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An extensive business is carried on, in many parts of the State, in the production of lead. Quite a number of furnaces are in active operation, which are affording a constant yield for the markets. Although lead mines in Missouri bave been worked for more than one hundred years, their richness is so great that they will afford a profitable field for labor much longer than another century.
The production of zinc in the State is quite recent. Some three or four fino mills are now in active use in and around the city, preparing the zinc for market. The number will no doubt be increased at an early day.
PLATE GLASS MANUFACTURE IN ST. LOUIS.
Among the exhaustless treasures of mineral wealth in Missouri are found, in amplo abundance, the best materials for the manufacture of plate glass, of which there is not a single manufactory in the United States worthy the name, to supply the great and increasing demand. A few miles below St. Louis, on the banks of the Mississippi, there is a locality admirably suited for tho purpose of making plate glass -- an exhaustless mountain mine of white sand of the finest and best quality, at the door of the works, to save the cost of cartage. Good coal can be obtained at a short distance, and brought in barges to the wbarf, which has a frontage of two thousand feet, and deep water. Clay for pits, and lime for flues, and other materials, are easily obtainable. The best grinding sand is found nearly in the river, of which a large quantity is used. Fire-brick for the furnaces can be bad. A largo supply of timber is on the premises. The position is one of great centrality and convenience for the conveyance of the glass to market by water. The best manufacturing mill has been provided, and experienced skilled labor has been secured for the erection of the works and the successful manufacture of plate glass of the best quality and largest dimensions required. The enterprise promises large aud certain profits, as the duty on plate glass is sixty per cent. per square foot. Arrangements have been made for the immediate organization of a plate glass company, under the auspices of public-spirited and influential citizens of St. Louis. It will be an honor to this city to have organized and put in successful operation the first plate glass manufactory in the United States, and one of the most profitable investments in the country, and of permanent value to the property of this city.
The fact of the existence of tin in Missouri is established beyond a question or doubt. Very rich lodes and veins are found in Madison county, of this State. Small quantities are known to exist in adjoining counties, and, in all probability, will be found in other parts of the State when more extensive and accurate geological surveys are made. Tin ore from the Madison county lodo has been smelted in several instances, and found to be very rich. In several cases, the smelting proved the ore to contain, at the lowest yield, six and one-half per cent. of pure tin. Other smelts, at the same time, yielded eight and one half per cent. of pure tin, this being the highest yield. Both together make an average yield of seven per cent. pure tin. This is understood to be by far the richest yield in the world, and the quantity of ore sufficient to supply the world with tin.
A joint-stock company, with a capital of $200,000, is now organized, under the name of the Missouri Tin Company, for the purpose of working the mines, and the company will proceed at once to erect furnaces and machinery, for the purpose of smelting tin. This enterprise will, without question, be & valuable contribution to the mineral development and industry of the State of Missouri.
Notwithstanding the great variety of valuable stone in the State of Missouri for building and finishing purposes, there are but few of them, in comparison to the whole, that have entered into serviceable use in the State, and such as have, are only used in a too limited extent. It is time this negligent policy among our builders and stone-cutters were abolished. Why should we go abroad for stone when we cannot surpass in beauty and value that which belongs to our own State ? Aside from the many valuable quarries of marble and hard and soft stone of the State, which are generally known, we havo thought proper to mention two or more specimens which are not so well known to our citizens, and the use of which is improperly neglected by our builders and ornamental stone cutters. There is the
ROSB-ANTICO MARBLE OF CAPE GIRARDEAU.
This is a fine specimen, as well as quality, of variegated and somewhat chocolate-colored marble. Its texture is fine, and is susceptible of a superior polish. Its strength and specific gravity is nearly equal to that of granito. It will sustain a pressure of more than fifteen thousand pounds to the cubio inch. This valuable stone will supply a great want in our city and State for building purposes, as well as for tiling, for tablets, paneling, and various ornamental uses about the homes of the wealthy and tasteful of our people. Its similarity to the Etruscan highly befits it for such uses, while for mond. ments and out-door buildings it will hardly be surpassed in durability, for it bas already been thoroughly tested by exposure in the cemetery at Cap Girardeau. It abounds in large quantities in Cape Girardeau county, and is easy of access, and can be put into market without difficulty. The quarry out of which this marble is now obtained is in the bands of a company, Colonel Charles Durfee & Co., who are making great efforts to bring it into com. mercial use
BT. LOUIS MARBLE.
Another fine quality of stone, known as the St. Louis marble, is found in great abundance in St. Louis county, about twenty-five miles west of St. Louis, near Glencoe station, on the Missouri Pacitio railroad. This stone is of a beautiful greyish color, of fine texture, and susceptible of fine polish, and is known as a species of marble. It is of great strength, and well adapted for building purposes, as it weathers well. A company, the Messrs. Terrys, are using every effort to bring this valuable stone into market and practical use, in supplying a choice material for many of the new buildings of our city. It is moro properly defined as a light, variegated, fossiliferous marble. The bed is compact, without lines of stratification, and favorable for getting out slabs or columns of large dimensions.
MISSOURI BLUE GRANITE. This granite is found in St. Francois county, on the line of the Iron Mountain road, at Knob Lick. Its complexion is a hue between the Quincy and New Hampshire, and sustains the great pressure of 18,414 pounds to the eubic inch. It is remarkably fine-grained and uniform, and will undoubtedly be extensively used where strength and durability are required in building.
Other valuable marbles are found in different parts of the State, but not having the necesrary facts, a special description of them must be omitted.
It is well known to those familiar with the resources of Missouri, that there are to be found in different parts of tho Stato quite a number of the most valuable clays used in the manufacture of queensware; and although no homo offort has been made to convert these raw materials into useful articles, large quantities have been exported from the State, and made into wares and returned to our market, to be distributed to the trade, which ought to be supplied from the hands of our own industry. Kaolin, out of which the finest wares are made, is found in Cape Girardeau county in inexhaustible quantities. And why it is not converted into wares, of an inpumerable variety and value, is a standing marrel to those who are familiar with the fact of its existence and quality. Why there may not be built a new Staffordshire in that county, supplying to the continent wares for every kind of domestic use, we cannot understand. Enterprise, capital, and skilled labor must be organized and applied. One company is already organizing, and without question will meet with great success, but there is room for many more. How often must it be published abroad that Missouri has many resources sufficient to supply the people of this great valley with many of the most important materials required in civilized life? and yet they remain undeveloped. Will those who have eapital unoccupied accept of the advantages ? Let us have a Staffordshire in America, a workshop equal to that of the Old World, whose labor will supply valuable wares to the millions of people belonging to those great States which surround us.
MISSOURI AS A WINE-PRODUCING STATE.
BY L. D. MORSE, M.D.,
PRESIDENT MISSISSIPPI VALLEY GRAPE GROWERS' ASSOCIATION.
It is a little over twenty years since grape culture was commenced as a business in Missouri, since which it has steadily increased, and rapidly 80 within the latter half of the period. During the last five years the increase has been at the rate of about 300 acres per year. Within the period last named, several companies have been formed for producing wine on a large scale. The Cliff Cave Wine Company, in the south part of St. Louis county, has about twenty-five acres of vines, sold a large quantity of grapes last year, and made 3,000 gallons of wine. The Augusta Wine Company, of St. Charles sounty, has 22,775 vines, and made last year 8,000 gallons of wine. The Bluffton Wine Company, of Montgomery county, has 59,834 vines, and made last year from the portion in bearing 13,490 gallons of wine. The Missouri Smelting and Mineral Land Company, of Stanton, Franklin county, is engaged in grape growing as a portion of its business, and has about seventy acres of vines planted, nearly all of which are in bearing this year.
In addition to the foregoing, we have the American Wine Company, of St. Louis, started several years earlier. It does not depend upon raising grapes for wine, but buys largely, and claims to have made last year over 100,000 gallons of still wines, and half a million bottles of champagne.
The vineyards of the town of Hermann yielded last year over 150,000 gallons of wine, and about 85,500 pounds of grapes sold, the total value of both being estimated at $157,557.
In the Report of the Department of Agriculture for 1868, partial reports from nineteen counties are given, the average footing to 1,508. Statistics obtained last year by the Mississippi Valley Grape Growers' Association, entirely reliable so far as they go, indicate that there are about 3,000 acres of vineyards in the State, and the entire value of the grape product of the State this year will not be less than $3,000,000.
SUPERIORITY OF MISSOURI GRAPES AND WINES.
It is not so much, however, the number of acres planted during the last few years, as it is the more or less favorable results from those in bearing, and the comparative quality of the fruit and wines produced therefrom, which tend to determine the question of superiority of our State above most others.
What little statistical information has been gathered thus far on this subject, and the very imperfect statements and incorrect figures given in the various reports, including that of the U. S. Agricultural Department, make it impossible to give reliable comparisons; but even this last named report shows that tho average produced per acre in Ohio was 3,7 45 lbs. grapes, or 320 gallons wine ; it was in New York 4,571 lbs. grapes, or 416 gallons wine; and in Missouri 6,900 lbs. grapes, or 4835 gallons wine. A more reliable proof of the superiority of Missouri's grapes over all others, we find by comparing the strength of the must by Oechsle's must-scale, which always comes out in favor of Missouri, even against the most celebrated wine localities of the Union. This is due to climate and soil. Rev. Chas. Peabody, who has given much attention to the investigation of this subject, says: “The two important natural conditions demanded by the grape are climate and soil. Given these two, all the rest will eventually follow from the application of the skilled industry of the vine-dresser. In this portion of the Valley of the Mississippi, we find these two elementary conditions, climate and soil, existing together. That the soil and climate of Missouri and the adjacent parts of other States, especially those on its eastern and western boundaries (Illinois and Kansas), are eminently adapted to the growth of the grape, is a point too well established to need discussion here. The fact is well known and universally acknowledged throughout the entire district, and perhaps I may venture to add, throughout the United States. Compared with other sections of tho United States (at least all those east of the Rocky Mountains), so far as their capabilities have been tested, our advantages for the production of wine are certainly superior.”
We have not the space to show by the isothermal lines, ascertained by years of actual observation, that our mean temperature during the various seasons comes nearest to those most celebrated places in France where the grape is known to succeed, and must confine ourselves to but few data, of which tho following tables, extracted from essays read before the Mississippi Valley Grape Growers' Association, will afford a ready comparison :
Aug. Sept. Oct. Place.
deg. deg. deg.
deg. Cleveland ....
70.3 64.0 51.3
53.2 64.47 Bt. Louis
76.5 68.7 55.4 66.86 For the highest development of the wine properties of the grape a mean temperature of no less than 65° Fahrenheit is demanded during the season of ripening. In the tables above alluded to we find the following:
Six months. deg. in.
deg. in. deg. in. Kelly's Island, O., 1867..........
1.51 64.6 2.36 St. Louis, Mo.....
75.1 1.65 69.4 2.80 Marseilles, France......
67.7 Besides the high temperature, a diminished rain-fall during the same season 28 essential to the perfection of the grape. Dr. Stayman, of Leavenworth,