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oval, terminated by an awn, scored with red veins, slightly woolly. Head single, usually roundish, situate between a pair of nearly sessile leaves, and in part surrounded by their stipulæ, smaller, and of a deeper purple than those of T. medium. Calyx short, slightly woolly, generally scored with red veins; teeth bristle-shaped, woolly, usually tinged with purple. Blossom reddish purple, sometimes white; of one petal; tube long; standard longer than the wings and keel, blunt, notched at the end; wings blunt. St. Stems always bowed upwards at the base. Branches and leaves upright, not wide apart. Calyx lower tooth far shorter than the tube of the blossom. Afzel.
PURPLE TREFOIL. RED CLOVER.
Var. 2. Smaller. Leaves inversely heart-shaped, the upper generally opposite. Spike bare. Ray.
Ray 13. 1.
English Botanists have considered this as a smaller var. of T. pratense, the stipula being awned and the teeth of the calyx nearly equal, as in that species; but it differs in other respects very materially, the leaves being opposite, the leafits small, short, inversely heart-shaped, the fruit-stalk very long and destitute of floral-leaves. Afzel. Linn. Tr. i. 227.
Between Peckham and Camberwell. Hudson.
Var. 3. Cultivated. Larger and more upright than var. 1. Leaves somewhat paler and thinner. Flowers somewhat paler. Does not propagate itself by seed, or continue so long in the ground. Ray.
Fl. Dan. 989.
Stems strong, almost smooth, furrowed, twice as tall as those of var. 1. Heads large, oval, hairy. Petals more expanding, and styles shorter than those of var. 1. Mill.
The heads are used in Sweden to dye woollen green. With alum they give a light, with copperas a dark green. (This is one of the oldest and most useful plants in cultiva-' tion, yielding an abundant and nutritive crop; but it soon exhausts the ground. Mr. Salisbury remarks that the seeds of Clover have the property of remaining long in the ground after it has appeared to be exhausted, when ashes laid on will by their stimulating effects, cause the seeds to vegetate. Hence some persons have affirmed that (soap) ashes, when scattered over land, will produce Clover, (vid. 7. repens.)
"Nature should provide
Green grass and fatt'ning Clover for their food,"
Cattle should be turned into heavy crops of Clover at first very cautiously, or it may soon prove fatal, especially if wet with dew or rain. When intended for immediate use, it should be mown in the middle of the day. Clover seeds of all kinds are necessary ingredients in laying down pasture lands.-Bees extract much honey from the sweet scented blossoms. The young plants are often injured by the same little jumping beetles, Hallica, that attack turnips. See Obs. on the Clover Weevil in Linn. Tr. vol. vi. A small weevil, also Apion flavifemoratum, feeds upon the seed of Purple Clover, and in most seasons does the crop considerable damage. But this mischief is moderated by the penetrating Ichneumon, froni whose research the insect, concealed even within the legume of the plant, is not secure. Indeed, so wisely and mercifully is the balance adjusted throughout the whole economy of nature, that, though the impending evil be calculated to excite serious apprehension, we may rest assured that He who rides on the tempest and directs the storm, also works by means imperceptibly minute for the general welfare of created being. E.)
Broad-leaved Clover. Meadows and pastures.
Var. 4. Flowers cream-coloured: in other respects exactly resembling T. pratense.
A single specimen, found by the Rev. Mr. Swayne, in a field belonging to Tracy Park, near Bath. (Two solitary plants observed in a field of pur ple, near Uxbridge, by Mr. W. Christy. E.)
This plant has not the general hairiness, the long horns of the stipula, or the very long tooth of the calyx, so striking in T. ochroleucum.
(Var. 5. T. pratense perenne. Perennial Red Clover of Sinclair.
Root slightly creeping, extremely fibrous. Of a darker green than the common Broad-leaved Clover, with more hairs on the stem and leaves, and less upright. The sheaths are terminated with narrower and longer points, which are set with longer hairs. Flower-stalks longer and more slender, with a disposition to grow flexuose. Heads of flowers less crowded, though equally large. When young the flower-head is extremely pubescent.
In the fertile grazing lands between Wainfleet and Skegness, in Lincolnshire, this true Perennial Red Clover abounds.†
T. OCHROLEU CUM. Spikes villous, terminal: stem upright, pubescent: lower leafits inversely heart-shaped lower tooth of the calyx as long as the tube of the blossom.
Dicks. H. S.-Curt.-(E. Bot. 1224. E.)-Jacq. Austr. 40.
Stem more hairy, and stipule sheathing to a greater extent, and running out into longer awns than in T. pratense. Gouan. Leaves alternate; leafits sessile, the lower ones heart-shaped and egg-shaped in the same plant. Woodw. These circumstances, together with the great length of the lower tooth of the calyx, sufficiently distinguish it from the yellow-flowered var. of T. pratense. (Bloss. sulphur coloured, in roundish, dense, heads. Stems twelve to eighteen inches high. E.)
Ray's Trifolium pratense hirsutum majus, flore albo-sulphureo, Syn. 328, belongs to this species, as Hudson determined, and not to the variety above-mentioned.
SULPHUR-COLOURED TREFOIL. (T. squarrosum, as well as ochroleucum. Linn. fid. Sm. E.) Dry meadows, pastures, and thickets, in a chalky soil in Essex, Cambridgeshire, Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire, Dupper's Hill, Croydon, and near Stamford. Bath Hills, near Bungay. Mr. Woodward. (Sunderland Ballast Hills. Mr. Weighell. Clapham, Bedfordshire. Rev. Dr. Abbot. E.) B. June-July.
* Much cultivated. It is either grazed, or made into hay. Swine, goats, horses, and cows are fond of it. Linn. It seldom remains in the ground more than two years. Mr. Woodward.
(It should be combined with other grasses, and is either suitable to the alternate husbandry, (for which T. medium is inadmissible on account of its creeping roots), or for permanent pasture, for which it is peculiarly adapted. Such are its advantages for clayey and peaty soils: in dry light land T. medium is preferable. Hort. Gram. E.)
(Smith pronounces the herbage to be very sparing and not lasting;" and suspects the plant may prove merely annual. Apion assimile is found upon it. E.)
(T. STELLA'TUM. Spikes hairy, egg-shaped: stipule elliptical: calyx teeth spreading, leafy, equal, taper-pointed: stems spreading; leafits inversely heart-shaped, toothed. E. Bot.
Hook. Fl. Lond. 95-E. Bot. 1545-Barr. 860.
Herb varying much in luxuriance, always considerably hairy. Stems spreading, branched, clothed with soft horizontal hairs. Leafits strongly ribbed. Flowers in round or ovate heads. Calyx very hairy, furrowed; its orifice is surrounded with an elegant red and white circle when about half grown. Standard of the blossom red; the other petals pale red or white. E. Bot. (In nothing so remarkable as in the enlarged spread segments of the calyx, of a rich brown colour when the seeds are ripe. Fl. Lond. E.)
STARRY-HEADED TREFOIL, T. stellatum. Linn. Discovered by Mr. Bor rer in July, 1804, growing in great plenty between Shoreham harbour, Sussex, and the sea, (but on the Ballast Hills, and no where else in Britain. E.) A. July. E.) T. MARITIMUM. Spikes hairy, globular: stipulæ spear-shaped, upright: calyx teeth spreading and dilated after flowering: leafits inversely egg-spear-shaped: upper leaves opposite.
Dicks. H.S.-(Hook. Fl. Lond. 57. E.)—E. Bot. 220—H. Ox. ii. 14, upper left hand figure-Pluk. 113. 4.
(Stems numerous, spreading, often decumbent, about a foot long, branched, cylindrical, scored, slightly hairy. Bloss. pale red. One of those Trefoils distinguished by the teeth of the calyx becoming remarkably leafy, and much dilated, as the flower fades, and the seed ripens. In this it agrees with T. stellatum, but differs from pratense and its allies, as well as from arvense, whose teeth, though permanent and rigid, do not become leafy or dilated. Sm. E.)
TEASEL-HEADED TREFOIL. T. maritimum. Huds. Ed. 1. Sm. T. stellatum. Huds. Ed. ii. and With. Ed. ii. but not of Linn. Common on the southern sea coast. Dartford Saltmarsh. Richardson, in R. Syn. Leigh and Little Holland, Essex; in Somersetshire. Ray. Tilbury Fort. Petiver. Sheerness. Doody. In the meadows by the river side between the Hot-wells and Bristol. Mr. Swayne. Norfolk. Mr. Pitchford. (Willington Ballast Hills, Durham. Mr. Winch. Sunderland Ballast Hills. Mr. Weighell. E.) A. June-July.
(4) BLADDER TREFOILS. Calyx inflated and gibbous. T. FRAGIFERUM. Heads roundish: calyx of the fruit reflexed: upper lip bi-dentate, inflated: stems creeping.
Dicks. H. S.-Curt.-(E. Bot. 1050. E.)-Fl. Dan. 1042-Vaill. 22. 2— J. B. ii. 379. 3. b.-H. Ox. ii. 13. 14-Clus. Cur. 39-Ger. Em. 1208Park. 1109. 5.
Blossom purple. Stipula in pairs, oval-spear-shaped, drawn out into a long point, smooth. Leafits heart or egg-shaped, smooth, very slightly serrated. Fruit-stalks naked, longer than the leaf-stalks. Woodw. (The habit of T. repens. Legume at the bottom of the calyx, two-seeded. Fl. Brit. E.) (Root producing granulations. Heads of flowers small. Calyr ultimately becoming coloured, and aiding the general resemblance to a strawberry. E.)
STRAWBERRY-HEADED TREFOIL. (Welsh: Meillionen fefusaidd. E.) Moist meadows. About London, frequent. Moist places near the sea in the county of Durham. Mr. Robson. (In Darnley Vale: upon the undercliff, Sandgate east, Kent. Mr. G. E. Smith. North Shore, Liverpool. Dr. Bostock. About Holyhead. Welsh Bot. Leith Links. Mr. J. T. Mackay. Hook. Scot. E.) P. July-Aug.
(5) (HOP TREFOILS. Standard of the blossom incurved, permanent.
T. PROCUM BENS. (Heads oval, imbricated: standard deflexed, permanent, furrowed: stems procumbent : leafits obovate. E. Bot.
E. Bot. 945. E.)-Curt. 161; T. agrarium-Vaill. 22. 3—Riv. Tetr. 10. 1, T. lupulinum-Fl. Dan. 796-Walc.—J. B. ii. 381. 1—H. Ox. ii. 13. í and 2, the uppermost of the 2 figures.
(Stems leafy, hairy, from four to ten or twelve inches long, cylindrical below, angular when they turn upwards. Leafits notched, toothed, veiny, smooth, a little glaucous. Common foot-stalks always longer than the partial stalk of the central leaflet. Stipule ribbed, often fringed. Flowers about fifty, bright yellow; standard finally deflexed, dry and membranous, sheltering the single-seeded, small, pointed, solitary legume. Sm.
T. procumbens of Huds. Lightf. Curt., &c. is considered by Linnæus only a variety of T. filiforme. Afzel. the T. minus of Relh. Sm. E.)
HOP TREFOIL. (YELLOW SUCKLING. Salisb. Welsh: Meillionen hoppysaidd. T. procumbens. Linn. Willd. Sm. Hook. Grev. T. agrarium. Huds. Lightf. Curt. E.) Dry meadows and pastures. A. June-July.†
T. FILIFORME. Spikes oval, loosely tiled, few-flowered: stems trailing.
(E. Bot. 1257. E.)-Ray 14. 4.
Stems three to six inches long. Stipula in pairs, oval-spear-shaped. Leafstalks very short. Leafits mostly heart-wedge-shaped, very entire at the base, serrated upwards, strongly veined, smooth, nearly sessile. Fruitstalks from the bosom of the leaves smooth. Flowers when wild mostly three, seldom more than five. Pedicles extremely slender, from half to one line long. Floral-leaves awl-shaped, very minute, one at the base of the pedicle of the middle flower, none on the others. Calyx half as long as the blossom, with five scores; the two upper teeth shortest, the lower longer, the lowermost the longest. Blossom pale yellow; standard eggshaped, somewhat notched, keeled. Woodw. (Seed one, rarely two. E.)
SLENDER YELLOW TREFOIL. (Welsh: Meillionen felen eiddil. E.) Poor sandy heaths and pastures. A. May-July. (T. filiforme B. Fl. Brit. Hull. T. procum T. dubium. Smith. T. minus. Relh. Sm. to twenty-flowered.
Var. 2. Lesser Yellow Trefoil. bens. Huds. Lightf. Curt. Hook. E.) Spikes from eight
(This Trefoil is eaten by cattle, but is not recommended for culture, its produce being late and inconsiderable. E. Bot. E.)
+(According to Mr. Salisbury this is a very useful plant, seeding freely, growing readily, and affording a fine bite for sheep and cattle. But its being an annual must diminish its value to the agriculturist. E.)
Cart 307; T. procumbens-(E. Bot. 1256. E.)-Ray. 14. 3, at p. 332– H. Ox. ii. 13. 1 and 2. b, the lowermost of the 2 figures-Lob. Obs. 468. 1, and Ic. ii. 29. 2-Ger. Em. 1186. 6-Park. 1111. 5.
Stems numerous, six to twelve inches long, much branched. Stipulæ in pairs, obtusely oval-spear-shaped. Leaf-stalks short. Leafits heartwedge or egg-shaped, very entire towards the base, serrated upwards, the odd one on a short leaf-stalk, the side one nearly sessile, smooth. Fruit-stalks from the bosom of the leaves, longer than the leaf-stalks, slightly downy. Pedicles very short. Floral-leaves none. Flowers after flowering bent back, hanging loosely and separate. Woodw. Stem a little hairy. Leafits inversely heart-shaped, mid-rib a little hairy underneath, with about seven semi-transparent lateral ribs. Flowers yellow; loosely tiled. This is the most common sort of Hop Trefoil, and may be found in almost every dry, sandy, or gravelly pasture, especially where the turf is fine, but varying greatly in size according to the richness or poverty of the soil, and flowering from May to August. On considering that the above described plants frequently grow intermixed, are very similar in general habit, and subject to considerable variation in size, we hesitate to admit the latter as a distinct species. On this point the acute Greville observes, "I cannot find sufficient difference between T. filiforme and minus, to make them even varieties. The middle leafit is both sessile and petiolate on the same specimen in both plants, and is so represented in E. Bot. 1257 as T. filiforme. The teeth of the calyx, said by Sir J. E. Smith to be glabrous in the same plant, are figured in E. Bot. slightly hairy in both. The peduncles are pubescent in each; as to the latter being somewhat flexuose or straight, and the heads few or manyflowered, no importance can surely be placed on such characters." Fl. Edin. p. 162. E.)
T. SUFFOCATUM. Without stem or stalk: flowers nearly sessile on the root (seed-vessel inhumed, two-seeded. E.)
(E. Bot. 1049. E.)—Jacq. Hort. 60.
Flowers in clusters, sessile, axillary, buried in the earth. Calyx oblong, compressed, smooth, five-cleft, segment reflexed. Blossom within the tube of the calyx, colourless, (pale pink, according to Sm. transient. E.) Leaves ternate, inversely egg-shaped, smooth, somewhat toothed. Linn. Every part of the plant, except the leaves, is buried in the sand, (so that even its seeds are actually perfected subterraneously, and without light: E.) but on putting down a knife or a stick the whole plant may be raised, and then its flowers and fruit come into view. The clusters in some of the older plants are as large as a small nut. Woodw. (SUFFOCATED TREFOIL. Welsh: Meillionen fygiedig. E.) Discovered in England by Mr. Lilly Wigg, on the driest sandy part of Yarmouth Denes, near the sea; (and also found at Lowestoft, Suffolk, and other places on the eastern coast by Mr. Woodward. Plentiful on the Den at Teignmouth. Rev. Dr. Beeke, in Bot. Guide. Near the boat-house, Sandgate; the warren, New Romney; and the common, at Lydd. Mr. G. E. Smith. On Beaumaris Green. Welsh Bot. A. June-Sept. LOTUS. Calyx tubular: wings converging longitudinally upwards: legume straight, (cylindrical, spongy within. E.)
(The origin of this name seems involved in mystery. According to Herodotus it is of Egyptian extraction, and may probably be derived from A, to desire; as though valuable