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OUR ancestors were persons of leisure, They appropriated each day in the year to the memory of remarkable persons or events. THE EVERY-DAY BOok will relate the origin of these three hundred and sixty-five celebrations, with interesting accounts of the individuals and circumstances commemorated.

It will especially describe the National and Domestic Festivities at the Remarkable Seasons, and on the great Holidays that are still kept; particularly those on New Year's day-Twelfth day-St. Agnes' eve-Candlemas day-St. Valentine's day Shrovetide-Ash Wednesday-St. David's day-St. Patrick's day.-Palm Sunday-Lady day-All Fools' day-Maundy Thursday-Good Friday—Eastertide-Hock day-St. George's day-May day-Royal Oak day-WhitsuntideSt. Barnabas' day-St. John's eve-St. Swithin's day-Lammas-tide-Corpus Christi day-Midsummer-tide-Michaelmas-tide-Allhallow e'en-Gunpowder Plot day-St. Andrew's day-Christmas-tide-Childermas day-New Year's eve, &c.

While recording such observances, it will entertain the reader with descriptions of numerous Popular Merriments and Usages, a few of which may be mentioned as instances : namely, Fairs-Wakes-Morris Dancings-Harvest Homes-Shear


Montem-Hogmany-Yule, &c.

Besides a multitude of subjects of this description, the amusing character of the EVERY-DAY BOok will be increased by curious details respecting Flinging the stocking-The Wandering Jew-Hand of Glory-Glastonbury thorn-Wrestling -Kissing-Man in the Moon-Robin Hood-The Merry Thought-Tea-The Drama-Highgate oath-Dunmow flitch-Winifred's well-Music-Horn Fair -Old Nick-Joint ring-Robin Goodfellow-Robin Badfellow-Passing bellWedding ring-Death watch-the Grace cup-Archery-Cock fighting-Breaking up-Jack a' Lanthorn-Second sight-Barber's pole-Strewing rushes Bleeding of the Murdered-Under the Rose-Sitting cross legged-Longevity— Coronation stone-Sneezing-Bear baiting-Lady in the straw-Seventh son of a seventh son-True lover's knot-Blindman's buff-Curfew bell-Divining rod— Hunt the slipper-Roodloft-Nightmare-Pricking in the belt-Dress-Cursing by bell, book and candle-Golf-Black's the white o' my eye-Garnish-Barring out at school-Groaning cake-Chiromancy-Cunning inen-Undertakers-Marriages - Penny weddings - Vanes - Love charms - Toys - Storms — Moles→→ Cramp rings-Horseshoes-Fools-Jesters-Apparitions-Babies in the eyesFairy rings-Autographs-Witch finders-Witches-Wizards-Shop signs-Cries - Amulets-Duels-Charms - Healths-Exorcisms - Evil eyes - Eclipses Shooting stars-Gypsies-Sin eaters-Corpse candles-Misers-Quacks-Incantations Crickets-Bonfires-Old saws-) s-Philtres-Frosts-Fairies-Somnambulists-Christenings- Pawnbrokers' balls - Burials-Cuckolds-ProcessionsSpectres Lucky and unlucky numbers-Newspapers-Christmas boxes-Bogles, Brownies-Spunkies-Kelpies-Wraiths-Dwarfs -Giants-Fascinations-To-Snuff-Sorcerers-Songs-Hair and Wigs-Vigils-Spirits-Omens→→


Familiars-Holy Wells-Gossips-Cards-Wrecks-Divinations-BetrothingsShrouds-Inventions-Phenomena, &c. &c. &c. By the introduction of various topics and facts of a still more interesting and important nature, with suitable Historical, Biographical, Astronomical, and Seasonable Anecdotes-information that is useful to all, will be combined with amusement that is agreeable to most. THE EVERY-DAY BOOK will be a History of the Year. Whether it be consulted respecting to-day or to-morrow, or any other day, it will present acceptable particulars respecting the day sought. It becomes, therefore, a Perpetual Guide to the Year-not to any one year in particular, but to every year-and forms a Complete Dictionary of the Almanac, for the daily use and instruction of every person who possesses an Almanac, and desires a Key to it.

In this view it will be the EVERY-DAY BOOK of pleasure and business-of parents and children, teachers and pupils, masters and servants: and, as Cowper says, that, "a volume of verse is a fiddle that sets the universe in motion," it is believed that his remark may be somewhat verified by the pleasant images and kind feelings, which the interspersion of much excellent poetry throughout the work is designed to create in all classes of its readers.

Many essential particulars relating to the days of the week, the twelve months, the four seasons, and the year generally, will be arranged by way of Appendix, and there will be a copious Index to the whole.

A number, or sheet of thirty-two columns, price threepence, will be published every Saturday till the undertaking is completed, which will be in about a yeara few weeks more or less. The Engravings in each will vary as to number: in some there may be only one or two; in others, three, or four, or five-according to the subject.

It will form a large and handsome volume, containing a greater body of curious and interesting anecdotes and ¡facts than exists in any other in the English language; and be illustrated by nearly two hundred Engravings from the original designs of superior artists, or from rare and remarkable prints and drawings.

This mode of publication is adopted with a view to two objects: 1st, the general diffusion of useful facts in connection with curious information; and 2dly, the attainment of additional particulars during its progress.

To a large mass of materials already collected, communications respecting local usages or customs in any part of the United Kingdom, and Festival Ceremonials abroad, will be especially acceptable. Such communications, or any useful hints or suggestions, or permission to extract from books or manuscripts, it will give me great pleasuree to receive, and to acknowledge as circumstances may require.

45, Ludgate-hill,

31st December, 1824.


NOTE.-This Leaf and the Title are to be cut off, and thrown aside, when the
Volume is bound. A new title, &c. will be given gratis.

THE HISTORY OF PARODY, with ENLARGED REPORTS OF MY THREE TRIALS, a royal octavo Volume of 600 pages, handsomely printed and illustrated by numerous Engravings on copper and wood, plain and coloured, is in considerable forwardness. The price will be 27. 2s. in extra boards. The favour of additional names to the list of Subscribers is respectfully solicited, in order to regulate the number of copies to be printed-but NO MONEY WILL BE RECEIVED until the book is delivered.

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THIS is the first and the coldest month of the year. Its zodiacal sign is Aquarius or the Waterbearer. It derives its name from Janus, a deity represented by the Romans with two faces, because he was acquainted with past and future events. Cotton introduces him into a poem on the new year

Hark, the cock crows, and yon bright star Tells us, the day himself's not far; And see where, breaking from the night, He gilds the western hills with light. With him old Janus doth appear, Peeping into the future year, With such a look as seems to say, The prospect is not good that way. Thus do we rise ill sights to see, And 'gainst ourselves to prophesy; When the prophetic fear of things A more tormenting mischief brings, More full of soul-tormenting gall Than direst mischiefs can befall. But stay! but stay! Methinks my sight, Better inform'd by clearer light,

Discerns sereneness in that brow,
That all contracted seem'd but now.
His revers'd face may show distaste,
And frown upon the ills are past;
But that which this way looks is clear,
And smiles upon the new-born year.

According to the ancient mythology, Janus was the god of gates and avenues, and in that character held a key in his right hand, and a rod in his left, to symbolize his opening and ruling the year: sometimes he bore the number 300 in one hand, and 65 in the other, the number of its days. At other times he was reprosented with four heads, and placed in a temple of four equal sides, with a door and three windows in each side, as emblems of the four seasons and the twelve months over which he presided.

According to Verstegan (Restitution of Decayed Intelligence, 4to. 1628, p. 59) the Saxons called this month "Wolfmonat," or Wolf-month, because the


wolves of our ancient forests, impelled by hunger at this season, were wont to prowl and attack man himself; the inferior animals, on whom they usually preyed, having retired or perished from the inclemency of the weather. The Saxons also called this month "Aefter-yula," or After Christmas. In illuminated calendars prefixed to catholic missals, or service books, January was frequently depicted as a man with fagots or a woodman's axe, shivering and blowing his fingers. Spenser introduces this month in nis Faerie Queene: Then came old January, wrapped well In many weeds to keep the cold away; Yet did he quake and quiver like to quell ; And blow his nayles to warme them if he may; For they were numb'd with holding all the day

An hatchet keene, with which he felled wood, And from the trees did lop the needlesse spray.

January 1.

A close holiday at all public Circumcision.offices except the Excise, Customs, and Stamps.

This festival stands in the calendar of the church of England, as well as in that

of the Roman catholic church. It is said to have been instituted about 487; it first appeared in the reformed English liturgy in 1550.

Without noticing every saint to whom each day is dedicated in the Roman catholic calendars, the names of saints will be given day by day, as they stand under each day in the last edition of their "Lives," by the Rev. Alban. Butler, in 12 vols. 8vo. On the authority of that work the periods will be mentioned when the saints most noted for their miracles flourished, and some of those miracles be stated. Other miracles will be given: First, from "The Golden Legend," a black letter folio volume, printed by W. de Worde.-Secondly, from History of Britain," by the Benedictine father, S. Cressy, dedicated by him to the queen consort of Charles II., a folio, printed in 1668.--Thirdly, from the catholic translation of the "Lives of the Saints," by the Rev. Father Peter Ribadeneira, priest of the society of Jesus, second edition, London, 1730, 2 vols. folio;" and Fourthly, from other sources which will be named. By this means the reader will be ac quainted with legends that rendered the saints and the celebration of their festivals popular. For example,the saints in Butler's Lives on this day occur in the following order:

St. Fulgentius; St. Odilo, or Olou; St. Almachus, or Telemachus; St. Eugendus, or Oyend; St. Fanchea, or Faine, St. Mochua, or Moncain, alias Claunus; St. Mochua, alias Cronan, of Balla.

Sts. Mochua. According to Butler, these were Irish saints. One founded the monastery, now the town of Balla, in Connaught. The other is said to have founded 120 cells, and thirty churches, in one of

which he passed thirty years, and died about the sixth century. Bishop Patrick, in his "Reflexions upon the Devotions of the Roman Church," 1674, 8vo. cites of St. Mochua, that while walking and praying, and seeing a company of lambs running hastily to suck their mothers, he drew a line upon the ground which none of the hungry lambs durst pass. Patrick again cites, that St. Mochua having been visited by St. Kyenanus and fifteen of his clergy, they came to an impetuous and impassable river on their return, and wanted a boat; whereupon St. Mochua spread his mantle on the water, and Kyenanus with his fifteen priests were carried safely over upon the mantle, which floated back again to St. Mochua without wrinkle or wetting.

St. Fanchea, or Faine, is said by Butler to have been an Irish saint of the sixth century. Patrick quotes that St. Endeus desiring to become a monk, his companions approached to dissuade him; but, upon the prayers of St. Faine, and her stuck to the earth like immovable stones, making the sign of the cross, their feet until by repentance they were loosed and went their way.

on the 1st of January, 533, sometimes went St. Fulgentius, according to Butler, died barefoot, never undressed to take rest, nor ate flesh meat, but chiefly lived on pulse and herbs, though when old he admitted the use of a little oil. He preached, explained mysteries, controverted with heretics, and built monasteries. Butler concludes by relating, that after his death, a bishop named Pontian was assured in a vision of Fulgentius's immortality; that his relics were translated to Bourges, where they are venerated; and that the saint's head is in the church of the archbishop's seminary.


The King of Light, father of aged Time, Hath brought about that day, which is the prime.

To the slow gliding months, when every eye
Wears symptoms of a sober jollity;
And every hand is ready to present
Some service in a real compliment.
Whilst some in golden letters write their

Some speak affection by a ring or glove,
Or pins and points (for ev'n the peasant may,
After his ruder fashion, be as gay
As the brisk courtly sir,) and thinks that he
Cannot, without a gross absurdity,

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Be this day frugal, and not spare his friend
Some gift, to show his love finds not an end
With the deceased year.


In the volume of "ELIA," an excellent paper begins with "Every man hath two birthdays: two days, at least, in year, which set him upon revolving the lapse of time, as it affects his mortal duration. The one is that which in an especial manner he termeth his. In the gradual

desuetude of old observances, this custom of solemnizing our proper birthday hath nearly passed away, or is left to children, who reflect nothing at all about the matter, nor understand any thing beyond the cake and orange. But the birth of a new year is of an interest too wide to be pretermitted by king or cobbler. No one ever regarded the First of January with indifference. It is that from which all date their time, and count upon what is left. It is the nativity of our common Adam.

"Of all sound of all bells-bells, the music nighest bordering upon heaven)— most solemn and touching is the peal which rings out the old year. I never hear it without a gathering-up of my mind to a concentration of all the images that have been diffused over the past twelvemonth; all I have done or suffered,

performed, or neglected-in that regretted time. I begin to know its worth as when a person dies. It takes a personal colour; nor was it a poetical flight in a contemporary, when he exclaimed,

"I saw the skirts of the departing year.” "The elders with whom I was brought up, were of a character not likely to let slip the sacred observance of any old institution; and the ringing out of the old year was kept by them with circumstances of peculiar ceremony. In those days the sound of those midnight chimes, though it seemed to raise hilarity in all around me, never failed to bring a train of pensive imagery into my fancy. Yet I then scarce conceived what it meant, or thought of it as a reckoning that concerned me. Not childhood alone, but the young man till thirty, never feels practically that he is mortal."

Ringing out the old and ringing in the new year, with "a merry new year! a happy new year to you!" on new year's day, were greetings that moved sceptred pride, and humble labour, to smiles and

kind feelings in former times; and why should they be unfashionable in our own?

Dr. Drake observes, in "Shakspeare and his Times," that the ushering in of the new year, or new year's tide, with rejoicings, presents, and good wishes, was a custom observed, during the 16th century, with great regularity and parade, and was as cordially celebrated in the court of the prince as in the cottage of the peasant.

Encyclopedia of Antiquities," adduces various authorities to show that congratuthe Romans on this day. The origin, he lations, presents, and visits were made by says, is ascribed to Romulus and Tatius, and that the usual presents were figs and dates, covered with leaf-gold, and sent by clients to patrons, accompanied with a piece of money, which was expended to purchase the statues of deities. He mentions an amphora (a jar) which still exists, with an inscription denoting that it was a new year's present from the potters to Count Caylus a piece of Roman pottery, their patroness. He also instances from with an inscription wishing "a" happy new year to you;" another, where a person wishes it to himself and his son; and three medallions, with the laurel leaf, fig, and date; one, of Commodus; another, of Victory; and a third, Janus, standing in a temple,with an inscription, wishing a happy new year to the emperor. New year's gifts were continued under the Roman emperors until they were prohibited by Claudius. Yet in the early ages of the church the Christian emperors received them; nor did they wholly cease, although condemned by ecclesiastical councils on account of the pagan ceremonies at their presentation.

The Rev.T. D. Fosbroke, in his valuable

The Druids were accustomed on certain days to cut the sacred misletoe with a golden knife, in a forest dedicated to the gods, and to distribute its branches with much ceremony as new year's gifts among the people.

The late Rev. John Brand, in his "Popular Antiquities" edited by Mr. Ellis, observes from Bishop Stillingfleet, that among the Saxons of the North, the festival of the new year was observed with more than ordinary jollity and feasting, and by sending new year's gifts to one another. Mr. Fosbroke notices the continuation of the Roman practice during the middle ages; and that our kings, and the nobility especially, interchanged presents. Mr. Ellis quotes Matthew Paris, who appears to show that Henry III ex

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