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In preparing the work the author has used a liberty accorded in

thal of modifying the passages taken from other authors, to suit his purpose. He has chosen among the wilderness of flowers, rather with reference to quality than a great name. He bas particularly endeavored to inake an amusing and instructive volume, and pieces which would especially exercise the art of elocution have had a preference. In supplying the vacancies which abundant research still left, recourse has been had to original compositions.

The author is bound to acknowledge his obligations to teachers, who have aided him by their valuable suggestions; and it is proper for him to say, that, in the Hints to Readers and Speakers, he has derived many ideas from Dr. Porter's Analysis, Hall's Reader's Guide, and Kirkham's Elocution. In the Etymological Exercises, he has availed himself of the elaborate and complete work of Oswald.

As it respects the general plan of these works, the author lays little claim to originality. The idea of prefacing the lessons by a series of Rules, adopted in the Third Reader, and in this also, was introduced by Murray, long since, and has been acted upon by others. The application of these rules, as practised in the last two volumes of this series, is believed to be peculiar, and it is hoped may be useful. The following of the reading lessons with spelling lessons derived from the reading matter, has been long practised and is here adopted. The pointing out of inaccurate pronunciation, and the questions for examina. tion, as to the sense and meaning of the lessons, are common and obvious means of instruction. The Etymological Exercises in this volume are a new application of what has been before the public for several years. The plan of requiring pupils to study reading lessons, and one whicn is deemed very important, appears to have been in successful practice in Europe for a considerable period. The objects of this have been stated to be, to render the acquiring of the art of Reading more easy and agreeable to the pupil; to make the particular knowledge contained in the lessons available to himn; and, by a careful analysis of each sentence, to give him a thorough acquaintance with our language. These objects are too important to be overlooked, and the author has sought to ensure their attainment.

But, while the author thus resigns all claims to invention, he hopes he has been able to select and combine in this series, to which ihę publishers have given the title of Comprehensive, the best aids and helps that have been devised for this species of schoolbook ; while, in accomplishing his task, he believes he has copied nothing from the various manuals in common use in our schools.

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Hints to Readers and Speakers 7 43. The Fisherman B.Cornwall. 101

Suggestions to Teachers 25 44. The Clouds G. Mellen. 101

45. The Village Bells


1. Petition to the Reader 2. 16. Jerusalem


2. The Fox and Elephant

30 47. Egypt


3. The Twins

32 48. Falls of Niagara Greenwood. 108

4. The Wounded Robin

35 49. The Bashful Man T. Gray. 112

5. The Violet and Nightshade 36 50. The Zenaida Dove Audubon. 115

6. An Escape

37 ' 51. The Queen and the Quakeress

7. The Greedy Fox

39 Chambers' Edinburgh Journal. 116

8. The Last of the Mamelukes 52. Adoration of the Deity in the

Dumas. 40 Midst of His Works

9. Rubens and the Spanish Monk 41

T. Moore. 118

10. The Jay and Owl

44.53 What are Emblems?

11. The Midnight Mail Miss Gould. 45

Evenings at Home. 119

12. The Widow and her Son

54. Naomi and Ruth Ruth i. 121

W. Irving. 46 55. Wealth and Fashion

13. Anecdotes of Birds Nultall. 49 Author of Three Experiments. 123

14. To a Wild Violet, in March 52 56. Goffe the Regicide T. Dwight. 125

15. The Chameleon and Porcupine 53 57. Melrose Abbey Scott. 126

16. The Bible

54 53. The Set of Diamonds 127

17. The Winds Miss Gould. 57 59. Fight with a Shark

18. The False Witness Detected

English Paper. 129

Knowles. 58 60. Virginius and his Daughter

19. The Bob O’Linkum Hoffman. 61 Virginia Knowles. 131

20. The Migration of Birds Nuttall. 62 61. Capture of a Whale Cooper. 133

21. The Blind Musician Bulwer. 65 62. Life S. P. Holbrouk. 135

22. Franklin's First Entrance into 63. The River

Bowles. 135

Philadelphia Franklin. 67 64. Reputation


23. Lake Superior

68 65. Anecdote of Dwight and Den-

24. The Discontented Mole 70!

Tudor 137

25. Aphorisins from Shakspeare 71 66. On the Death of Professor

26. The Departure of the Seasons


Brainard. 138

Prentice. 73 67. Incidents of the Battle of Bun-

27. On Time

74 ker Hill A. H. Everett. 139

28. The Ainerican Autumn

63. Contending Passions

New York Mirror. 75 !

Shakspeare. 141

29. Progress of Liberty

76 69. Baffled Revenge and Hate Do. 143

30. The Broken Hearted Prentice. 78 70. A Slide in the White Moun-

31. Albania during the late Greek


Mrs. Hale. 147


D’Israeli. 79 71. I'm saddest when I sing

32. A Turkish Chief D’Israeli. 81

T. H. Bayley. 149

33. The Alpine Horn

83 72. The Planter's Home in Flor-

34. Rules for Conversation



Latrobe. 149

35. Boat Song

84 73. Irish Bulls

36. Sketches of Syria D'Israeli. 85 74. The Town Pump Hawthorne. 154

37. Hand Work and Head Work 75. Colloquial Powers of Dr.

Miss Martineau. 88


Wirt. 158

38. The Power of Conscience 76. To an East Indian Gold Coin

Baltimore Paper. 91

Leyden. 159

39. Prodigal Son Luke, Chap. xv. 92 77. Eloquence of John Adams

40. To Seneca Lake Percival. 94

Webster. 161

41. A Syrian Desert D’Israeli. 95 78. To the Rainbow Campbell. 164

42. A Bedouin Encampinent 79. Scene on the Mississippi Flint.165

D’Israeli. 96 80. The Cap of Liberty Knowles. 168




81. Select Passages James. 172

Muses after the Passage

82. Traits of Irish Character 176

of the Red Sea Exod. xv. 254

83. Anecdote of Dr. Chauncy

124. Select Passages


Tudor. 179 125. Ode to Evening Collins. 259

84. The Glory of God in the 126. The Murderer Websler. 261

Beauties of Creation

127. Importance of Good Rules

T. Moore, 180

of Behavior


35. Domestic Love Croly. 181 128. St. Patrick


86. A Gypsy Encampment in 129. Departure of Adam and Eve


James. 182

from Paradise Milton. 270

87. Eloquence and Humor of 130. Sonnel, on his Blindness,

Patrick Henry Wirt. 185


Milton. 271

88. The Angel of the Leaves 131. The Power of God, as illus-

Miss Gould. 186

trated by Astronomy Dick. 272

89. Self-Cultivation E. Everett, 189 132. Ocean

Byron. 274

90. Sabbath Thoughts

133. Religion in the People neces-

A. Cunningham. 191

sary to good Government

91. The Sea Green wond. 192

Washington. 275

92. The Psalms Cheever. 197 134. Power of the Soul Dana. 276

93. God our Refuge Psal. xlvi. 198 135. The Voyage of Life Johnson. 278

94. London

199 136. The Coining of a Devastat-

95. The Nunnery


ing Army Joel ii. 282

96. Soldier's Dream Campbell. 203 137. The Consequences of Athe-

97. The Sabbath Grahame. 204


Channing. 283

98. Neatness

Dennie. 206 138. The Character of a Good

99. Children

Neal. 207


Dryden. 285

100. Anecdotes of Children Neal. 209 139. Studies for the Statesman

101. Early Display of Genius Dick. 212

Clay. 286

102. The Calumpiator Griffin. 215 140. The Puritans Bancroft. 287

103. Verses

Wolfe. 207 141. Cesar's Funeral Shakspeare. 288

104. Chamois of the Alps Simond. 218 142. Courtesy in Military Men

105. Dress

Mrs. Farrar. 221

Butler. 292

106. I'm pleased and yet I'm 143. The Wounded Spirit Cowper. 294

sad H. K. White. 224 144. Death of Lord Byron Scott. 295

107. Scenes on the Hudson River 145. Sir Joshua Reynolds Burke. 297

in Early Times Irving. 225 146. Advantages of Christianiz-

108. The Immortal Mind Byron. 227 ing the Heathen Beecher. 298

109. Robert Emmett

228 147. Character of Washington

110. The Broken Heart Irving. 230

J. Q. Adams. 300

111. Apelles and Protogenes

148. Extension of Christianity by

Mrs. Lee. 232

Missions Wayland. 301

112. The Black Sheep

235 149. A Traveller perishing in the

113. Sabbath Morning Hawthorne. 237


Thomson. 302

114. The Friends or Quakers 150. Decay of the Indians Cass. 303

Wm. Howitt. 239 151. The Declaration of Inde-

115. Adherence to Old Customs 240 pendence J. Q. Adams. 305

116. The Wild Violet Miss Gould. 243 152. History of America Sparks. 308

117. Poetry

Dewey. 244 153. Efficacy of the Sacred Scrip-

118. The Coral Insect

Wayland. 310

Mrs. Sigourney. 246 154. Epigrams

119. Who are the truly Happy ? 247 155. Spring

Greenwood. 315
120. Hymn to the North Star 156. Autumn

Alison. 318
Bryant. 250 157. The Idiot Blackwood's Mag. 319
121. The Duty of Industry 252 158. Waverley and Fergus Mc
122. Weehawken Holleck. 253


Scott. 321

123. The Triumphal Song of 159. A Ship Sinking Wilson. 323


The following hints embrace nearly the same topics as the rules prefixed to “the Third Reader :" they are designed to enforce those rules upon the attention of the pupil, in a manner adapted to bis more advanced progress. It is obvious, however, that their utility must depend chiefly upon their application by the teacher, in the course of tuition.

1. The first requisite in reading or speaking to others, is a clear and distinct articulation.

Articulation is the uttering of syllables or words. In reading or speaking to others, you aim at producing a certain effect upon the minds of your hearers. In order to accomplish this, you must induce them to listen and become interested in what you say. But auditors will never listen with interest, unless they can hear what is said without effort.

To make persons hear easily, it is less necessary to speak loud, than toʻutter each word clearly and roundly. Every one who has been in the habit of speaking to deaf persons, knows, that the surest way to make them hear is, not to vociferate, but to speak slowly and distinctly.

Good articulation, then, is an essential requisite in reading or speaking to others. It has been said to be to the ear, what good print or a fair handwriting is to the eye. It is a pleasure to read these, as it is a revolting task to read bad and blurred print, or a nearly illegible handwriting. In the same way, we hear a good speaker with pleasure, while we are disgusted with a mumbling or a mouthing one. A certain writer says,

" In just articulation, the words are not to be hurried over; nor precipitated syllable over syllable ; nor, as it were, melted together in a mass of confusion. They should be neither abridged nor prolonged; nor swallowed nor forced ; they should not be trailęd nor drawled, nor let to slip out carelessly, so as to drop unfinished. They are to be delivered out from the lips as beautiful coins newly issued from the mint, deeply and accurately impressed, perfectly finished, neatly struck by the proper organs, distinct, in due succession, and of due weight.”

The importance of a distinct articulation in a speaker, may be illus. trated by what Cicero tells us of the ancient Romans. " The whole theatre was in an uproar,” says he,"if one of the speakers happened to put in one syllable too many or too few."

2. Study accuracy of pronunciation. Walker's Dictionary is the common standard of pronunciation in England, and perhaps in this country.; but, as a guide to American speakers, Worcester may be safely recommended. It is desirable, that every person learning the art of reading, as the means of using his mother tongue with the best effect, should habitually keep a Dictionary at his side, as well for pronunciation as definition. It is especially important, that the pupil establish the habit of attention to pronuncia

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lion, so that he may correct such vulgarisms as he may have adopted, and avoid others which he might catch from those around him. In the Third Reader, I have pointed out, lesson by lesson, the words that occur which are often pronounced improperly. In order more effectually to warn the pupil against errors of this kind, I will enu. merate certain classes of faults to which he is exposed, and, in his reading of the subsequent lessons, I invite his frequent reference to this lisi.

The letter a, occurring in the first syllable, is often omitted or imper. fectly sounded. Thus ascribe is pronounced 'scribe ; allure, 'lure; adorn, 'durn.

The same fault is much more common with the vowel e; prepare is pronounced pr pure; preserve, pr’scrve ; exist, 'xist; eclectic, 'clectic; de part, d'part; deliver. dlirer; ensnare, 'nsnure; traveller, trav'ller ; every, co'ry ; several, seoʻrui.

In some words, instead of having its proper sound, e is read like u in suppose. Thus belief, is read bul-ief ; severe, suv-ere; certain, sutt'n; before, buf.vre; behold, vul-old So with the vowel i. Impure is pronounced 'mpure; imprisoin, 'mprison; incautious, 'ncautious. So with the voyel 0. Correct, crect; collapse, c'lapse ; occur, 'cur ; omnipotent, 'minipoten!. But the most common fault with o in the first syllable, is to sound it

Compress is pronounced cumpress; congeal, cungeal ; monopoly, munopoly; convey, cunccy; propitious, prupitious ; concur, cuncur ; compare, cumpare

Só as io the vowel u: Unveiled is pronounced 'nveiled ; suppose, s'pose; suspend, s pend; surrender, s'render, &c. It is often pronounced as o

Undo is cailed ondo; untie, ontie, &c. The following terminations are very often pronounced badly. Less is pronounced liss. Hapless, hapliss; sleepless, sleepliss, &c. En is soinetimes pronounced in, and sometimes the e is entirely left out. Thus woollen, woollin or wool'n; deafen, deafin or deafʼn. So with er. Folded, fuldid

Ness is prononnced niss. Dampness, dampniss. Able and ible are pronounced uble. Eatable, eatuble; vendible, venduble.

Al is read without a. Parental, parent'l ; musical, music'l; metal, met'l; capital, capit'l; rebel, reb'l; chapel, chap'l.

Ent is pronounced unt; a very common and vulgar fault; moment, moiniint ; prudent, prudunt; confidence, confidunce; silent, silunt ; anthem, anthum ; dependent, dependunt.

Ing is pronounced in. It is very common to say for singing, singin ; for eating, eatin; being. bein; flying, flyin ; dancing, dancin ; resting, restin

Ow and o are pronounced er. Window, winder ; tobacco, tobacc-er ; fellow, felier; widow, widder; follow, folier ; moito, motter.

Ance, ency are pronounced unce, uncy. Acquaintance, acquaintunce ; abhorrence, abhorrunce ; confidence, confidunce; assistance, assistunce.

Ive is pronounced long instead of short, like i in īvy, instead of like 7 in rivet. Thus native is made native ; missive, missīve.

El is pronounced without the e. Novel, noo'l ; model, mod'l; vessel, vess'l; gravel, grao'l; level, lev'l. Ain is pronounced without the ai. Fountain, fount'n, &c. On is pronounced without the o. Lotion, losh'n, &c.

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