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the right ends be steadily kept in view ; if the right means be carefully pursued, our success is not only certain but will be rapid. A few short years, and we shall see golden fruits rewarding all our labours; we shall see an intelligent and happy people governed by a wise and beneficent, because a thoroughly popular government. But there must be no pandering to public ignorance; no preaching up of wild and quack remedies for evils which the people in their individual capacity alone can cure. We must have no breach of public morality, no spunging out of our existing encumbrances. Like an honest man in difficulties, we must put down every superfluous expense; the most rigid frugality must be made to pervade every part of our establishments. Let education be spread among every class of the population ; let the energies and talent of mankind be exclusively turned to the amelioration of our lot; and we shall have no more wars to sully the pages of our history; no more debts to bear down the spirits of our people ; no squalid and dreadful poverty to be a curse and disgrace upon our nature, The soad to this glorious country is intricate and dangerous. Stout hearts, intelligent heads, and honest purposes, will, nevertheless, conduct the travellers through their long journey in safety.

J. A. R.

TAIT'S COMMONPLACE-BOOK.

Sir John DALRYMPLE AND THE BALLOT.—The Hon. James Abercromby told us that if the ballot was shewn to be necessary to ensure the free exercise of the franchise, he should give it his support ; he was understool to peril his case upon the late election proceedings. But Sir John Dalrymple is not so easily satisfied. At the Leith dinner, he is reported to have said:-“ He had a majority of the new consti. tuency, and would have had a greater but for the undue influence that was used against him. He declared, that if such influence was continued he would be inclined to favour the vote by ballot.” Sir John's cool picktooth indifference can only be equalled by Liston in Billy Lack-a-day. When every bell in the inn is jingling, and the guests screaming “ waiter 1” as if for a wager, « Do you intend to answer? asks his mistress. “ Yes; if they perseveres !"

MR. PEASE.—The election of a gentleman named Pease (a Quaker) to serve in the reform Parliament has elicited much forensic lore, touching the knotty points of oaths and affirmations. It seems quite clear, according to the lawyers, that it will be difficult to contort or pervert, with any effect, the divers proscriptive follies (called acts) of fore mer Parliaments, so as to secure to this spirit-moved member a peaseable possession of the seat to which a friendly constituency has electeil him. Much learned rubbish will be shot on the occasion, no doubt ; but it is to be hoped that the event will have the effect of once, and for all, agitating and settling “affirmatively” the ques. tion, whether a fit and honest man, whatever be the tenets of his faith, be qualified to act as a citizen in all the relations of social life. Exclusion on the ground of religious opinions from the rights of citizenship might have been all vastly fine during the halcyon days of priestism; but that craft, as a «rait, is luckily, (for “nothing happens without the permission of Heaven,") at shocking discount nowadays. Our “ friend” is, we verily believe, a staunch Reformer; and Ministers, no question, are too wary to forget their Pease and Qs. They will do well to amend or rescind all such stupid prohibitory laws as now disgrace the Statute Book, in more particulars than one.

Dying LIKE A BRITON.-" I know that I have done the deed,” exclaimed a ruthless ruffian, the other day, who had slain his wife, “and I am satisfied to die for it like a Briton ! !" The almost daily occurrence of some foul murder is a fearful and disgracing blot, indeed, upon the national mgrals; and it is not improbable that the frequency of its commission may have ren:oyed from the minds of the people much of its atrocity. We are all familiar with the story of the negro slaves, who ludicrously, and in the wretchedness of their ignorance, hanged theinselves as the only effectual method of escaping back to their lost homes. It would almost seem that many among the lower orders of the English, much in the same spirit, imagine that they have only to perpetrate some appalling murder to achieve salvation and eternal happiness hereafter. We seriously put the question, Whether the scenic effect of judicial condemnations, and the bastard humanity 08. tentatiously displayed in the records penned by some silly self-conceited reporters, * have not contributed much to remove the indignation and horror with which the people should be educated to view such a detestable crime—a crime above all others damnable by the laws of God and man? “ The unhappy prisoner" is so. lemnly exhorted, after sentence is pronounced, to return to his cell, and “make his peace with Heaven, through the mediation of Christ ;" and the judge often pathetically weeps as he dooms the culprit to deserved death. The “ misguided man” leaves the dock in dogged sullenness, and his impenitence is only gradually removed through the importunate and benevolent admonitions of “the worthy and reverend ordinary, who is unremitting in his holy exertions to administer the usual consolations of religion.” The murderer being thus first moved, all of a sudden starts into a true Christian, sobs in all the repentance of faith, utters pious ejaculations, acknowledges the justice of his sentence, asserts his perfect reconciliation with an of fended God, and prepares “ to die in peace with all men." An “affecting and heartrending interview" takes place between himself and the wife and children, whom he has brutally maltreated every day for months or years before : they “kiss and make it up;" he shakes hands with the governor and the sheriffs, to whom he expresses all sorts of gratitude for past attentions; they blow their noses distressedly at “ his un. timely end ;" he “ ascends the scaffold with a firm step," and after the fraction of a prayer breathed by the 'kerchief-dropping clergyman, in which “ the unfortunate man," in holy fervour, takes part, he is duly “ launched into eternity," and the “sad ceremony" is completed! And this solemn melo-drama is represented to be played on almost every occasion of legally consigning to death those monsters who, by the enormity of their wickedness, have forfeited all claim to life.

Far, very far, are we from ridiculing the feelings of any officers under the painful excitement which their duties too often cause, or from treating with ribaldry any proper ceremony or external solemnity attendant upon so awful a scene,—where man, by the imposition of a violent death, resigi:s as it were, into the very hands of the Almighty, a fellow, clothed in his sinfulness, for the infliction of that punishment which we are taught to believe awaits those who are too evil to live here on this earth. But we cannot restrain our disgust at the unseemly exhibition of a morbid sympathy thus paradingly acknowledged, and the attempt to create pity for the perpetrator of deeds which ought rather to excite feelings of' virtuous abhorrence; nor can we disguise our belief, that this truckling to the depraved appetite of the public, by furnishing up a sorrowful statement wantonly interlarded with commiserating expletives, (supplied at a price,) acts as a positive premium to the ignorant or the criminally disposed for the commission of the deadliest sins, as the readiest way of gratifying their worst passions in this world, and of securing unqualified pardon and everlasting happiness in another.

MODEST ASSURANCE.--At a late meeting of the Town Council of Edinburgh, the Lord Provost stated, “ that he believed they were all quite aware that a bill would be brought into Parliament in the ensuing session for effecting a reform of the Scotch burgh system. It was, therefore, of importance that they should turn their serious attention to the subject, and after making up their own minds as to the changes which should be introduced, take steps for communicating with the mem. bers for the city ; who, he felt perfectly assured, were quite disposed to pay the utmost deference to the suggestions which might be made by the Town Council; the members of which, from their practical acquaintance with the subject, were so much inore competent than most others to form a correct judgment on the matter.” What is the Town Council ? Our Police has been confided to the management of others. The City Improvements have been confided to others. An independent Small Debt Court has been found necessary. In short, the only business now left to the Council is the contracting and the mis-management of the city debt. What “practical acquaintanco with the subject” of local government have they? The same that felons have with the distribution of justice. We shall next hear of the tenants of Bridewell “ commu

Have not certain funetionaries within the walls of Newgate a hand in the concoction of these precious accounts ?

nicating with the Members for the City, who, they feel perfectly assured, are quite disposed to pay the utmost deference to their suggestions" respecting reform in our penal statutes.

THE SEMI-SCION OF ROYALTY AGAIN.How felicitously all things seem to work for the cause of the people. The Aristocracy inveigh bitterly against the Min. ister for having forced a measure which especially tends to lower their blood-des. cended rights in general estimation, and to bring into contempt a race only not quite divine ; yet are the members of that same sacred “order" ever doing some kind act to abet the people in breaking up the line of demarcation between the two castez. The papers of the day have been teeming with the domestic jars of certain illustrious personages ; the jealousies and heart-burnings, and murmurings, and ambitions of cer. tain other semi-illustrious personages and parties—now sulking, now demanding, now refusing, and now coquetting in their struggles to secure the fattest plumb in John Bull's pudding ; with the patriotic view (there can be no other) of exhibiting, in its worst aspect, the inappeasable, insatiable, cravings of mercenary spirits, in order that the measure of John's disgust may be brimming quite.

Such exhibitions must be nuts for brother Jonathan.

GENERAL BANKRUPTCY OF LITERATURE.-It has long been rumoured that the Republic of Letters was encumbered with a fittle private national debt, in the shape of some hundreds of thousands of unsaleable books, that must ultimately lead to the gazette. The fatal moment is fully come!-A general frost has nipped the buds of promise; and nothing is heard on all sides but the cry of “ Remember the poor frozen-out gardeners !" Deceived into the imaginary tenure of the cap of Fortunatus, by the temporary rise of the markets,—which (like the tulip-speculations of Holland) invested the productions of a popular writer with an ideal value, our writers of the day have ventured beyond their depth, and are now overwhelmed by the waters of strife. At a time when a sum of fifteen hundred guineas was given by the Lorenzo de Medicis of Burlington Street, for more than one novel of moderate merit, it is not surprising that writers so powerful as the author of “ The O'Hara Tales” should have outreckoned their expected gains. And when we inform our readers, that in a state of declining health, Mr. Banim is now imprisoned for debt, in a foreign country, we have no fear that an appeal to the friends of literature, in his behalf, will be made in vain. From the booksellers, meanwhile, little encouragement is to be expected. Very few books of fiction, now published, yield the return of their expenses ; and “ Eugene Aram," the most favourite novel of last season, has not yet reached a second edition !-" The Row" closes its purse-strings and its heart, against all but elementary or theological works;-Murray undertakes no. thing beyond his re-prints ;-and Bentley, although he puts forward a novel per week, is only making a paper tail to keep his kite afloat, of the reams of MS. bequeathed him by his predecessor. Of the new annuals attempted this season, not one, we ninderstand, will be continued; and in consequence of the general failure of these meritorious volumes, the one announced from the pen of Mr. Bulwer is postponed till the spring, when it will appear as an illustrated work, of the fashion of Rogers's “ Italy.” The booksellers blindly attribute this general stagnation of their trade to the Penny Magazines ; which were, in fact, created by its influence ; a number of

hands," (ay, and “ fine Roman hands” too) being “ thrown out of work," that could not dig, and to beg were ashamed. For the last two years the writers of Great Britain have been more numerous than its readers ; and the quantity of japan ink consumed in the metropolis, has exceeded even its japan blacking! The scribblomania is now at an end. The fashionable novelist has written himself down, (an ass ;) and the lachrymose sentimentalists, of the banner of red, lately, have returned to their original vocations, of " figuring prettily on catgut, and telling fortunes on the cards !” Things are consequently likely to come straight again:- but a writer such as Banim must not be the victim of the fluctuation of the balance. Let him only advertise a novel by subscription, and trust to the public for the result. The author of “ The Nowlans" has sacred claims on the attention of the literary world.

MONTHLY REGISTER.

POLITICAL HISTORY.

GREAT BRITAIN.

candidate ; and the Earl of Lauderdale, THE ELECTIONS.- The Triumph of formerly a Republican, then a Whig, and Reform is complete. The victory of the now a Tory, has been defeated in Berpeople is greater than the most sanguine wickshire, and in the Haddington, Lauder, friends of liberty and order ever ventured &c. district of burghs; although his Lord. to anticipate. The example so gloriously ship formerly returned both Members al. set by the City of London, and the new most without exertion, and without the Metropolitan electoral districts, has been apprehension of opposition. The defeat nobly followed by the whole island. The of Lord Maitland, his Lordship’s son, in

Tories are utterly defeated, and driven Berwickshire, is the more remarkable from the strongholds which they have because Mr. Marjoribanks, the successful held for half a century. Croker, Weth. candidate, was opposed by four-fifths of erel, Sugden, Murray, Clerk, Hope, and the land proprietors, and the tenantry are many others of the most talented and ac- very generally inclined to Tory principles : tive of the party, have been excluded from but the constituency of the towns and Parliament; and good men, and true, villages, when joined to the liberal part supply their place. In the great fight, Scot. of the landholders and tenantry, overland has done her duty. The elections matched the supporters of Toryism. have proved that the charges of politi. In the North Eastern Counties of Scotcal subserviency and sycophancy, so often land, Aberdeenshire, Banffshire, Kincarbrought against her, were unfounded, dineshire, and Elginshire, the liberal candiwhen applied to the body of her people; dates have been defeated. This has arisen and that the independence and liberality from the remains of feudalism, which still, of their opinions were concealed by the in some degree, exist in these districts, and preposterous system of representation, from the ignorance of the tenantry of their which has at length been destroyed. The political rights. The tenantry in the couninfluence of the Aristocracy to return the ties we have named, are of a very inferior old Tory Members, has, in nearly all the description to those in the south-eastern Sonthern districts of the kingdom, been counties, which have long taken the lead used in vain. The Duke of Buccleuch, in agriculture. While the tenantry of East the most extensive land proprietor in Lothian, Berwickshire, and RoxburghScotland, has not been able to return a shire, are in general men of capital and single member. His Grace has been de intelligence, occupying extensive farms, feated in the counties of Edinburgh, Dum- and paying on the average from L.300 fries, Selkirk, and Roxburgh, in which to L.500 per year of rent, and many he has extensive possessions, and on the have much larger possessions, those in the elections of which districts he used for- north-eastern counties do not, in general, merly to exercise the greatest influence. Pay so much as L. 100 a-year of rent, and In the county of Edinburgh, the Tories consequently are little removed from the have been paramount for the greater, part rank of agricultural labourers. The greatof a century; and so firmly were they er part of such men are ignorant of the seated that, for many years, no attempt value of the elective franchise, and of the as been made to contest the election ; but objects intended by the Legislature in con. Sir George Clerk was defeated by a can- ferring on them the rights of freemen. didate who, in truth, had nothing but his They were therefore well content to please profession of liberal principles to recom- their lairds, by bestowing on their favourmend him. Sir George Murray has been ite a vote, which appeared to them of so ejected from Perthshire, a county long little value. Inverness-shire, has, howdistinguished for its Toryism, by a Whig ever, vindicated its character for inde.

pendence. In spite of all the influence of than eighty sons of Peers are members of the Duke of Gordon, Lord M.Donald, the new Parliament, while the demagogue Glengary, the Earl of Seafield, and the Hunt has been excluded. whole clan of the Macleods, whose chief Scotch PEERS.The election of the was the Tory candidate, Mr Charles Grant Sixteen Representative Peers of Scotland was returned, though not without an ar- took place at Holyrood House on the 14th duous struggle. The Northern and West- of January, when the following Peers ern Highlands have also nobly done their were elected :duty. Allover Scotland many votes have

Marquis of Tweeddale, Viscount Arbuthnott been lost to the liberal candidates by the Earl of Morton.

Sirathallan. dread on the part of the tenantry of a re

Home.

Lord Forbes.
Elgin.

Gray. moval of the restrictions on the importa

Airly.

Saltoun. tion of corn ; for few of them yet see, that Leven.

Sinclair.

Selkirk. in this question, their interests are identi.

Elphinstone. Orkney,

Colvulle. cal not with those of the land owners, but with those of the general body of the Viscount Falkland and Lord Belhaven communityFarther, intimidation and having been created British Peer; sand the influence have been so extensively used, Marquis of Queensberry and Lord Napier, that by the tenantry generally, the elec- who were also in last Parliament, noc tive franchise has been found a curse, being returned to this ; there are four new without the protection of the ballot. Representative Peers by the present elec

In Ireland the elections have not been tion, viz. the Earls of Airly and Orknes, 80 favourable for the triumph of liberal and Lords Sinclair and Elphinstone. principles as in England and Scotland; THE REVENUE.-The state of the rebut still the Reformers are to the Conser venue is one of the few indications we vatives in the proportion of three to one possess of the prosperity or adversity of The New House of Commons, as far as the country; and hence the quarterly re. can be at present judged, will thus be turns are always regarded with interest. constituted :

Comparing the produce of the revenue English members— Reformers, 401 for the year ending 5th January last, with Conservatives,

112 the preceding year, (1831,) it has inIrish members Reformers, 80 creased L.546,169; but comparing the

Conservatives, 25 quarters ending 5th January oply, there Scottish members-Reformers, 44 is a decrease of L29,473. The principal Conservatives,

9 decrease is under the head of Excise, being So that the Reformers will be to the Con- no less than L. 299,086; for which the deservatives nearly as five to one. We duction of L.160,000, being the amount cannot conclude without pointing out the of the duties on candles, (now repealed) glorious aspect Scotland now presents. received in the corresponding quarter of Formerly she, with difficulty, returned last year, will not account. The increase on five or six liberal members to Parliament; the customs, L.358,583, is very remarknow she sends forty-four, a proportion able, more especially, as little has been considerably greater than either England received during the quarter for corn; and or Jreland presents. Sir W. Rae, Sir shews that commerce is beginning to Charles Forbes, and other Scotch Tories, revive. The deficiency in the stamp-duwere loud in prognosticating the serious ties is undoubtedly the effect of over consequences of popular elections in Scot- taxation. For many years this branch land, and foretold that the country would of the revenue has been declining. In be deluged with blood. But during the the year 1817, the net revenue whole course of the elections there has L.7,101,767; and although no changes of not been a riot of the smallest conse. any importance have been made since, quence; and in the most populous towns the revenue for last year was more than the elections passed over with perfect good half a million less. The principal falling humour, and without the slightest distur- off has been in the stamps used for bonds, bance. On the whole, therefore, the re- mortgages, and conveyances. A great sult of the general election gives us an ad. addition to the revenue would, we have ditional reason to be proud of our coun. no doubt, take place, were this branch of trymen.

the stamp duties considerably lowered. The Tories have been equally mistaken The deficiency in the Excise shows that in their prophecies regarding the sort of the people are still becoming poorer; for persons who would be returned to the it is the middle and lower orders who pay new Parliament. Instead of the people the far greater proportion of those duties. returning political adventurers and dema. There can be little doubt that over taxagogues, they have, even in the burghs, in tion also exists to a great degree in the Ex. many instances, elected landed proprie- cise; and, indeed, it is remarkable that the Lors as their representatives; and no fewer Ministry do not make some experiments

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