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Rymny river, Monmouthshire, for the space of at least twelve miles. Such are the stations given by Ray, and repeated by Hudson; but the former seemed to doubt its being a native. (We learn from Fl. Brit. that it has, however, recently been discovered by the Rev. T. Butt, near a rivulet in the heart of Wire Forest, Worcestershire; and by Dr. Salt in a meadow at Longdon, near Litchfield. E.)
P. Aug. * G. DIOI'cum. Runners trailing: stem unbranched: flowers in a simple,
terminal corymb, dioecious: (seed-down feathery. Sm. E.) Barren plant.-E. Bot. 267—Dod. 68. 1. 2-Lob. Ic. i. 483. 1. 2-Ger. Em.
640. 4 and 5—Fertile plant.-E. Bot. 267—Lightf. 20. 1, at p. 471– Ludw. 163–Kniph. 3--Clus. i. 330. 1-Dod. 68. 3—Lob. Ic. i. 483. 3– Ger. Em. 641. 6—Park. 690, f. 5—Pet. 18. 4-Fuchs. 606 –J. B. iii. a. 162. 3—Lonic. i. 95. 2-H. Öx. vii. 11, row 3, f. 2—Trag. 332-Garid.
30, at p. 168–Ger. 516. 4. 5. 6-Lob. Adv. 202. 2, and Ic. i. 482. 2. In the barren plants the heads almost globular : in fertile ones nearly
cylindrical. Linn. Ripe seeds are rarely produced, as is the case with many plants which stole at the root. Root woody, brown, with a few stiff fibres. Runners several, creeping, leafy, from the crown of the root. Root-leaves in a thick tuft, oval at the end, tapering below into a long leaf-stalk, green and slightly bairy above, underneath white with a thick cotton ; stem-leaves numerous, strap-shaped, half embracing the stem, green above, white and cottony' underneath. Stems upright, simple, three to seven inches high, white, cottony.
Heads three to eight, on short fruit-stalks. Calyx scales blunt, the outer short, green, cottony ; the inner widening upwards, long, smooth, shining, white, frequently tinged with purple; in the barren plants shorter. Seeds short; down sessile, with simple rays, that of the fertile plants longer than the calyx, that of the barren plants not exceeding the calyx. Woodw. Blossom
white, purple, or reddish. (A larger variety, with leaves broader and woolly on both sides, has been
sent from the Isle of Skye, by Mr. J. Mackay. Fl. Brit. This plant is said to preserve its habit on cultivation, and has been designated G. hy. perboreum. We have been favoured with specimens from the original station by Mr. Winch, and observe in our herbarium G. dioicum, enlarged
by cultivation, with a similar appearance. E.) Cat's-Foot. (Pes Catti. E.) Mountain Cudweed. (Welsh: Edafeddog fynyddig. E.) Dry mountainous pastures in the north of England, Wales, and Cornwall, and on Newmarket Heath not far from Bottesham Beacon. Canham Heath, near Bury, Swaffham Heath, Stratton Heath, Norfolk. Mr. Pitchford. Abundantly on the north and west side of the county of Durham. Mr. Robson. (Race Ground near
(The Powers are smoked through pipes in Lancaster county (U. S.) to cure the toothach. Barton. Frequently cultivated as an ornamental plant in the gardens botb of England and the Continent; said to have been introduced from America about the sixteenth century. Its enduring quality renders it valuable through the winter; (for, though inferior to sereral exotic species in brilliancy, its flowers equally retain their pristine appearance for years. This species appears to be dioecious. Vid. Brown, in Linn. Tr. xii. 123.—The fact that many species of the Syngenesia Class are dioecious, or have the barren and fertile flowers on distinct plants, not only escaped the observation of Linnæus, but of his most enlightened successors : and eren Jussieu points out G. dioicus as “ Species una dioica insigni exceptione.” For a further illustration of this curious subject, vid. Ling. Tr. vol. xiii. E.)
Scarborough. Mr. Travis. On Snowdon, towards Beddgelert; also on the uplands in the vicinity of the Black Cataract near Maentwrog. Miss Roberts. At Arbor Low, between Buxton and Ashbourne. Bree, in Purton. Ravine of the Screes, near Wastwater, Cumberland. Mr. Wood. Talwrn, Anglesey. Welsh Bot. E.)
(3) Herbaceous; resembling a Filago. G. SYLVATICUM. Stem undivided, upright : leaves spear-shaped, to
mentose, narrowing at the base : fowers in a crowded terminal leafy spike.
(E. Bot. 913. E.)–Fl. Dan. 254. Differs from G. rectum in having broader leaves, and a short clustered spike
of black flowers. Lightf. Leaves more attenuated at the base, and less naked on the upper surface than in G. rectum. Sm. (Stem solitary, undivided, three to five inches high, cottony, leafy. Down stiff and rough. Receptacle somewhat honey-combed. Calyx, scales in the exposed half nearly black, shining, straw-coloured below : florets yellowish.
Fl. Brit. E.) Highland Cudweed. G. Norvegicum. Retz. G. sylvaticum, var. Lightf.
Woods on mountains in the Highlands of Scotland. (On mountains to the north of Blair in Athol, above Loch Erruch, and Ben Wyvis, Rossshire, but not in woods. Mr. J. Mackay, in Fl. Brit. About Brampton, Cumberland. Hutchinson. E.)
(This is an elegant little plant, whose peculiar appearance may well recommend it for domestic culture, and as a substitute for the foreign kiods, most of which, being less hardy, require artificial heat. As the Amaranth flower is the acknowledged symbol of immortality, with equal propriety may the Gnaphalium or Everlasting be dedicated to nererceasing remembrance, or that bigh sentiment which is
“Of itself a boly tie,
Yet made more sacred by adversity.” For such is the imperishable nature of our present species, that it retains a perennial bloom through successire years, and constitutes a principal ornament of the dried winter bouquet, for the vase of the saloon, or the head-dresses of our belles.
" Ainsi la main de l'ansitiè constante,
Le souvenir de ses premiers présens." Dubos. On the Continent, Phillips informs us, such lasting Aowers are frequently used to decorate the monuments and graves of departed friends. Since the bill of Pere la Chaise has been converted into a cemetry for the city of Paris, the demand for tbese flowers in the French capital has been so considerable, as not only to employ many hands in the cultivation of them, but numerous families are regularly occupied, and entirely supported by forming these “Immortelles" into garlands and crosses, which are offered for sale by the cottagers near the entrance of this celebrated burial ground. In the darker ages of idol worship, of such were composed the wreaths which entwined the brows of heathen deities ; and thus in Spain and Portugal in the nineteenth century, are the images of Romish saints adorned with the Eastern Everlasting, G. Orientale ;-to wbich the preceding remarks also more immediately appertain, thouglı not inapplicable to some of our native species, especially the Pearly, Mountain, and Jersey Ererlasting. E.) VOL. III.
G. REC'TUM. Stem upright, terminating in a leafy compound-spike:
leaves strap-spear-shaped, almost naked on the upper side, silky
beneath. Sm. E. Bot. 124-Pet. 18. 6-Lob. Adv. 202. 1, and Ic. i. 482. 3. G. Angl.
J. B. ii. 160. 1-Matth. 828. 2-Ger. 515. 1-Ger. Em. 639. 1-H. O.r.
vii. 11. 1. Leaves green and hairy above, white and cottony underneath ; root-leaves
long, strap-spear-shaped, very narrow, in open ground forming a thick tuft ; stem-leaves strap-shaped, embracing the stem, numerous. Stem in woods frequently solitary, twelve (or fewer, E.) to eighteen inches high, in open ground several from one root, shorter, often at first declining, but very soon ascending: Flowers in a long bunch. Flower-stalks very short, lateral, from the bosom of the leaves, with one to five or more flowers, the lowermost somewhat distant, the upper crowded. Flowerleaves similar to, but smaller than the stem-leaves. Heads very small. Calyx bluntly oval, greenish at the base, yellowish brown upwards, smooth, with shining edges; the outer short, the inner as long as the florets. Seeds minute; down sessile, as long as the calyx; rays simple.
Woodw. Blossom yellowish. (A doubtful species. E.) UPRIGHT CUDWEED. (English LiveLONG. Welsh : Edafeddog uniawn
syth y gocdwig. G. rectum. Sm. Willd. G. sylvaticum 3. Huds. Hook. Grev. E.) Pastures and woods in sandy soil. Rough pastures near Fladbury, Worcestershire. Nash. On the great Island in Winandermere. Armingdale wood, near Norwich. Mr. Woodward. Sandy heath a mile from Shiffnal, on the road to Wolverhampton. Banks of the canal in the parish of Coseley, Warwickshire. Dr. Stokes. (Ridgway, near Cookhill, Worcestershire: between Wixford and Bidford, on the side of the road, Warwickshire. Purton. Kinderscout, Derbyshire. Mr. W. Christy. Above the mills, Beaumaris. Welsh Bot. Pentland hills ; Figget Whins: Mr. Neill. Grev. Edin. Pastures and woods in the county of Durham. Mr. Robson. Lanes about Mottershall, Stafford shire. E.)
P. Aug. G. SUPI'NUM. Stem undivided, trailing: flowers few, scattered : (leaves
strap-spear-shaped, somewhat cottony on both sides. E.) Dicks. H. S.-E. Bot. 1193. E.)-Lightf. 20. 2. at p. 471-Scop. 57. at ii.
p. 152-Bocc. Rar. 20. 1, at p. 41. Root-leaves strap-spear-shaped, slightly hairy above, underneath cottony,
and greenish white, one half to three quarters of an inch long, in tufts; stem-leaves sessile, narrower and longer. Stem one and a half to three inches high. . Heads three and four, alternate, either sessile, or on short cottony fruit-stalks, from the bosom of the upper leaves, which are not longer than the heads. Calyx, scales spear-shaped, with a green longitudinal line at the base; the tips and edges shining, of a brownish yellow. Seeds elliptical ; down sessile, rays simple, as long as the forets and
longer than the calyx. Woodw. DWARF ALPINE CUDWEED. G. alpinum. Lightf. Dry mountainous
pastures and meadows. On almost all the Highland mountains. Mr. Brown. On the top of Ben Lomond. Sir J. E. Smith. (Ben Lawers, and Ben-y-Gloe. Mr. Winch. E.)
P. July-Aug. G. ULIGINO'sum. Stem branched, spreading : flowers crowded, in ter
minal clusters: (leaves strap-spear-shaped, cottony on both sides. E.)
Dicks. H. S.-Fl. Dán. 859–(E. Bot. 1194. E.)-H. O.x. vii. 11. 14, f. 4
--Dod. 66. 3-Lob. Ic. i. 481. 1-Ger. Em. 639. 2-Park. 686. Pet.
18. 7-Ger. 515. Stem three to nine inches high or more, upright, with a dense white cotton,
much branched ; branches spreading, more cottony and thicker towards the end, the lower often trailing, clothed with numerous leaves particularly towards the end, and these thickest and most cottony. Leaves elliptical, tapering into a long leaf-stalk, slightly cottony and greenish above, more cottony and whitish underneath. Flowers nearly sessile. Calyx, scales membranous spear-shaped, smooth, brown, shining, when in seed blackish, almost hid in the cotton. Down sessile, with simple rays, as long as the calyx. Woodw. Whole plant, particularly at the base of the calyxes and fruit-stalks, covered with a cottony substance. (Florets
yellowish, all fertile. E.) (Marsh Cudweed. E.) BLACK-HEADED Cudweed. (Welsh : Edafed
dog benddu. E.) In watery places, especially where stagnant water has remained during the winter.
A. Aug. G. GAL’LICUM. (Stem branched, upright : flowers awl-shaped, tufted,
axillary: leaves thread-shaped, revolute, sharp-pointed. E.)
Dicks. H. S.-(E. Bot. 2369. E.)-Pluk. 298. 2—Pet. 18. 12. Whole plant cottony, but the cotton shorter than that of G. germanicum or
montanum. Stem much branched. Leaves awl-shaped, half embracing the stem, about an inch long. Woodw. (Receptacle convex, tubercled. Calyx, scales green, downy, with a thin white border. Florets of the disk about three ; of the circumference more numerous, all tubular and fer
tile. Sm. E.) NARROW-LEAVED or Grass Cudweed. Filago Gallica. Linn. Gravelly
corn-fields. In sandy ground about Castle Haveningham, Essex, (not now to be found there. E.) Heaths, Derbyshire. Mr. Woodward. (Dry banks near Forfar; also near Newburgh, Fifeshire. Mr. D. Don. Hook. Scot. E.)
A. July-Aug. E.) G. (MIN'IMUM. E.) Stem upright, branched: (leaves spear-shaped,
sharp-pointed, flat: E.) flowers conical, in axillary and terminal
tufts. (E. Bot. 1157. E.)- Pet. 18. 11–H. Ox. vii. 11. 3. a.-Ger. 517. 8-Lob.
Ic. i. 481.2-Ger. Em. 641. 9–J. B. iii. q. 159-H. Ox. vii, 11. 3. b. (Stems very slender, erect, two to eight inches high, woolly ; branched,
chiefly from the first cluster of flowers, sometimes quite simple. Leaves erect, almost appressed, very small. Flowers small
, three to six together in clusters, sessile, and sometimes solitary. Calyx downy, scales subulate. Grev. Florets yellowish. Down rough. Receptacle tuber
cled. E.) LEAST CUDWEED. (Welsh : Edafeddog leiaf; Digoll lwyd. G. minimum.
Ray. Bauh. Sm. `Willd. Relh. Hook. Grey. G. montanum. With. Huds. Hull. and supposed to be Filago montana of Linnæus; but Smith observes that the real F. montana of Linnæus has leaves and flowers nearly double the size of our plant; that it is far more woolly, especially the scales of the calyx; that all the blossoms are crowded together, never solitary, and that it is not found in Britain. E.) Sandy and gravelly ground.
G. GERMAN'ICUM. (Stem erect, proliferous: heads globose, many
flowered, lateral and terminal : leaves acute: (calyx-scales
bristle-pointed. Sm. E.) (Hook. Fl. Lond.-E. Bot. 916. E.)-Fi. Dan. 997-Sheldr. 92—Park.
685. 3—Pet. 18. 10– Fuchs. 222_J. B. iii. a. 158–Lonic. i. 174. 3– Matth. 861- Dod. 66. 2-Lob. Obs. 255. 1, and Ic. i. 480. 2-Ger. Em.
642. 10-H. Or, vü. 11. 10-Pet. 18. 9-Ger, 517. 9. (Stem six to eight inches high, leafy, terminated by a globular head of
small ovate flowers, from beneath which spring several horizontal branches, in a proliferous manner, each terminated by a similar head of flowers; hence the old Botanists applied the term “ Herba impia" to this plant, as if the offspring were undutifully exalting itself above the parent. Florets
yellow. Hook. Whole herb grey and cottony. E.) Common CUDWEED. CHAPEWEED.* Irish: Liah Luss Roid. Welsh : Llys y gynddaredd;
Pen llwyd. G. Germanicum. Huds. Relh. Willd. Sm. Hook. Grev. E.). Filago Germanica. Linn. Lightf. Barren meadows, pastures, and road sides.
A. July-Aug.t CONY/ZA. Recept. naked: Down hair-like : Calyr tiled,
roundish: Florets of the circumference trifid. C. SQUARRO'SA. Leaves spear-shaped, downy, crenate: stem herba
ceous: flowers in a corymb: scales of the calyx with their
points recurved. (E. Bot. 1195. E.)-Blackw. 102–J. B. ii. 1051. 2-Matth. 870—Clus. ii.
21. 2—Dod. 51. 2-Lob. Obs. 308, 3, and Ic. i. 574. 1-Ger. Em. 792
Park. 114-Pet. 18. 1-H. Or. vii. 19. 23-Fl. Dan. 622. Leaves oval-spear-shaped, irregularly serrated, woolly on both sides, de
creasing in size upwards, those at the base of the flowering branches spear-shaped, or strap-spear-shaped, scarce perceptibly serrated. Flowers numerous. Fruit-stalks short, woolly. Floral-leaves spear-shaped, small, one on each fruit-stalk. Calyx, scales strap-spear-shaped, numerous, the lower green, the upper yellowish, points green and expanding. Seeds small, blackish, furrowed. Down sessile, as long as the calyx. Woodw. Stem two or three feet high; nearly cylindrical, reddish, rough with short woolly hairs. Blossom dusky purple, or yellowish. (The whole
plant bitter, and slightly aromatic. Receptacle tubercled. E.) PLowman's SPIKENARD. (Welsh : Cadowydd; Meddyg Mair. E.) Mountainous meadows and pastures and road sides in a calcareous soil
. Woods in Norfolk in a clayey soil, very common. Sir J. E. Smith. At Force Forge, and at Hollow Oak' in Furness Fells. Mr. Jackson. On the common near Pennybridge. Mr. Atkinson. (Plentiful about St. Vincent's Rocks, Bristol. Fl. Brit. Penmon, &c. Anglesey. Welsh Bot. At the foot of Knowle-hill, Brislington, near Bristol. Dr. C. Fox. About Corfe Castle, in the lanes about Marnhull, and under Hod Hill, Dorset. Dr. Pulteney: Holcombe lane side; and vale of Dudcombe, near Painswick. Mr. Oade Roberts. Box Hill, and Matlock. Mr. Winch.
* (As being used to cure chafed fesh. E.)
+ It is giren to cattle that hare the bloody flux ; and has been tried with success in similar disorders of the human body.
(From xówuta, i, e. cuni-lago: the leaves, according to Plioy, destroying gnats and fleas. E.)