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son, but of distant dates, or between letters adapted to different occasions. In particular we may look for
of the same expressions, and sometimes for whole sentences being alike; since such expressions and sentences would be repeated in the second letter (whichever that was) as yet fresh in the author's mind from the writing of the first. This repetition occurs in the following examples* :"
Ephes. ch. i. 7. “ In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sinst."
Colos. ch. i. 14. « In whom we have redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of sinsi."
Besides the sameness of the words, it is farther remarkable that the sentence is, in both places, preceded by the same introduc
* When verbal comparisons are relied upon, it becomes necessary to state the original; but that the English reader may be interrupted as little as may be, I shall in general do this in the note.
+ Eplies. ch. i. 7. Εν ω εχομεν την απολυτρωσιν δια το αιματος αυτ8, την αφεσιν των παραπτωματων.
1 Colos. ch. i. 14. Εν ο εχομεν την απόλυτρωσιν δια το αιματος αυτε, την αφεσιν των αμαρτιων.-However it must be observed, that in this latter text many copies have not da te αιματος αυτο.
tory idea. In the Epistle to the Ephesians it is the “ beloved” (nyestainlevo); in that to the Colossians it is “ his dear. Son" (uis ens Byarngavrs), “ in whom we have redemption.”: The sentence appears to have been suggested to the mind of the writer by the idea which had accompanied it before.
Ephes. ch. i. 10. All things both which are in heaven and which are in earth, even in him*.”
Colos. ch. . 20. 66. All things by him, whether they be things in earth, or things in heaven t."
This quotation is the more observable, because the connecting of things in earth with things in heaven is a very singular sentiment, and found no where else but in these two Epistles. The words also are introduced and followed by a train of thought nearly alike. They are introduced by describing the union, which Christ had effected, and they are followed by telling the Gentile churches that they were incorporated into it.
Ephes, ch. 1. 10. Τα τε εν τοις Βρανους και τα επι της γης, ev dUT": #* Colos. ch. ii 20. Ai 0078, EITE TOL ET' Tos moss EITE TA EV T015 Bavorso
Ephes. ch. iii. 2o, ": " The dispensation of the grace
of God, which is given me to you ward®.
Colos. ch. 1. 25. , " The dispensation of God, which is given to me for you *."
Of these sentences it may likewise be observed that the accompanying ideas are similar. In both places they are immediately preceded by the mention of his present sufferings; in both places they are immediately followed by the mention of the mystery which was the great subject of his preaching
Ephes. ch. v. 19. “ In psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making me, kody in your heart to the Lord I." 1: Colos. ch. ii. 16. “ In psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with grace in your hearts to the Lord S.” i Ephes. ch. vi. 22.:" Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that ye might
Ephes. ch. iii. 2. Την οικονομιας χάριτος τ8 Θεά της δοθεισης μοι εις υμας.
+ Colos, ch, 1, 25. Την οικονομίας του Θεού, την δοθεισαι μοι εις υμας. . * 1 Ephes, ch, V. 19. Ψαλμους και ύμνοις, και ωδαις, πνευμαΤικαις, αδοντες και ψαλλοντες εν τη καρδια υμων τω Κυρίω. » 8 Colos. ch. iii. 16. : Ψαλμοις, και ύμνοις και υδαις πνευματικαις, εη χαριτι αδοντες εν τη καρδια υμων τω Κυριω.
know our affairs, and that he might comfort your
hearts*.” Colos. ch. iv. 8. 66 Whom I have sent unto you for the same purpose, that he might know your estate, and comfort
In these examples, we do not perceive a cento of phrases gathered from one composition, and strung together in the other; but the occasional occurrence of the same expression to a mind a second time revolving the same ideas.
2. Whoever writes two letters, or two discourses, nearly upon the same subject, and at no great distance of time, but without
any express recollection of what he had written before, will find himself repeating some sentences in the very order of the words, in which he had already used them: but he will more frequently find himself employing some principal terms, with the order inadvertently changed, or with the order disturbed by the intermixture of other words and phrases expressive of ideas rising up at the time; or in
* Ephes. ch. vi. 22. Όν επεμψα προς υμας εις αυτο τοτο, ένα γνωσε τα περι ημων, και παρακαλεση της καρδιας υμων.
+ Colos, ch. iv. 8. Ον επεμψα προς υμας εις αυτο τουτο, ένα γνω τα περι υμων, και παρακαλεση της καρδιας υμων.
many instances repeating not single words, nor yet whole sentences, but parts and fragments of sentences. Of all these varieties the examination of our two epistles will furnish plain examples: and I should rely upon this class of instances more than upon the last ; because, although an impostor might transcribe into a forgery entire sentences and phrases, yet the dislocation of words, the partial recollection of phrases and sentences, the intérmixture of new terms and new ideas with térms and ideas before used, which will
appear in the examples that follow, and which are the natural properties of writings produced under the circumstances in which these Epistles are represented to have been composed--would not, I think, have occurred to the invention of a forger ; nor, if they had occurred, would they have been so easily executed. This studied variation was a refinement in forgery which I believe did not exist; or, if we can suppose it to have been practised in the instances adduced below, why, it may be asked, was not the same art exercised
those which we have collected in the preceding class ?
Ephes, ch. i. 19. ch. ii. 5. “ Towards us who believe according to the working