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in England since the queen's ascension to the crown, had not suffered for religion, but for treason. The book was immediately answered by Dr. Allen, and the author fairly convicted of notorious untruths; but people in power will not bear to be told they lie. Mr. Alfield, therefore, who had found means to import into the kingdom some copies of Dr. Allen's Modest Answer to the English Persecutors, and had dispersed them, by the help of one Thomas Webley, a dyer; was called to an account, as was also the said Webley, and both the one and the other were most cruelly tortured in prison, I suppose, in order to make them discover the persons to whom they had distributed the said books. They were afterwards brought to their trial, and condemned on the 5th of July, and suffered at Tyburn on the day following: where both the one and the other had their life offered them if they would renounce the pope, and acknowledge the queen's church headship; which they, refusing to do, were both executed.

HUGH TAYLOR, PRIEST.*

Hugh Taylor was born in Durham, performed his studies in the English college then residing at Rhemes, where, he was made priest in 1584, and sent upon the English mission. He was apprehended some time in the following year, tried and condemned at York for being a priest, and for having received faculties from the see of Rome, to absolve and reconcile the subjects of England, and denying the queen's supremacy.

He was drawn, hanged and quartered at York, November 26,1585.

Marmaduke Bowes, a married gentleman of Angram Grange, near Appleton, in Cleveland, was executed at the same time with Mr. Taylor, for having entertained the same gentleman in his house, or, as Mr. Leonard Brakenbury, a Yorkshire attorney, affirms, in a manuscript which I have in my hands, for having only given him a cup of beer at his door. Mr. John Ingolby, counsellor at law, in another manuscript, of which I have an extract, affirms, that Mr. Bowes hearing of the priest's being taken, came to York, at the assizes, to try to free him by his appearance; whereupon, as soon as he was lighted from his horse, without pulling off his boots, he went straight to the Castle Yard, to speak in the priest's- behalf. But himself being hereupon questioned, was immediately apprehended, tried, and condemned, upon the statute lately made, against harbouring or relieving priests, upon the accusation of one Martin Harrison; the earl of Huntington, a bitter enemy of the catholics, being then president of the North, and Laurence Mcars, one of the council, being judge. Some say he was hanged in his boots and spurs.

He suffered, at the same time and place with Mr. Taylor. The providence of God, in his regard, was the more to be admired in bringing

•From the Douay Journal; Dr. liriilgewatcr, fol. 'JC, and Raissius's Catalofiie, p. 47.

him to this happy end, because, (as it seems, by another relation that I have now before me,) he had, though a catholic in his heart, conformed in outward show to the religion of the times. 'He died very willingly,' "says this relation by the lady Bapthrop," 'and professed his faith, with great repentance for having lived in schism.'

Mr. Taylor and Mr. Bowes were the first that suffered by the sanguinary statutes of this year, (the 27th of Elizabeth,) by which it was made high treason for any native of her majesty's dominions, made priest since the first year of her reign, by authority derived from Rome, to return into this kingdom, or remain here; and felony for any person to harbour or relieve any such priest, knowing him to be a priest. By which statutes, as we shall see hereafter, most of those that have since suffered for religious matters, were arraigned and condemned. The catholics, perceiving the storm that was hanging over their heads, sought to divert it by an humble and dutiful address to the queen, " which may be seen in a small tract, called English Protestants' Plea for Priests and Papists, 1621, " presented to her majesty by Mr. Shelley, of Sussex, one day, as she was walking in her park, at Greenwich. But this address had no other effect, than the causing the gentleman who presented it, to be cast into the Marshalsea, where he died a close prisoner, for no other fault, but presuming to present an address to the queen, without the knowledge and consent of the lords of the council.

What with these new laws, and the others formerly made, the catholics were so terrified, that many of them resolved to leave the nation: by this means, to be out of the reach of these cruel statutes, and at the same time, to enjoy the free exercise of their religion. This resolution was taken, amongst the rest, by that noble lord, Philip Howard, earl of Arundel, (eldest son to the late duke of Norfolk, who, by Leicester's contrivances, was brought to the block in 1572. But before he departed the realm, he wrote a dutiful letter to the queen, to be delivered when he was gone, signifying, that for his soul's health, and the service of God, he purposed to leave his native country, but not his loyal affection for her majesty. His design miscarried; for just as he was going on board the ship, he was betrayed by one of his domestics, seized, brought back to London, and committed to the Tower. His brothers, uncles, and several of his kindred, friends, and servants, being at the same time committed to several prisons. For this offence, he was first fined ten thousand pounds, in the Star Chamber, and sentenced to be imprisoned during the queen's pleasure. Then, after some year's confinement, upon new informations, he was brought upon his trial before his peers, found guilty, and sentence of death, April 4, 1589. The crimes objected against him, were chiefly his harbouring and relieving of priests, and corresponding with Dr. Allen, and with Mary, queen of Scots. It is true, he was not executed, but permitted to die a lingering death, under a tedious confinement, being kept a close prisoner for ten years, from the time of his condemnation, till his death; during which time, he gave himself up to a strict and penitential course of life, and to continual prayer and contemplation, to the great edification of all that knew him. The bishop of Tarrasona, 1. 2, c. 4, relates, that he lay upon the ground, fasted three days a week, upon bread and water, &c.

This same year, 1585, Henry Piercy, earl of Northumberland, who had been sent to the Tower the year before, upon occasion of his friend, the lord Paget's privately retiring beyond the seas, for his conscience sake; after many efforts of his enemies, (of whom, the earl of Liecester was supposed to be the chiefest,) to bring him in guilty of some treason, was found shot through the reins and groin. Great industry was used to persuade the nation that he was felo de se; but it was violently suspected that he was made away by Leicester. This Henry was brother to Thomas Piercy, earl of Northumberland, who, with Charles Nevil, earl of Westmoreland, took up arms in the north for the catholic religion, in 1569, and was beheaded at York, in 1672.

I find, in an ancient catalogue, the names of the following priests of the seminaries, who died this year, in prison, for their religion.

1st. Thomas Crowther, born in Herefordshire, priest of Douay college, ordained in 1575, and bachelor of divinity, in that university. He was a man of extraordinary parts and learning, and a notable missioner. He died in the Marshalsea, after about two years imprisonment.

2dly. Edward Poole, sent priest from Rhemes in 1580, and apprehended and cast into prison the same year.

3dly. Laurence Vaux, formerly warden of Manchester, (some time, convictor of the college of Douay, or Rhemes,) afterwards canon regular. He was cast into prison of the Gatehouse, together with N. Tiehbum, Esq., by Elmer, bishop of London, in 1580, and died there this year.

4thly. John Jetter, whom 1 find in the college of Rhemes, in 1581, made sub-deacon. I believe he was made priest at Rome.

Of the ancient confessors, this year died prisoner in Wisbitch castle, the venerable John Feckenham, last abbot of Westminster.

But one of the most remarkable occurrences in the history of this year, is, the banishment of about seventy priests, within the compass of one twelvemonth. 'On the 21st of January, 1584-5, says Mr. Stow, in his annals, jesuits, seminaries, and other massing priests, to the number of twenty-one, " one, was only a lay gentleman," late prisoners in the Tower of London, Marshalsea, and King's bench, were shipped off at the Tower-wharf, to be carried towards France, and banished this realm for ever, by virtue of a commission from her majesty, bearing date the 15th of the same month, anno 1585.

'On the 15th of September, the same year, by virtue of an order from the lords of the council, thirty-two priests more, and two laymen, at that time prisoners in the Tower, Marshalsea, &c., were embarked in the Mary-Martin, of Colchester, on the south side of the Thames, over against St. Catharine's, to be transported over unto the coast of Normandy, and banished this realm for ever.'

There were about eighteen more, according to Cambden and others, (Dr. Bridgewater says, twenty-two,) all priests, but one, (he a deacon) sent into banishment from the northern prisons about the same time. Of whom Dr. Bridgewater writes, that they were for the most part advanced in years; some being sixty, others seventy, or upwards, and one eighty years old; and that many of them had been a great many years in prison; some ever since the beginningof this reign, i. e. for twenty six years. Bridgewater's Brevis Descriptio, $-c., fol. 411.

The same author, in the foregoing page, relates also, as an occurrence of this year, the case of James Steile, priest, who, after having been twice taken and cast into prison, first at York, and then at Manchester, was put on board a ship to be carried into perpetual banishment. He suffered much on shipboard, but little, in comparison with the treatment he afterwards met with: for being cast upon the Irish shore, and stripped of all his clothes even to his very shirt, he was carried to the next town, where a poor woman gave him a piece of shift to cover his nakedness; and in that manner he was presented to the sheriff of the county, who sent him, naked as he was, upon a horse, without saddle or bridle, to the city of Cork, conducted by certain wicked wretches, who sported themselves with whipping him frequently during the whole journey, which was no less than twenty miles. When he arrived at his journey's end, he was put into irons, and kept in the common gaol, amongst the thieves, till, by the orders of the earl of Derby, and the bishop of Cork, he was again shipped off, and sent into banishment.

The names of the twenty-one who were sent into banishment in January, were,

I. Jasper Hay ward, S. J.

2 James Bosgrave, S. J.—3. John Hart, B. D.—4. Edward Rushton.—These three were condemned at the same time with father Campion and his companions.

5. John Colleton, or Collington, acquitted at that time, yet kept in prison till this present year.

6. Arthur Pitts, afterwards dean of Liverdun. 7. Samuel Conyers. 8. William Cedder. 9. William Warmington. 10. Richard Slack.

II. William Hartley—12. Robert Nutter—13. William Dean.— These three were afterwards executed for their character.

14. William Bishop, afterwards bishop of Chalcedon.

15. Thomas Worthington, who, after cardinal Allen and Dr. Barret, was the third president of Douay college.

16. Richard Norris. 17. Thomas Stevenson. 18. Christopher Thompson. 19. John Barns. 20. William Smith.

21. Mr. Orton, a lay gentleman, condemned with father Campion.

I have not been able to recover the names of all the rest, that were banished this year. I find in the Douay catalogues, that many of them came and made some stay in the college; as besides several of those named above, did John Bennet, Steven Rousham, Lewis Hews, John Adams, John Vivian, Thomas Sympson, Andrew Fowler, Thomas Pilchard, Jonas Meredith, Nicholas Garlick, Edmund Sykes, John Marsh, Thomas Freeman, John Hewet.

EDWARD STRANCHAM, OR, TRANSHAM, PRIEST. 1586.*

Mr. Edward Stransham, whom Mr. Stow, in his annals, calls Edmund Barber, from the name under which he disguised himself upon the mission, was born at or near Oxford, and educated in St. John's college, in that university, where he took the degree of bachelor of arts, in 1575-6. Not long after this, he left the university and the protestant religion, and went over to Douay, where I find him in June, 1570: and going afterwards to Rhemes, (the college being translated thither) he was ordained priest in December, 1580, and sent upon the mission on the last day of June, 1581, with three others; one of which was Mr. Woodfcn, who afterwards suffered with him.

The account that both Mr. Rishton and Dr. Bridgewater give of these two missioners, is short, but very full and expressive. The former writes as follows; 'At London, Edward Transham, a priest of remarkable zeal and piety, and endowed with the grace of the word; and his companion, Mr. Woodfen, a man of equal merit and constancy, glorified God bv a most precious death and confession; whose bowels they plucked out whilst they were yet alive; and whose quarters they set up for a prey to the fowls of the air.' p. 347.

The latter writes thus: 'Mr. Edward Transham, and Mr. Woodfen, catholic priests, after they had given many and various arguments of their piety, charity, and christian fortitude, in gathering together the scattered sheep of Great Britain; the time being now come, in which they were both to glorify God by an illustrious confession of their faith, and confirm their brethren by the voluntary shedding of their blood, being approved by the testimony of faith, they offered their souls and bodies a living and holy sacrifice to God, their creator and redeemer.'

They suffered at Tyburn, January 21, 1585-6, barely for being priests. They are mentioned by Mr. Stow, in his annals, who calls Mr. Woodfen by the name of Devercux. 'Nicholas Devereux, says he, was condemned for treason, in being made a seminary priest at Rhemes. Also, Edmond Barber, made priest as aforesaid, was likewise condemned of treason: and both were drawn to Tyburn, and there hanged, bowclled, and quartered.'

NICHOLAS WOODFEN, ALIAS, WHEELER, PRIEST.f

This gentleman, whom Mr. Stow calls Devereux, from the name by which he was arraigned and condemned, and who was known at the college by the name of Woodfen, but his true name was Nicholas Wheeler. He was a native of Lcmster, or Leominster, in Hereford

* From Athens) Oxon., Diary of Douay Culhfjn. liishton, 1. 3. ,le Schisinaie Angl. in fine, and Dr. Kridgewater's C'onctrtatio Faciosup, &e. Col. '204.

t From (he Douay Uiary; and from a mauuwript in iny hand*, by thc reverend Mr. Davw, an intimate acquaintance of Mr. Woodieu.

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