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GREEK IAMBIC VERSE.
EDWARD WALFORD, M.A.
SCHOLAR OF BALLIOL COLLEGE, OXFORD.
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND
304. f. 7.
S A Key to Parts I. and II. of these Exercises (price 5s.),
may be had, by Tutors only, on application to the Author through the Publishers.
BOTH SERIES of my Progressive Exercises in Latin Elegiacs' have found so much popularity in the various public and private schools where they are in use, that it has been repeatedly suggested to me by persons engaged in tuition, firstly, that there is a great want of an elementary work, on a similar plan, suitable for boys who are beginning to learn to imitate in Greek verse the style of the Tragedians whom they read; and secondly, that a little book on a similar plan to my Elementary Latin Verses would prove of service.
Accordingly I have attempted to supply this deficiency, and I need scarcely add that I shall be glad to learn from those whose judgment and experience is superior to my own, that it proves useful and serviceable. I shall be glad of any corrections and of any suggestions for the improvement of the contents of this little book.
HAMPSTEAD, N.W.: Jan. 1, 1867.
A SHORT GREEK PROSODY.
1. PROSODY teaches the Quantity of Syllables.
2. Every syllable in Greek is said to be either short (~) or long (-), according to its quantity, or the time taken up in pronouncing it.
3. One such long syllable is equal to two short ones. Syllables which may be either long or short are called common or doubtful ().
Note. The accents are omitted, for the sake of distinctness.
GENERAL RULES. Rule I. The vowels ě and ò are naturally short; ñ and w are naturally long: n and w can never be shortened, though e and o may be lengthened under certain conditions.
RULE II. The vowels ε and o, though naturally short, may be long by position: as, for instance, before a double consonant, as ēsn, or before two or more consonants in the same word, as ērtiv, õvta; or, again, before two consonants, one in their own word and one at the commencement of the following word, as πικρός δε, άνδρες γαρ.
Exc. 1. a, ę, į, v, are common in such words as dăkpv, πατρος, τέκνον, πίκρος, λύπρος.
Exc. 2. A short vowel is common before B1, Bp, yl, yp, &u, δρ, θλ, θμ, θν, κλ, κμ, κι, κρ, πλ, πμ, πν, πρ, τλ, τμ, τν, τρ, φλ, φμ, φν, φρ.
RULE III. The vowels ă, ğ, and , are of doubtful quantity, being used long or short according to circumstances.
RULE IV. A vowel (except n or w) before another vowel in the same word is generally short, as oopia, aindvos. (Exc. λίαν, ανία, ιατρος.)
RULE V. Diphthongs are long (except or in tožoçde, toiovtoç, Foiw, and a few other words); and so are all contracted and circumflexed syllables, as kuua.