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his name with a note, that at that time his was a secular priest. How, or when he got out of Wisbich castle, I cannot tell ; but certain it is, that after this time, he was received into the order of St. Francis, either at Rome, as father Garnet insinuates, or at Pontoise, as Dr. Champney expressly affirms.
Returning into England about the year 1593, he laboured there for three years with great fruit, and then, fell again into the hands of the persecutors, and was kept in prison, for about two years more, where, many resorting to him, received great benefit to their souls from his conversation, till Topliffe, the arch-persecutor, caused him to be arraigned, (together with Mr. Barnet, and Mrs. Wiseman, who had been aiding and assisting to him,) in the beginning of July, 1598. Father Jones, pleaded that he had never been guilty of any treason against his queen or country; and desired, that his case should rather be referred to the conscience of the judges, than to an ignorant jury. Judge Clinch told him, they were sensible he was no plotter against the queen, but that he was a Romish priest, and being such, had returned into England contrary to the statute of Elizabeth 27, which was high treason by the laws. If this be a crime, said the confessor, I must own myself guilty : for I am a priest, and came over into England to gain as many souls as I could to Christ. Upon this, he was condemned, and when sentence was pronounced upon him according to the usual form, as in cases of high treason, falling upon his knees, with a loud voice, he gave thanks to God. Mr. Barnet and Mrs. Wiseman were also condemned to die, but were not executed.
On the 12th of July, in the forenoon, Mr. Jones was drawn to Si. Thomas's Waterings, the place designed for his execution, where, being taken off the sled, and set up into the cart, he declared, that he had never spoken a word, or entertained a thought, in his whole life, against the queen or his country, but daily prayed for their welfare. He stood there for about an hour, (for it seems, the hangman had forgot to bring the rope with him,) sometimes speaking to God in prayer; sometimes preaching to the people ; till, at length a rope being brought, and fitted to his neck, the cart was drawn away, and he was permitted to hang till he was quite dead. His body aftewards was bowelled and quartered, and his quarters were set up on poles in the ways to Newington and Lambeth, and his head in Southwark. His execution is mentioned by Mr. Stow in his chronicle. Dr. Champney adds, that both his head and quarters, were afterwards taken down by the catholics, though not without great danger : and that he knew two young gentlemen, of considerable families, who were apprehended and committed to prison for attempting it. He also informs us, that one of his fore-quarters is kept at Pontoise, in the convent of the Franciscans, where he was professed.
He suffered, July the 12th, 1598; and father Garnet, who calls him, Godofredus Mauricius, wrote his account of his death, the 15th of the same month and year.
CHRISTOPHER ROBINSON-RICHARD HORNER.
CHRISTOPHER ROBINSON, PRIEST. *
MR. ROBINSON was born at Woodside, in the county of Cumberland, and was a priest of Douay college, during its residence at Rhemes. He was ordained, and sent upon the English mission in 1592. His missionary labours seem to have been in his own country; where, at length, he was apprehended, and committed to prison. During his confinement, he had some conferences with the then bishop of Carlise, whose name also was Robinson. This protestant prelate, expressed a great deal of good nature, in regard to his namesake, and spared no pains to bring him over to the new religion, by persuasions and promises ; but this generous soul was proof against all his allurements and fair speeches, and remained constant in his faith. He was sentenced to die, as in cases of high treason, barely on account of his being a Roman catholic priest, and exercising his functions in this nation. His meek behaviour at the place of execution, the sweetness of his words, and of his countenance, and the constancy and cheerfulness with which he died, touched the hearts of many of the spectators, and was the occasion of many conversions.
He suffered at Carlisle, August the 19th, 1598.
RICHARD HORNER, PRIEST. +
RICHARD HORNER was born at Bolton-Bridge in Yorkshire, and was educated in Douay college ; where he was made priest, soon after the return of that community from Rhemes to Douay, viz: in' 1595 ; and from thence, was sent, that same year, upon the English mission ; where, falling into the hands of the adversaries of his faith, he was arraigned and condemned, merely as a catholic priest; and after having suffered much in prison, was executed at York, as in cases of high treason.
He suffered with great courage and constancy, September 4, 1598.
1599.--In this year, most of our catalogues of martyrs, place the death of Matthias Harrison, priest, who by some, is confounded with Mr. Harrison, who suffered at York, in 1602 : but the lists of the priests ordained and sent from Douay college distinguishes them, and call the latter, James Harrison, of the diocese of Litchfield, ordained in 1583, and sent from Rhemes upon the mission in 1584 ; whereas the former, is there called Matthias Harrison, of the diocese of York, and was ordained, after the return of the college to Douay, in 1597 ; and from thence sent, the same year, upon the mission. Dr. Champney, in his manuscript, also distinguishes them, and tells us, that Mr. Matthias was
* From Dr. Champney's manuscript, and the bishop of Chalcedon's catalogue. † From the same manuscript and catalogue.
An extract of a letter of father Henry Garnet's, superior of the English jesuits, con
cerning father Walpole's treatment in the Tower, and his return to York; written October 23, 1595, translated from the bishop of Tarrasona's history, p. 695, 696. • Blessed father Walpole met in the Tower of London with the greatest misery and poverty, so that the lieutenant himself, though otherwise a hard-hearted and barbarous man, was moved to enquire after some of the father's relations, and told them, that he was in great and extraordinary want, without bed, without clothes, without any thing to cover him, and that at a season, when the cold was most sharp and piercing ; so that himself, though an enemy, out of pure compassion, had given him a little straw to sleep on. Besides this, the father himself, in public court, upon occasion of answering some question that was put to him, declared, That he had been tortured fourteen times : and it is very well known, how cruel any one of those tortures is, which are now in
For it is a common thing to hang them up in the air, six or seven hours by the hands; and, by the means of certain irons, which hold their hands fast, and cut them, they shed much blood in the torture. The force of this torment, may be gathered from what happened last Lent, to a laic, called James Atkinson, whom, they most cruelly tortured in this manner, to oblige him to accuse his own master, and other catholics, and priests, and kept him so long in the torture, that he was, at length, taken away for dead, after many hours suffering; and, in effect, died within two hours. Some time after, they carried the father back to York, to be there tried at the Midlent assizes. In all that journey, he never went into bed, or even laid down upon a bed, to rest himself, after the fatigue of the day ; but his sleep, was upon the bare ground. When he came to York, he was put into prison, where he waited many days for the judges coming. In the prison, he had nothing but one poor matt, three feet long: on which, he made his prayer upon his knees, for a great part of the night ; and when he slept, it was upon the ground, leaning upon the same matt. And besides this long prayer in the night, which lasted for the greater part of the night, he spent not a little time in making English verses, in which he had a particular talent and grace ; for, before he left the kingdom, he had made a poem upon the martyrdom of father Campian, which was so much taken notice of by the public, that the author not being known, the gentleman who published it, condemned by the council to lose his ears, and to pass the remainder of his days in prison, in which, after some years, he made a pious end.' So far father Garnet.
Father Walpole's defence at his trial, from Yepez, p. 702. • I find, my lord, I am accused of two or three things.
Ist. • That I am a priest, ordained by the authority of the see of Rome.
2dly. That I am a Jesuit, or one of the society of Jesus.
3dly. “That I returned to my native country to exercise the ordinary acts of these two callings; which are no other, than to gain souls to God.
• I will show, that none of these three things can be treason. Not the being a priest, which is a dignity and office instituted by our Lord Jesus Christ, and given by him to his apostles, who were priests : as were also the holy fathers and doctors of the church, who converted and instructed the world : and the first teachers, who brought over the English nation to the light of the gospel, were also priests ; so that, were it not for priests, we should all be heathens; consequently, to be a priest, can be no treason.
• Judge Beamont here spoke ; Indeed, said he, the merely being a priest, or jesuit, is no treason ; but what makes you a traitor, is your returning into the kingdom against the laws. If to be a priest, said father Walpole, is no treason, the executing the office, or doing the functions of a priest, can be no treason. But if a priest, said the judge, should conspire against the person of his prince, would not this be treason? Yes, said father Walpole ; but then neither his being a priest, nor the following the duties of his calling, would make him a traitor ; but the committing of a crime contrary to the duty of a priest; which is far from being my case.
• You have been, said Beamont, with the king of Spain, and you have treated and conversed with Parsons and Holt, and other rebels and traitors to the kingdom ; and you have returned hither contrary to the laws; and, therefore, you cannot deny your being a traitor. Father Walpole replied, To speak or treat with any person whatsoever, out of the kingdom, can make me no traitor, as long as no proof can be brought that the subject about which we treated was treason ; neither can the returning to my native country, be looked upon as treason, since the cause of my return, was not to do any evil, either to the queen, or to the kingdom.
• Our laws appoint, said Beamont, that a priest who returns from beyond the seas, and does not present himself before a justice, within three days, to make the usual submission to the queen's majesty, in matters of religion, shall be deemed a traitor. Then I am out of the case, said father Walpole, who was apprehended, before I had been one day on English ground.
• Here Beamont being put to a nonplus, judge Elvin asked him, if he was ready to make that submission to the queen, in matters of religion, which the laws of the kingdom required ? viz: to acknowledge her supremacy, and abjure the pope. Father Walpole answered, he did not know what laws they had made in England, whilst he was abroad, nor what submission these laws required; but this, he very well knew, that no law could oblige any one, that is not agreeable to the laws of God; and that the submission that is to be paid to the earthly princes, must always be subordinate to that submission which we owe to the great King of heaven and earth. Then he added, You, my lords, sit here at present in judgment, as men, and judge as such, being subject to error and passion ; but know for certain, that there is a sovereign judge, who will judge righteously ; whom in all things we must obey in the first place; and then our lawful princes, in such things as are lawful, and no farther.
• Here, the lord president spoke, We deal very favourably with you, Mr. Walpole, said he, when, notwithstanding all these treasons and conspiracies with the persons aforesaid, we offer you the benefit of the law, if you will but make the submission ordered by the law; which, if you will not accept of, it is proper you should be punished according to the law. Father Walpole replied, there is nothing, my lord, in which I would not most willingly submit myself, provided it be not against God: but may his divine Majesty never suffer me to consent to the least thing, by which he may be dishonoured, nor you to desire it of me. As to the queen, I every day pray for her to our Lord God, that he would bless her with his holy spirit, and give her his grace to do her duty in all things in this world, to the end, that she may enjoy eternal glory in the world to come: and God is my witness, that to all here present, and particularly to my accusers, and such as desire my death, I wish as to myself, the salvation of their souls, and that, to this end, they may live in the true catholic faith, the only way to eternal happiness.
The court apprehending the impression the confessor's words might make upon the people, (who, by this time, could not but perceive that this noise about treason, was but a pretence; and that a submission to the queen's religion, was all that was insisted upon, thought fit to put an end to the trial; so the judges summed up the evidence against the prisoner, which was no other than his own confession, viz: that he was a priest and jesuit; that he had been with the king of Spain ; that he had treated with father Parsons and father Holt, and others whom they called fugitives, rebels, and traitors; and that he had retured into England to convert his country, that is, as they interpreted it, to seduce her majesty's subjects from the religion, by law established, and to reconcile them to the see of Rome.' They, the jury, were directed to find him guilty of the indictment. To whom, as they were going out, father Walpole addressed himself, in these words, .Gentlemen of the jury, I confess most willingly, that I am a priest, and that I am of the company of Jesus, or a jesuit ; and that I came over in order to convert my country to the catholic faith, and to invite sinners to repentance. All this, I never will deny: this is the duty of my calling. If you find any thing else in me, that is not agreeable to my profession, show me no favour. In the mean time, act according to your consciences, and remember, you must give an account to God.'
The jury went out, but returned again quickly, and brought in their verdict, guilty; which, father Walpole hearing, showed great content and joy, and returned most hearty thanks to the divine majesty. This passed on Thursday ; but the sentence was not pronounced, till the Saturday following: which was executed, as we have seen, on the Monday.