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the haven of peace, hope, and prosperity. But the subject must not be dismissed without its appropriate lesson of patriotism-a plea for an unchanging devotion of the citizen to the Union of the States, as an absolute necessity for the perpetuity of the life of the Republic. The truest and broadest sense of filial love is understood to be a love of country - loyalty, patriotism. The necessity of this devotional sentiment or principle, by the citizen to the government, is just as important to the welfare of mankind as the devotion of the individual to society. Each citizen is a part of the whole; the whole a union of States and individuals for common defense and common interest. The one complements the other. In all ages of the world, patriotism has given to the citizen the qualities of the hero, and furnished the orator, the statesman, and the poet with themes of unequaled magnitude and grandeur.
“Our country!—'tis a glorious land !
This bourteous birthland of the free;
And breathe the air of liberty.
Her harvests wave, her cities rise;
Remain earth's loveliest paradise." The revolution of '76 sowed in the hearts of the American people the seeds of an imperishable devotion to the Union of these States-a devotion which nought but the foulest hand, moved by the most corrupt heart, would dare to reach forth to destroy; and though we are now in the midst of a transition, such as comes in the life of nations, when the event and the struggle vastly overawes the individual comprehension and convictions, and thus leads for a time to an unbappy condition and dire results, it needs no prophetic eye to see beyond to the new unfoldment, when union and patriotism will again walk together all over this broad land, as. Enoch walked with God. But such a result will not be the fruit of a miracle; it will only come as the result of earnest and devoted toil, thus cultivating in the hearts of the American people a deep and fervent attachment to Union.
What man-what woman—what citizen-conscious of being either sire or descendant in this nation, and among this people, is not willing to share even the meanest part in so grand a mission ? The destiny is alike to the State and the citizen; the growth and prosperity of the one contributes to the welfare of the other, and everywhere under the shield of the Constitution, freedom is the same to all. What land affords greater opportunities? What people are more equal ?
Turning, then, from this hopeful consideration, “and beholding my country at last redeemed and fixed in history, the Columbus of nations, once in chains, but now hailed as benefactor and discoverer, who gave a new liberty to man. kind," let us anticipate the consummation of the future, and with the eyes of Cassandra, behold “one vast confederation stretching from the frozen North in one unbroken line to the glowing South, and from the wild billows of the Atlantic westward to the calmer waters of the Pacific, and over all this vast continent one people, one law, one language, and one faith; and in the full fruition of our arms and arts, our industry and dominion, this whole land begemmed with mighty cities of civilization; then, with eyes lifted toward beaven, behold upon the starry scroll of the future Columbia's name recorded, Der future honors and happiness inscribed. Then, closing the vision, let us turn to man, and with a voice that will reach all hearts and consciences, bid him go forth in peace to the great mission of the higher and better conquest of the world; and
“Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State;
Sail on, O Union, strong and great ;
“Melodia rules thy destiny, 0 Land
The fairer Greece, adorned with noblest art,
For thee, for thee, the wise Melodians throng
Thou art that rock-built Pharos that above
THE GREAT BRIDGE NOW BEING BUILT OVER THE
MISSISSIPPI, AT ST. LOUIS.
“What a glorious future may we not anticipate for our own St. Louis! Why, sir, I imagine I can see the Oriental traveler, on his brief excursion round the world, pause upon the central span of the Ends Bridge, and, amid a prodigality of gigantic achievements of science and progressive effort, still read in the distant future developments of equal or greater magnitude. "He standa . upon a structure which rests upon the deep foundations of the earth itself, and presents in its strength and massive grandeur, in its piers of granite and arches of steel, fit emblems of our moral as well as physicals tructures, the steadfastness and wisdom of our institutions, and the solidity of our industries. Beneath him flows the great Father of Waters, bearing on its bosom the argosion of an empire, while on every hand the evidences of triumphant art command his attention. Å city of 1,000,000 inhabitants lies before him, and it may be on one of its ascending steppes the capital of the nation rears its peerless dome. Strange wonders, these, of Time's begetting, and of progressive revolutions ! The providential mystery which hid this continent from the knowledge of the civilized world for thousands of years, begins to clear away under the sunshine of facta which surrounds him, and the grand revelation is made that it was reserved for a period when mankind should aim to be fraternal, and the victories of peace should be acknowledgod tho erowning glories of ambition.”-B. R. BONNER.
Each age and each nation produces its great works in some phase of human progress. The early Jews built the tower of Babel; Egypt had the pyramids and Catacombs; Greece her Parthenon and unequaled temples of worship; Rome had her Coliseum; the middle ages their walled cities. But modern civilization, passing beyond the age of selfishness, ambition, and idolatry, gives to mankind magnificent structures of greater use as the triumphs of the genius of the race.
The greatest work of mechanical art that the world has yet beheld is the Crystal Palace of the nineteenth century. It combines in one grand masterpiece of art, and one glow of associated beauty, the highest civilization and progress of man.
The leading feature of the present age is the strife for commercial dominion, In this department of civilization is enlisted more capital, talent, and mor than in any other. All the rapid strides of the race are made in its interost whether in the achievement of art, of science, or of genius. The wild billows of the Atlantic have been defied by steam and electricity, and the two great continents of kindred shores united by these subtle agents; and now with ono steady grand march doos civilization, carriod by the tides of men, continue its journey to the West—to the high mountains, and the broad and calmer waters of the wide Pacific Ocean. With these great movements come the masterworks of mechanics and arts.
Since the invention of the steam engine, the railway system may be regarded as the greatest aid to civilization the arts have produced, on account of the rapid intercommunion of men and ideas, and the exchange of products. But a great and valuable railway system without bridges to cross the inland streams would be an impossibility; hence theoremarkable development of genius and art, and the concentration of capital, to construct in ample proportions these masterfabrics for commercial use. Nor are they constructed as the easy work common to the ordinary routine of life. But rather are they, who project great works in advance of the resistless moving times, compelled to contend against a vast array of ignorance, prejudice, and selfishness. Yes, there is one thing common in the history of all great undertakings that have to break a new path: they have to combat against frivolous objections and contempt, and, even in the best cases, against the unsympathetic attitude of the masses. At the same time it must be confessed that these opposing elements have never failed to pass into their opposites, as soon as perseverance, talent, and business energy on the part of individuals have, in spite of them, realized what has once been acknowledged as possible and necessary. In all such cases contempt has been exchanged for admiration, doubt has been compelled to give way; and the more rapidly and victoriously the enterprise, which was once so strongly doubted or even assailed, progresses, the more surprisingly does the number of those increase who would fain have it believed that they stood as prophets of good by its cradle. Such was the case—to confine our examples to American soil—with the Erie canal, with the leveling of Chicago, with the Pacific railroads, and finally with that immense structure which, before the face of St. Louis, is soon destined to span the Father of Waters. This one circumstance might be sufficient to secure the work its proper place among the great feats of humanity in modern times. But such is no longer necessary as an argument; the structure bas its days of combat behind it—already its creators can point with silent finger to the actual progress which it has made, and to the point which it has at this moment attained, and allow that which has already been accomplished to speak for that which is yet to be accomplished. And it speaks irresistibly; it tells us not only that the completion of a work which in its line has no peer, is certain, but it tells us also that, as in the case of the Pacific railways, the goal will be reached many a day sooner than the original calculations and pre-suppositions led us to expect.
That the trade of the central portion of the Mississippi Valley, which centers in St. Louis, and advances every year with such gigantic strides, was not sufficiently provided for by the present arrangements for transportation across the broad stream which separates Missouri and Illinois, or, to speak more correctly, the true East and West of the United States, has been known and seen by every one for many years.
Passing from this general allusion to the struggle which enterprise is compelled to wage against established conditions, we at once submit a general statement of the great Bridge under consideration.
The plan of the Bridge, as it is now being built, is quite original in many particulars, and when completed will, in all probability, be superior to any structure of the kind in the world. So great and important is the structure, that a complete description of its main work will not be uninteresting to the
general reader; for the work itself has its lesson as well as its value, and therefore its manner of building, as well as its style of structure, will be of great public interest.
THE PIERS OF THE BRIDGE.
The locality at the river chosen for the bridge is a scene of the strangest and most exciting kind. Along the banks are extensive workshops, heaps of hewn stone, beams, iron-work and cement barrels, forges, offices and sheds for supplies, derricks and other arrangements for hoisting, and pile-drivers, whose construction alone is a sort of miracle, and finally the lofty bridge-scaffoldings, composed of thousands of beams, arms, and parts of iron machines over the shore piers, which are in progress of construction inside of strong caissons. In the midst of the river, 500 feet from either shore, and 520 feet distant from each other, we see the same scaffoldings, only more complicated and more lofty, and, notwithstanding their colossal size, affording an almost elegant spectacle in their wonderful symmetry. Structures of all kinds, and palisades that go down a hundred feet into the river, intended to break the current, and more particularly the floating ice in winter, surround these wonderful constructions that rise from the bosom of the river.
Like the building yards on shore, and even more than these, they are crowded with a perfect bee-hive of engineers and workmen, whose selfconscious ability is infinitely increased by the enormous mechanical powers which stand here ready for use at every step, in the form of floating derricks, steam engines, pumps, and hydraulic jacks. These are the building yards of the two piers. Under these scaffoldings and iron constructions the heavy masses of stone which are intended to carry and hold the three arches of the bridge mostly connterparts of the ponderous structures of the ancient Egyptians, are put together. But how much easier was the task of those ancients, who piled up their edifices in the familiar element of atmospheric air! In our case they bad to penetrate into the deeps, but not, like the miner, into the solid element of the earth; they had to break through a volume of water thirty feet deep, and, after arriving at the bottom, to burrow through the sixty and ninety-feet thick layers of treacherous, ever-changing Mississippi sand, in order to rest the basis of the piors upon the eternal ribs of the earth itself, on the rocks of primeval worlds.
The investigations of years in regard to the undercurrent of the Mississippi have shown that no river in the world changes its sand-bed so rapidly and to such an extent; and more particularly the soundings that were made near St. Louis showed that at times, when the river overflows, its sand-layers may be carried away to the depth of forty feet, and, under extraordinary circumstances, scoured down to the very rock itself. Thus was demonstrated the necessity of laying the basis of the piers upon the rock itself, which under one pier is ninety feet, under the other one hundred and twenty feet, under the ordinary higb-water line. Inasmuch, on the other hand, as the law of Congress, made in the interest of navigation, prescribes that the height of the arches shall be fifty feet above the city directrix, or ordinary high-water line of tho