Imatges de pÓgina




A COMPLETE science of mind would include a science of character.

The best approach to such a science through the study of the primary emotions and their connected instincts. This study to be directed to an analysis of tendencies. How far we can study the emotions in isolation, pp. 1-2.—The bearing of the JamesLange theory on this problem, pp. 3-5:-Prof.McDougall's theory, as bringing into prominence the active side of emotion, p. 6.


Such knowledge of character as we possess unsystematic and inexact,

p. 6.—Neglect of the true nature of the wisdom of life in fables, proverbs and maxims, p. 7.—The advantage of a science of character in education, p. 8.—and in interpreting the ruling ideas of the past and present, p. 9.




MILL'S CONCEPTION OF A SCIENCE OF CHARACTER. His conception of Ethology, as founded on the Laws of Psychology,

P. 13.-as connecting generalisations about character with these laws, p. 13.-His conception of Empirical Laws, as subject to exception, p. 14.-of Causal Laws or Laws of Mind ; of Laws of Ethology, as axiomata media, and of the method of this science as deductive, p. 14.-His conception of its practicability, dependent on the existence of a sufficient number of empirical laws

and of laws of mind; the former have not been collected, p. 15. -His' Laws of Mind’are no other than the laws of association, the laws of retentiveness and of 'mental chemistry,' p. 16.— These laws unsuitable for interpreting facts of character, PP. 17-19.



Two kinds of forces in character, the one working to higher forms of

organisation, the other, to lower : both pursue ends and organise the means to them, thereby producing systems, pp. 20, 21.– The Law of Organisation as the fundamental law of character, exemplified by all the forces and systems of character, pp. 21, 22, 23.- These organic laws alone capable of interpreting popular generalisations about character, p. 23.



1. Of the Constitution of Character. The organic laws of character, those of our instincts, emotions and

sentiments : character as constituted by these forces, pp. 24, 25.—What we attend to in the stream of perception and thought largely determined by these forces; their tendencies often counteracted by the mechanical laws of association, pp. 25, 26. -In contrast to this conception, popular conceptions of character reduce it to a number of detached qualities, p. 26.

2. Of the. Nature of an Emotional System, and of the Different

Primary Emotions. The systems of character being forces, the first to be considered those 2. Of the Sentiment of Parental Love. This sentiment also called the“ parental instinct”: not one instinct ;

of the primary emotions : part of these systems organised in the body, part in the mind, pp. 27, 28.-Fear, anger, disgust, curiosity, joy and sorrow, include instincts or innate tendencies in their systems: the appetite classed with these primary systems, pp. 28–31.—Also the impulses for repose and exercise ; for self-display and self-abasement; all of them include instinctive tendencies, and pursue innately determined ends, pp. 28–34.


THE SYSTEMS OF THE SENTIMENTS (I). 1. Of the Innate Bond Connecting the Primary Emotions. Consideration of the greater systems of the Sentiments that organise

many of the lesser systems of the emotions, p. 35.—The base of the greater systems, an innate organisation of the dispositions of fear, anger, joy and sorrow, pp. 36–38.

includes a variety of instincts of different kinds, nutritive, defensive, offensive, sportive; also a variety of emotions, as fear, anger, joy, sorrow, and others. The sight of offspring tends innately to arouse this sentiment: its disinterested character, Pp. 38–43.

3. Of the Source of Disinterested Action. The source of disinterested action traced by biologists to certain in

stincts; by psychologists to either sympathetic or tender emotions : neither of these essentially disinterested, pp. 43–45.Independently of these emotions, love naturally disinterested. The emotions of fear, anger, joy and sorrow, organised in maternal love, are disinterested, because innately connected with a disinterested, instinctive behaviour, pp. 45-47.—The disinterestedness of pity, not solely determined by its quality of tenderness, p. 48.



1. Of the Theory that Love and Hate are Emotions. The representations of Love in dramatic poetry evidence that love

includes a number of emotions, pp. 51–54.—Spencer's theory of love as a compound emotion cannot interpret the diversity of its behaviour, pp. 55–56.

2. Of the Sentiments that are most commonly Found among Men. Self-love, sexual love, family affection, friendship; the sentiment for

games; impersonal sentiments ; the sentiments of respect and hate, pp. 56-58.

3. Analysis of Hatred. The emotional system of hatred contrasted with that of love, pp.

58–61.-The chief problem of the sentiments to understand the laws of their growth, constitution and decline, pp. 61-62.The “ laws of mind to be sought for among the systems of character, p. 62.


OF THE WILL AND INTELLIGENCE AS CONSTITUENTS OF CHARACTER. We must personify the systems of the emotions and sentiments in

order to isolate them and to simplify our problem, pp. 64-65:The will and intelligence evoked in subordination to some impulse, emotion or sentiment. The question of indeterminate choice and pure reason beyond a science of character, pp. 65-67.





1. Of the Laws of Mind.Mill assumed that “the laws of mind," as laws of tendency, are not

merely approximate generalisations," p. 68.---The reciprocal relation of the laws of organisation and the laws of association, p. 70.—The laws of mind as laws. of organisation. We cannot attach a higher validity to the form given to them than to the form given to “ empirical laws." They are empirical laws. Their function as laws of tendency to interpret empirical generalisa

tions about character, pp. 70–72. 2. Of the "Empirical Laws," and the Difficulty of Discovering them. No one has made a collection of these laws : the great thoughts of

literature seldom expressed in the form of laws of character,

pp. 72–74. 3. Of the Nature of the Wisdom of Life Contained in Fables, Proverbs

and Maxims. Fables imply laws of character but do not enunciate them ; proverbs

contain advice, exhortation, reproof, consolation; maxims, advice or reflections, pp. 75-80.—Mill formed a mistaken opinion of the nature of the material to be obtained from literature for the inductive base of the science, pp. 80–81.


OF THE METHOD OF A SCIENCE OF CHARACTER (II). 1. Of Certain Qualifications which the Method of a Science of Character

should possess. A chief deficiency of Mill's method due to his not regarding a concep

tion of character as an indispensable part of it, p. 82.—The conception of his successors, due to the influence of analytical psychology; suggested unfruitful problems, p. 83.–Our conception synthetic, and in harmony with the point of view of literature ; can utilise its material ; which suggests natural, instead of artificial problems. Our conception to be used as a hypothesis ; becoming, as it unfolds, a number of hypotheses, and including all the provisional laws we adopt; becoming ever more complex, and therefore more adaptable to the variety and complexity of the facts of character; suggesting fresh problems, and leading to the discovery of new laws, because furnishing the clues to such discovery, pp. 83-87.-Besides being employed as a method of discovery, to be used as a method of gradual proof by directing attention to the facts which conflict with its hypothetical laws, pp. 87-88.–Examples to show how the laws may be progressively raised to the standard of scientific laws, pp. 88–92.-: The importance of continuity of development. The urgent need at present of a sufficient number of hypothetical laws, which it is the aim of the present work to furnish, pp. 92-93.

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