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West, the great trunk Pacific railroad, beyond Jefferson City, crosses over vast coal-fields, Kansas City being built centrally in this great field.

Coal and iron are the bones and sinows of the most powerful of modern nations. Lead, zinc, and copper add strength. In tho future, the country to pay tribute to this center are the vasto cotton-fields of the lower Mississippi, the grain-growing regions of the North and West, the argentiferous and auriferous belts of Colorado and Montana,

St. Louis, like ancient Rome, once with its 10,000,000 population, is destined to be flanked and surrounded with a galaxy or cordon of continental cities. Memphis, Kansas City, St. Joseph, Leavenworth, Dubuque, Keokuk, Davenport, Jacksonville, Springfield, Terre Haute, and Indianapolis are a part of these satellites that in the future are to pay tribute to this center- - taking in view the fact of their vast material resources, and these being the center of the great fruit, agricultural and wine belt of the continent.

The people, the Teutonic and Celtic races, are the pioneer people in all the departments of human industry, politics, culture, theology. We apprehend that the most acute vision, even were that mind in harmony with the spirit of the times, and enabled through that means to look back through the dim geologic history of the past, when the economic laws were piling the iron, atom by atom, in these iron mountains, growing the dense flora of the coal plants, repleting the veins of lead, zinc, copper, tin, silver and gold, and at the same time comprehend the ridge, valley, spring, prairie, timber and river systems, and was enabled to go back in the ethnography and heraldry of theso populations, and could fuse these elements or facts in the future, and at the samo timo realize the grandeur of the empires of the past — the Persian, under Cyrus; the Macedonian, under Alexander the Great; the Roman, under the Republic and tho twelve Cæsars — that the truth would be forced upon the mind, that in the future this great Valley of the Mississippi will include the center of an empire, before which, in wealth, power and grandeur, all these shall pale; that St. Louis, sitting like a Queen on the banks of the great Father of Waters, will be the central city of this people, the tidal waves of whose civilization will roll to China and Japan on the west, and to the Bosphorus on the east; and with her continental railroad system, her telegraphs over mountains and under oceans, her vast water communication, will radiate law and order, and become the leading national, mining, and commercial metropolis of the Western hemisphere.

St. Louis, though in its infancy, is already a large city. Its length is about twelve miles, and its width from four to five. Suburban residences, the oute posts of the grand advance, are now stationed six and eight miles from the river, and will soon be twenty. In 1865, the real and personal property of tho city was assessed at 100,000,000, and in 1866 at 126,877,000. These figures, as well as the present assessmont, $147,968,070, are understood by our city officials to be much below the real value of the city.

St. Louis is a well-built city, but its architecture is more substantial than showy. The wide, well-paved streets, the spacious levee and commodious warehouses; the mills, machine shops and manufactories; the fine hotels, ehurches, and public buildings; the universities, charitable institutions, public schools and libraries, the growing parks, the well-improved and unequaled fairgrounds, and Mr. Shaw's jewel of a garden, which is by far the garden of the continent, constitute an array of excellencies and attractions of which any city may justly be proud. The appearance of St. Louis from the eastern bank of the Mississippi is impressive. At East St. Louis the eye sometimes commands & view of one hundred steamboats lying at our leves. A mile and a half of steamboats lying at the wharf of a city 1,000 miles from the ocean, in the heart of a continent, is a spectacle which naturally inspires large views of commercial greatness. The sight of our levee, thronged with busy merchants and covered with the commodities of every clime, from the peltries of the Rocky Mountains to the teas of China, does not tend to lessen the magnitude of the impression.

These thoughts of the growth and commerce of St. Louis could easily be oxtended to a discussion of the wealth and industry of our continent, but the amplification would be of no avail to a people whose minds, like their eyes, are 10 accustomed to range over large extents, and are not content to sit down after having acquired a little power.

NOTE.-Wh this work is written in the especial interest of St. Louis, it is not meant to cast a selfish or disparaging reflection upon Chicago, or any other city on the American continent, or in the world. In fact, in a broader and higher sense, it indicates a grander growth for the entire American nation than is ordinarily conceived. It indicates a final organization of the world's wealth, industry and civilization, so as to foreshadow a better time for the world's people. It is not in my nature to be jealous or envious of the growth and prosperity of any place or people; on the other hand, I am proud of Chicago. She is the great city of my native StatoState born under the influence of an ordinance wide-reaching and beneficent in its influencoman ordinance akin to the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of my country. I shall always be proud of Illinois, her prosperity, her people, and her cities. I only yield to the decision of that Providence which has assigned distinction and more abundant favors to States and cities, in proclaiming for St. Louis unequaled advantages over any city on the continent, and a destiny equal to any city in the world. No filial love can weigh against nature in the distribution of her favors to establish power and greatness among men. Therefore, I am for St. Louis, destined, at no distant day, to be the great vitalizing heart of the world's civilization. But this is not an envious decision, not a declaration against Chicago, or any other city of the continent; for it is narrow foolishness for the citizens of Chicago and St. Louis to be envious of each other's prosperity and industry. In the great West there is ample room for both cities to reach a point of growth unequaled in human history, and there never will be a time when there is not room enough for both of them in this great valley, and never a time when the interests of the one do not contribute to the interests of the other, and the growth of the one be aided by the growth of the other. Then let each learn that her true interests are best served by an enterprising industry, guided by a liberal and comprehensive conception of the rapidly advancing progress of our nation. Without these, written essays in favor of either will be of no avail; and in the face of these, jealousy and envy are unbecoming the dignity of the citizens of either. Then away with that narrow judgment which is hemmed in by locality and warped by selfishness! All our great cities are kindred in interest and humanity. They are triumphs of our industry, and living monuments to the genius of our people. “They are all pearls upon one string"-jewels of a common yountry, blossoms of our civilization, and governed by one all-pervading, beneficent law.

WATER AS AN IMPORTANT AUXILIARY TO THE GROWTII OF A

GREAT CITY, AND THE ADVANTAGE POSSESSED BY

ST. LOUIS FOR AN INEXHAUSTIBLE SUPPLY.

also Ges.

A liberal supply of water has at all times been considered one of the chief necessities to the growth and prosperity of a large city. In many parts of Syria and Palestine large reservoirs and tanks were constructed in the past, which at the present time are the only resource for water during the dry season, and a failure of them involves drought and calamity.

The most celebrated of the pools mentioned in Scripture are the pools of Solomon, about three miles southwest of Bethlebem, from which an aqueduct was carried which still supplies Jerusalem with water. These pools are said to be three in number, partly hown out of the rock, and partly built with masonry, but all lined with cement. The largest of them is 582 feet long by 207 feet wide and 50 feet deep.

The Romans spared no expense to procure for their city an abundant supply of pure water. Their aqueducts, some of which are still in operation, at one time carried to that city 350,000,000 gallons of water daily, or 290 gallons daily for each inhabitant. Some of these aqueducts had a length of from thirty to seventy miles, and in magnificence and costliness far surpassed the most celo brated works of modern origin.

The earliest and most liberal provisions for a water supply on our own continent were made by the cities of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, and to this must be ascribed in a great measure the rapid growth of these cities. In 1860 the amount of water supplied daily to each inhabitant of these cities averaged ninety-seven gallons in Boston, fifty-two gallons in New York, and thirty-six gallons in Philadelphia. The works in these cities when designed seemed to be of sufficient capacity to furnish a supply for many years, but their growth has been so rapid that they already feel the necessity of husbanding their resources, and of taking measures to extend their works so as to be enabled to meet the increased and increasing consumption. In fact, during the severe drought of last year a scarcity of water was experienced in each of these cities, owing to the inadequacy of their sources of supply.

The great advantage possessed by St. Louis in this respect consists in the fact that its source of supply is inexhaustible. The Mississippi in time of an

.

ordinary stage carries past the city about 1,500,000 gallons of water per second, or enough in six seconds to supply the present necessities of its inbabitants for a whole day. It is not only abundant, but is one of the most wholesome waters known. It is true that in time of high water it contains a large per centage of sedimentary matter, brought down by the swift current of the Missouri river, but of this it is easily freed by settling and filtering. And it is worthy of mention here that the old inhabitants of our city are so far from being averse to this admixture of sedimentary matter, that they almost regret that the new works now in course of construction will furnish them settled or clear water.

The first waterworks in St. Louis consisted of a reservoir on the Big Mound, suppliod by a small engine from the Mississippi river. It was constructed in 1829–30, and designed to contain 300,000 gallons. The city of St. Louis then numbered 5,852 inhabitants. In 1850, the population being then 77,860, & larger reservoir was completed, holding about 8,000,000 gallons. This reservoir has also beon out of use for many years. The reservoir by which the city is now supplied was finished in 1855, when the city contained 125,000 inhabitants. The water is pumped into it by three pumps located at the foot of Bates street, and having a total capacity of about 11,000,000 gallons per day. One of these pumps was procured by the present Board of Water Commissioners in 1868, the other two not having sufficient capacity to supply the city beyond a contingency. Previous to the year 1860 it had become apparent that the existing works would soon be insufficient to supply the city. In fact, the area of the city had been extended so much, and in the direction of grounds 80 much higher than the reservoir, that a large portion of the territory included within the new limits could not be supplied. The question of new and more extended works was agitated for several years, but without any result, until the Governor of the State, under a law passed in January, 1865, appointed a Board of Water Commissioners. These gentlemen appointed Mr. James P. Kirkwood, the acknowledged head of hydraulic engineers in the United States, since his completion of the Brooklyn waterworks, their Chief Engineer.

In October, 1865, Mr. Kirwood submitted several plans of works to the Commissioners. The one adopted by them was subsequently rejected by tho Common Council, to whom, according to the then existing law, belonged the final decision of the matter. The members of the Board of Water Commissioners resigned, and a new Board appointed by the Governor, having retained Mr. Kirkwood's services, submitted new plans to the Common Council for approval, after Mr. Kirkwood bad modified his former plans so as to bring them in accordance with the expressed opinion of the Council. There seeming to be but little hope that the conflicting opinions of the members of our City Council would ever admit of their approving any plan, a new law was passed by the Legislature which placed the whole matter in the hands of a commission of three members, and authorized them to apply the proceeds of three and a half millions of bonds, to be issued by the city, to the construction of the works. The new Board appointed as their Chief Engineer Mr. Thomas J. Whitman, an

WATER AS AN IMPORTANT AUXILLARY TO THE GROWTH OF A

GREAT CITY, AND THE ADVANTAGE POSSESSED BY

ST. LOUIS FOR AN INEXHAUSTIBLE SUPPLY.

.

also Gas .

A liberal supply of water has at all times been considered one of the chief necessities to the growth and prosperity of a large city. In many parts of Syria and Palestine large reservoirs and tanks were constructed in the past, which at the present time are the only resource for water during the dry Beason, and a failure of them involves drought and calamity.

The most celebrated of the pools mentioned in Scripture are the pools of Solomon, about three miles southwest of Bethlebem, from which an aqueduct was carried which still supplies Jerusalem with water. These pools are said to be threo in number, partly hown out of the rock, and partly built with masonry, but all lined with cement. The largest of thom is 582 feet long by 207 feet wide and 50 feet deop.

The Romans spared no expense to procure for their city an abundant supply of pure water. Their aqueducts, some of which are still in operation, at one time carried to that city 350,000,000 gallons of water daily, or 290 gallons daily for each inhabitant. Some of these aqueducts had a length of from thirty to seventy miles, and in magnificence and costliness far surpassed the most celebrated works of modern origin.

The earliest and most liberal provisions for a water supply on our own continent were made by the cities of Philadelphia, New York, and Boston, and to this must be ascribed in a great measure the rapid growth of these cities. In 1860 the amount of water supplied daily to each inhabitant of these cities averaged ninety-seven gallons in Boston, fifty-two gallons in New York, and thirty-six gallons in Philadelphia. The works in these cities when designed seemed to be of sufficient capacity to furnish & supply for many years, but their growth has been so rapid that they already feel the necessity of husbanding their resources, and of taking measures to extend their works so as to be enabled to meet the increased and increasing consumption. In fact, during the severe drought of last year a scarcity of water was experienced in each of these cities, owing to the inadequacy of their sources of supply.

The great advantage possessed by St. Louis in this respect consists in the fact that its source of supply is inexhaustible. The Mississippi in time of an

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