regular meal, the small amount of stimulus contained in the light wines is very little felt; no unnatural appetite is created for such stimulus, but rather a feeling of satiety is produced, digestion is aided, the wants of the system are better supplied, and there is less inclination or craving for stimulus between meals. This would be particularly the case with the class referred to, who need "wine for the stomach's sake." As wine would enable the body to appropriate more food and gain strength, the feeling of fatigue, with the instinctive craving for stimulus, would be removed.

[ocr errors]

While people continue to drink for the sake of drinking, by all means give them the least dangerous article. Let it be more abundant and cheaper than the more fiery and maddening compounds.

NOTE.-The American Wine Company has made during the present year 100,000 gallons of wine, and from the vintage of 1870 will put up about 750,000 bottles of Imperial champagne. The increased production by other companies furnishes the most favorable showing, for the rapid growth and increase of the grape and wine business of the State of Missour



I feel more deeply than ever before, that there is nothing in human history which can compare in interest with the condition of the American continent on the eve of its discovery and colonization, and its transition into the sphere of civilized and Christian.culture, looking back from our present point of view upon the various stages of this transition, as one great operation in the order of Providence.

Consider it a moment: there it lay upon the surface of the globe, a hemisphere unknown to the rest of the world, in all its vast extent, with all its boundless undeveloped resources, not seen as yet by the eye of civilized men, unpossessed but by the simple children of the forest. There stretched the iron chain of its mountain barriers, not yet the boundary of political communities; there rolled its mighty rivers unprofitably to the sea; there spread out the measureless but as yet wasteful fertility of its uncultivated fields; there towered the gloomy majesty of its unsubdued primeval forests; there glittered in the secret caves of the earth the priceless treasures of its unsunned gold; and more than all that pertains to material wealth, there existed the undeveloped capacity of a hundred embryo States; of an imperial confederacy of republics, the future abode of intelligent millions, unrevealed as yet to the earnest" but unconscious "expectation" of the elder families of man, darkly hid by the impenetrable veil of waters. There is to my mind an overwhelming sadness in this long insulation of America from the brotherhood of humanity, not inappropriately reflected in the melancholy expression of the native races. The boldest keels of Phoenicia and Carthage had not approached its shores. From the footsteps of the ancient nations along the highways of time and fortune-the embattled millions of the old Asiatic despotisins, the iron phalanx of Macedonia, the living crushing machinery of the Roman legion, which ground the world to powder-the heavy tramp of barbarous nations from "the populous north;" not the faintest echo had aroused the slumbering West in the cradle of her existence. Not a thrill of sympathy had shot across the Atlantic from the heroic adventure, the intellectual and artistic vitality, the convulsive struggles for freedom, the calamitous downfalls of empire, and the strange new regenerations which fill the pages of ancient and medieval history. Alike when the Oriental myriads, Assyrian, Chaldean, Median, Persian, Bactrian, from the snows of Syria to the Gulf of Ormus, from the Halys to the Indus, poured like a deluge upon Greece, and beat themselves to idle foam on the sea-girt rock of Salamis and the lowly plain of Marathon; when all the kingdoms of the earth went down with her own liberties, in Rome's imperial mælstrom of blood and fire, and when the banded powers of the West, beneath the ensign of the cross as the pendulum of conquest swung backward-marched in scarcely intermitted procession for three centuries to the subjugation of Palestine-the American continent lay undiscovered, lonely and waste. That mighty action and reaction upon each other of Europe and America-the grand systole and diastole of the heart of the nations—and which now constitutes so much of the organized life of both, had not yet begun to pulsate. The unconscious child and heir of the ages lay, wrapped in the mantle of futurity, upon the broad and nurturing bosom of Divine Providence, and slumbered serenely, like the infant of Danæ, through the storms of fifty centuries.-EDWARD EVERETT.

Ninety-four years ago-when the fifty-two signers of the Declaration of Independence, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of their intentions, declared that the united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent States - but few of the most sanguine of that day dreamed of the extent and greatness which this country would attain in the comparatively brief space of a century. But before our Independence was achieved, the thought of continental empire had already entered the minds of many far-seeing persons in this and other lands. "Prophetic Voices about America" were not wanting in numbers to foretell the triumphs of that spirit of adventure which, in the fifteenth century, carried Vasco di Gama around the

Cape of Good Hope, and Columbus to America. Even the age seemed to be instinctive with a better life, and prophets of one land and heroes of another were unqualifiedly pointing to America as the place for the future empire of the world.

As early as 1755, John Adams, but twenty years old, and the future statesman of Massachusetts, wrote to a friend in the following words: "Soon after the reformation a few people came over into this new world for conscience sake. Perhaps this apparently trivial incident may transfer the great seat of empire into America. It looks likely to me; for if we can remove the turbulent Gallics, our people, according to the most exact computations, will in another century become more numerous than in England itself. Should this be the case, since we have, I may say, all the naval stores of the nation in our hands, it will be easy to obtain a mastery of the seas, and the united force of all Europe will not be able to subdue us."

This was the expression of a young school-teacher twenty-one years before the Declaration of Independence was made by the colonies. John Adams lived to see a system of government founded which, with broad and comprehensive policies, was destined to bring forth upon the American continent a nation of grander proportions and greater triumphs in civilization than his most enlarged understanding could comprehend.

His son, John Quincy Adams, at a later day, remarked of his father's letter: "Had the political part of it been written by the minister of state of a European monarchy, at the close of a long life spent in the government of nations, it would have been pronounced worthy of the united wisdom of a Burleigh, a Sully, or an Oxenstiern. In one bold outline he has exhibited by anticipation a long succession of prophetic history, the fulfillment of which is barely yet in progress, responding exactly hitherto to his foresight, but the full accomplishment of which is reserved for after ages."

Next to John Adams stands Mr. Jefferson, with clear conceptions of the future of the American nation. Soon after the treaty with the Kaskaskia Indians, by which was acquired a broad belt of territory extending from the mouth of the Illinois river to and up the Ohio, Mr. Jefferson first began to look with serious consideration to the future greatness of the nation; and that treaty, together with the Louisiana purchase, led him to say that he "would not give one inch of the waters of the Mississippi river to any nation." And with prophetic conception he was again led to say: "When we shall be full on this side the Mississippi river we may lay off a range of States on the western bank, from the head to the mouth, and so, range after range, advancing compactly as we multiply."

In addition to the Louisiana purchase, Texas was annexed in 1845. New Mexico, California, and all the territory between the Mississippi river and the Pacific ocean has been added within the present century; and in rapid succession has State after State come into the Union, and the telegraph, the railroad, the steamboat, the printing-press, and the school-house, have followed on in this great march of empire, and taken the place of the Indian trail, the wigwam, the hunting-ground, and the home of the buffalo.

Turn which way we will, upon this "vast, wide continent," and we see the chain of empire being made complete under one all-embracing Constitution. Climates of every character, minerals of every quality and value, rivers stretching in great lengths and uniting every zone, all combine to give greatness and destiny to this nation, made of the wisdom and excellences of all nations, and this people, made of the commingled and regenerated blood of all people. Sublime thought! Grandest and broadest of our age; that which energizes the individual and regales the future with royal promise.

At the beginning there were thirteen sparsely populated colonies; now we have thirty-seven powerful States, and ten large Territories on the threshold of membership. The following statistics, showing the means and degrees by which the great Empire of the West has been regarded, will be read with thrilling interest by every American citizen:

NEW STATES AND TERRITORIES-WHEN ADMITTED.-Under President Washington's administration, the following new States were admitted: Vermont, in the year 1791; Kentucky, in 1794; Tennessee, in 1796.

Under President Jefferson's administration, the following new States and Territories were added to the Union: Ohio, in the year 1802; Louisiana, purchased in 1804. This purchase contained space enough for fifty new States. It gave to the United States the entire control of the Mississippi, the outlets of which had hitherto been in the hands of a foreign power. Territorial gov ernments were organized in Mississippi, Indiana and Louisiana.

Under President Madison's administration, the following addition was made to the Union: Indiana, in the year 1816.

During the administration of President Monroe, the following States were added to the Union: Mississippi, in the year 1817; Illinois, in 1818; Missouri, in 1821; Maine, in 1820; Florida, purchased in 1821.

Under the administration of President Jackson, the following States were admitted: Michigan, in the year 1837; Arkansas, in 1836.

During the administration of President Polk, the following new States were admitted: Texas, in the year 1845; Iowa, in 1845; Florida, in 1845; Wisconsin, in 1817; California, New Mexico and Utah were bought.

Under the administrations of Presidents Taylor and Fillmore, the following State was admitted: California, in the year 1850. The following new Territories were organized: New Mexico and Utah, in the year 1850; Washington in 1853. Under President Pierce's administration, Arizona was purchased.

Under the administration of President Buchanan, the following States were admitted: Minnesota, in the year 1857; Oregon, in 1859; Kansas, in 1861; Dakotah Territory organized in 1861.

During the administration of President Lincoln, the following States were admitted: West Virginia, in the year 1862; Nevada, in 1864. The following Territories were also organized: Arizona, in the year 1863; Idaho, in 1863; Montana, in 1864.

Under the administration of President Johnson, the Territory of Wyoming was organized in 1868; Northwestern America, or Alaska, was purchased, by treaty of May 28, in the year 1867.

Thus stands the record to-day of the American nation, with a population running from 3,000,000 in the year 1776, up to 42,000,000 in the year 1870. Our commerce, in the year 1791, was valued at $52,000,000 imports and $19,000,000 exports. Now the imports of merchandise to our country are, at gold value, $286,519,344, and our national wealth estimated at $23,400,000,000, at an annual increase of $921,700,000.

Our principal agricultural products are estimated at $3,282,950,000, and our entire industrial resources are valued at $4,223,000,000.

How marvelous the progress of our people! and with us, instead of colonies as with Britain, we acquire strength and greatness by effacing the boundary lines of conterminous countries by treaty, and absorb the new regions into the Federal family, thereby consolidating whenever we extend our national domain and power. Turning, then, from the mightiness of the American nation at the present time, and looking forward to the future, we are to inquire what will be its civil mission, and what the industrial career of its people. What are to be the future honors and the glory of the Republic? Over what lands is her flag yet to float? To what people are her laws yet to give protection? What grand victories is she yet to achieve in the future empire of the world? These are questions now being inspired by the loftiest patriotism of the American statesman, and everywhere is growing up in the hearts of the people the thought of a transcendent national destiny for the great Republic of the world.

But before we consider this branch of the subject, let us consider the essential industrial mission of our people, their future commerce, their accumulation of wealth, and their future great field of labor. These things are held as being pertinent to the subject of the future great city of the world.

It is already evident that the industrial mission of our people will, at least, be continental; that, since the landing of the Pilgrims upon the narrow belt of the Atlantic, and their career in that land which De Tocqueville called an "inhospitable clime," there has been one steady march of the American people from the Atlantic toward the Pacific. Commerce was the incentive that urged on the civil conquest of the continent; that spread the fleet of boats upon our Western waters, directed the ships around Cape Horn and to our Pacific coast, and drove the hundreds of thousands of wagons across the arid plains of our continent.

The civil conquest of our own land is about to be accomplished by the meeting of the Eastern and Western columns of American civilization in the central plain of the continent, and the advance of the North and South flanking columns, which are now rapidly tending to the center. But this civil conquest accomplished, what remains for the restless, pioneering, and homeless Americans to do? They cannot stay within the boundary lines of our great Republic when other lands furnish a field for adventure, speculation, and skill. Then it is we are to look beyond to the higher aspects of the industrial mission of our people. To our continent belong five systems of water navigation: First, the Atlantic Ocean system; second, the River system; third, the Lake system; fourth, the Gulf system; and fifth, the Pacific Ocean system. The canal system is only auxiliary. Nature gave these systems.

[ocr errors]
« AnteriorContinua »