Imatges de pÓgina

three-lobed," in M. Melissophyllum ; and " calyx four-lobed," in M. grandiflora, appears to be far from invariable. Curtis declares the divisions of the lips of the calyx to be "altogether inconstant;" the Rev. J. Pike Jones, who enjoys peculiarly favourable opportunities of studying the habits of these plants, observes, "the calyx of M. grandiflora is frequently trilobed:" and Smith himself admits that "the calyx varies a little with respect to occasional notches ;" and that this plant "generally resembles the preceding." The white margin, surrounding the purple spot on the lower lip of the blossom, cannot be accounted very material in constituting a species. "Nimium ne crede colori," says our great master; and in respect to size of blossom, it will not be found to exceed the general luxuriance of other parts of the individual (occasioned by favourable soil and situation. E.)


Melissophyllum. Riv.

Hedges and Woods in the West of England. About Totness, Devonshire; Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire; New Forest, Hants. (In St. Leonard's Forest, going down into Isemonger's Gill, by the cross road from Hand Cross to the Horsham road. Mr. Borrer. E.)

P. May-June.* SCUTELLA RIA.† Calyx, border nearly entire, after flowering covered by a dorsal rib.

S. GALERICULATA. Leaves heart-spear-shaped, scolloped, wrinkled:
flowers axillary.

Curt. 155-(E. Bot. 523. E.)-Kniph. 8-Riv. Mon. 77. 1, Scutellaria-
Blackw. 516-Walc.-Fl. Dan, 637—H. Ox. xi. 20, row 3. 6—Lob. Obs.
186. 3, and Ic. i. 344. 2-Dod. 93. 2-Ger. Em. 477. 10-Park. 221-
Pet. 34. 10.

(Stem acutely quadrangular, nearly smooth, twelve to eighteen inches
high, much branched. Blossom funnel-shaped, blue, externally pubes-
cent, solitary, three-fourths of an inch in length. Anthers purple. Sum-
mits simple. Leaves on very short leaf-stalks, wrinkled, veined, pubes-
cent, paler underneath. E.)

COMMON SCULL-CAP. (Welsh: Cyccyllog mwyaf. E.) Banks of rivers
and edges of ponds.
P. July-Aug.‡

S. MINOR. Leaves heart-egg-shaped, nearly entire: flowers axillary.
Dicks. H. S.-Curt. 283-(E. Bot. 524. E.)-Ger. Em. 581. 3-Park. 220.
4-H. Ox. xi. 20, row 3. 8-Pet. 34. 11-Ger. 466. 2.
Small and slender. Leaves egg-shaped with only one or two scollops at the
base. Woodw. Plant from four to eight inches high, generally un-
branched. Leaves sometimes egg-spear-shaped, a little serrated towards

(A truly elegant flower, not unfrequently admitted into gardens. Though of an
unpleasant scent when fresh, when dried it is said to become delightfully fragrant. E.)
+(From the resemblance of the calyx to a sort of cup with a lid to it, called scu-
tella. E.)

When the blossom falls off, the cup closes upon the seeds, which, when ripe, being still smaller than the cup, could not possibly escape, or overcome its elastic force, (as is done by the down of the seeds in the compound flowers,) and must consequently remain in useless confinement. But nature, ever fruitful of resources, finds a method to discharge them. The cup becoming dry, divides into two distinct parts; when the seeds, already detached from the receptacle, fall to the ground. Cows, goats, and sheep eat it; horses and swine refuse it.

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the base, slightly hairy. Calyx with two lips, but very slightly cloven; upper lip with a flat ridge running across it, which, when the blossom falls, enlarges, and pressing down the upper lip, closes the mouth of the calyx, giving it the appearance of a helmet; middle segment rather shorter, nearly flat; lower lip broad, rather reflexed, but neither notched at the end nor keeled beneath. Blossom pale reddish purple, the lower lip mottled within with deeper coloured spots. Anthers white. Summit slightly cloven. (Leaves broader and less wrinkled than those of the preceding species. Flowers scarcely half so large; very rarely blue, according to Curtis. E.)

LESSER SCULL-CAP. Boggy ground and edges of ponds. Hampstead Heath, (where Gerard first discovered it, in 1590, "neere unto the head of the springs that were digged for water to be conveied to London." E.) Mr. Aikin. Lewesdon Hill. Mr. Baker. In Goldmire, near Dalton. Mr. Atkinson. Seaman's Moss, on the part next to Altringham, Cheshire. Mr. Caley. (In Bagot's Park, and on Norton Bog, Staffordshire. Hon. Mr. Bagot. Needwood Forest, Staffordshire. In Terrington Car, Yorkshire. Teesdale. Sides of bogs on the forest near Tunbridge Wells. Forster, in Bot. Guide. In a pit at Streatham. Martyn. Putney and Shirley Commons. Curtis. Wareham Heath, and in Purbeck. Pulteney. Culgaith Moor, and Keswick. Hutchinson. Mr. Winch says no Botanist has since noticed it in Cumberland. Boggy places in Staley Moor, Cheshire. Mr. Bradbury. Swampy meadows and pastures about Carnarvon and Llanberris. Bingley. On the bogs of Haldon, Devon. Rev. J. Pike Jones. At Brabourne, Willesboro' Leas, and Ham Ponds, Kent. Mr. G. E. Smith. On Cae rhôs Lligwy, Anglesey. Welsh Bot. Banks of the Clyde at Rose-bank. Ure. Hook. Scot. E.) P. July-Aug. PRUNEL'LA.* Filaments forked, one of the divisions bearing the anther Summit cloven.

P. VULGARIS. All the leaves egg-oblong, serrated, on leaf-stalks: upper lip of the calyx lopped, tridentate.

Curt. 229-(E. Bot. 961. E.)-Ludw. 19—Kniph. 5-Fl. Dan. 910Blackw. 24-Mill. 69. 2—Dod. 136. 1-Lob. Obs. 251. 3, and Ic. i. 474. 2-Ger. Em. 632. 1—Park. 1680. 1—H. Ox. xi. 5, row 1. 1. f. 4-Pet. 32. 11-Walc.-Riv. Mon. 29. 1. Brunella-Ger. 507. 1-Fuchs. 621-J. B. iii. 428. 2-Trag. 310-Matth. 963.

In open sunny situations it grows trailing, and not above a finger's length, but in woods it is upright, and near a foot high. Linn. Whole plant thinly set with hairs. Leaves opposite. Floral-leaves heart-shaped, ribbed, edged with purple and fringed. Calyx, upper lip with seven ribs ; lower lip with two spear-shaped segments, each marked with three lines, and serrated with short stiff hairs. Blossom blue, purplish, or white; upper lip slightly notched at the end: lower lip, middle segment jagged. Summit, segments revolute. (Stem often branched, set with whitish hairs. Flowers densely whorled, forming an obtuse, cylindrical, oblong, solitary spike. E.)

(Var. Fl. alb. Aspatria Moss, Cumberland. Rev. J. Dodd. E.) SELF-HEAL. (Irish: Keannavan beug. Welsh: Meddyges lás, E.) Meadows and pastures. P. Aug.

(From the German die breune, sore throat; the plant having formerly been esteemed as a vulnerary for the cure of aptha and inflammation of the fauces. E.)



Capsule two-celled: (Seeds angular. E.)

B. VISCO'SA. Upper leaves alternate, serrated: flowers distant, lateral: (stem cylindrical. E.)

(Hook. Fl. Lond. 167-E. Bot. 1045. E.)-Lightf. 14 at p. 321-Ger. 85— Pluk. 27. 5-Pet. 36. 6-Barr. 665.

Stem cylindrical, simple, though sometimes branched nearly to the middle; about a foot high. Leaves sessile spear-shaped, sharply serrated, slightly hairy. Flowers solitary, axillary, on short fruit-stalks. Calyx very large, as long as the blossom, with four or five deep divisions. Blossoms yellow. Filaments rolled spirally. (Whole plant viscid. Bloss. having a large, patent three-lobed lower lip, with two tubercles in the centre. Seeds destitute of winged angles. Hook. E.)

(YELLOW VISCID BARTSIA. E.) Marshes in Cornwall and Devon. Near
Ormskirk, Lancashire. Hudson. Cornfields near Plengwarry, and Cos-
garne, Cornwall. Mr. Watt. (Allerton, near Liverpool. Mr. R. Roscoe;
Crosby, and four miles north-west of Warrington, plentiful. Dr. Bos-
tock. Banks of Gair Loch, Scotland. Mr. Winch. In fields above Dart-
mouth Castle. Rev. J. P. Jones. Plentiful in a field opposite the county
gaol at Bodmin, and at the Land's End. Mr. W. Christy. In a pasture
opposite the hill of Dumbuck, at the western end of the range of Kilpa-
trick mountains. Mr. Maughan; and near Greenock battery. Mr. M. Y.
Starke. Fl. Lond. Meadows about Drymma, and other places near
Swansea. Mr. Dillwyn. Said to be common in the counties of Kerry
and Cork. E.).
A. July-Sept.


Leaves opposite, (obscurely heart-shaped; E.) bluntly serrated: (stem quadrangular. E.)

Dicks. H.S.-(Hook. Fl. Lond. 87-E. Bot. 361. E.)—Fl. Dan. 43—Pluk. 163. 5-Pon. in Clus. ii. 343.

(The upper leaves or bracteas, smaller, and tinged with violet colour. E.)
Blossoms in leafy spikes, (deep purplish violet colour, three times the
length of the coloured viscid calyx, claviform, a little curved. Stem
about a span high, upright, simple, leafy. Turns singularly black in
drying; Hooker: as also does the former species. E.)

ALPINE BARTSIA or PAINTED-CUP. Banks of rivers in rough sunny
places. By a rivulet near Orton, in crossing the road to Crosby, West-
moreland. Ray. (Among rocks to the east of Malghyrdy in the High-
lands of Scotland. Dickson. Near Widdy Bank in Teesdale Forest,
Durham, Mr. Winch.
P. July-Sept. E.)
B. ODONTITES. (Leaves spear-shaped, serrated: upper ones alternate:
flowers in unilateral clusters: stem quadrangular. E.)

(So named by Linnæus in honor of his beloved friend, Dr. John BARTSCH, of Koningsberg, a most ingenious young man of great promise, devoted to the study of nature, who perished untimely whilst pursuing his researches in Surinam, whither he was sent by the illustrious Boerhaave. This event is feelingly lamented by Linnæus in his "Flora Suecica," p. 211. "Juvene pulcherrimo, candidissimo et certe doctissimo ac nationis su meliori fato, si quis alius, dignissimus." E.)


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Curt.-Kniph. 12-(E. Bot. 1415. E.)-Fl. Dan. 625-Riv. Mon. 90. 2, Odontites-Dod. 55-Lob. Obs. 261. 2, and Ic. i. 496. 2-Ger. Em. 91,2— Park. 1329. 3—H. Ox. xi. 24. 10-Pet. 36. 4-Ger. 85.

Stem about a foot high, bluntly four-cernered, rough. Branches in opposite pairs. Leaves sessile, opposite, rough; spear, or strap-spear-shaped. Flowers pointing one way, forming long, terminal, leafy bunches. Calyx hairy without, coloured. Blossom pubescent; upper lip slightly notched at the end; lower lip, middle segment slightly indented. Filaments flatted. The lobes of all the anthers terminate at the base in a short taper point, and between the lobes are white club-shaped substances. Germen compressed, hairy, surrounded and sheathed at the base by a thin membrane. Summit a knob. Leaves sometimes reddish. Blossoms dusky red, or purple: (rarely white. Curt. Seeds angular, striated. Sm. E.)

Var. 2. Flowers white. Stem very pale green. Leaves without any tinge of red.

Gathered by Rev.

Bourne on Northington Farm, Grimley, near Worcester. (Mr. Woodward also found this variety growing near Diss, in Norfolk. E.)

(RED BARTSIA or PAINTED-CUP. (Irish: Ruisnin Raihairk. Welsh: Gwaedlys bychan. B. Odontites. Huds. Relh. Sm. Hook. Grev. Euphrasia Odontites. Linn. (Lightf. With. to Ed. 7. Hull. Sibth. Abbot. Curt. In corn-fields, meadows, and pastures. E.) A. July-Sept.

RHINAN THUS.* Calyx quadrifid, inflated: Capsule twocelled, compressed: (Seeds compressed, imbricated. E.) R. CRIS'TA-GAL'LI. (Upper lip of the blossom compressed, arched, and shorter: calyx smooth: leaves spear-shaped, serrated. E.)

Curt. 320-(E. Bot. 657. E.)-Kniph. 12-Fl. Dan. 981-Riv. Mon. 92. 2, Christa Galli-Dod. 556. 1-Lob. Obs. 285. 2, and Ic. i. 529. 2—Ger. Em. 1071. 1-Park. 713. 2—H. Ox. xi. 23, row 2. 1-Pet. 36. 2-Walc.-J. B. iii. 436. 3-Ger. 912.

Calyx equal, four-cleft, (enlarged after flowering. E.) Capsule bordered at the edge. Seeds inclosed by a loose membrane. Linn. Stems obscurely quadrangular, with dark purple stains. Leaves in pairs, opposite, sessile, above dark green and rough, beneath grey, curiously reticulated with green veins. Blossom yellow; segments of the upper lip bluish. Germens surrounded at the base by a membranous nectary, and in the front a short, thick, crooked, horn-shaped gland. The seeds when ripe rattle in the capsule, (whence its English name, and announce mid hayharvest. E.)

Var. 2. Linn. (Willd. R. major. Ehrh. Sm. Blossoms smaller, upper lip purple. (Also distinguished, according to Dr. Richardson, by its greater size, being two feet high, and much branched, bushy appearance. E.) Corn-fields between Wetherby and Catall, and near Boroughbridge, Yorkshire; and West Newton, Northumberland. Ray. (Frequent in the mountainous pastures near Llanberris, North Wales. Mr. Griffith. E.) YELLOW RATTLE. (COCK'S-COMB. PENNY-WEED. Irish: Bodan Chloi

(From pí, the nose; and avtos, a flower; in allusion to the form of the blossom, though not a palpable hit. E.)

gin. Welsh: Cribell melyn; Arian gwion. E.) Meadows, pastures,
and woods.
A. June-July.


Cal. four-cleft: Anthers spinous: Caps. two-celled, egg-oblong: Seeds few, reclining, striated. E. OFFICINALIS. Leaves egg-shaped, furrowed, sharply toothed. Curt. 335—Fl. Dan. 1037—(E. Bot. 1416. E.)—Woodv. 220—Sheldr. 48— Kniph. 8-Walc.-Ludw. 135-Riv. Mon. 90. 1, Euphrasia.-H. Ox. xi. 24. 1. b.-Matth. 1022-Ger. 537. 1-Dod. 54. 3-Lob. Obs. 261. 1, and Ic. i. 491. 1-Ger. Em. 663-Park. 1329. 1—H. Ox. xi. 24. a.-Fuchs. 247-Trag. 238-J. B. iii. 432. 3-Blackw. 427.

Stems reddish, one to six inches high, pubescent. Branches in opposite pairs. Leaves sessile, mostly opposite, hairy. Calyx with five flat sides and five angles, but segments rarely five, unequal, spear-shaped, dark purple at the ends, with a few dark purple globular glands on the outside. Anthers brown, with a few white hairs on the lower part where they open. Summit fringed with minute glands round the edge. Seedvessel slightly notched, pubescent towards the top, and marked with black dots. Seeds egg-shaped. Blossoms gaping, bluish white, with purple streaks, (axillary, numerous, and elegant; subject to considerable variation in size and colour. E.)

EYE-BRIGHT. (Irish: Linn Raihairk: Luss na bainne. Welsh: Goleu-
drem; Effros. Gaelic: Rein-an-ruisg. E.) Heaths; dry barren mea-
dows, mountainous pastures, and downs.
A. June-Sept.t
MELAMPY RUM. Cal. four-cleft: Bloss. upper lip com-
pressed, edges reflexed: Caps. two-celled, compressed,
opening on one side: Seeds two, gibbous, smooth.

M. CRISTA TUM. Spikes quadrangular: floral-leaves heart-shaped, finely toothed, closely imbricated.

E. Bot. 41-(Fl. Dan. 1104. E.)—Kniph. 11—Riv. Mon. 81. 1, M. cristatum-Pluk. 99. 2—J. B. iii. 440. 2-H. Ox. xi, 23. 2.

Whole plant nearly smooth, much branched. Stems one and a half to two feet high, sometimes roughish. Branches opposite, numerous, diverging, so that where numbers grow together they are so entangled that it is almost impossible to extricate them. Leaves nearly two inches in length,

*(From suppaw, to give joy, as by its reputed power of restoring impaired vision. E.) It is a weak astringent, and was formerly in repute as a specific opthalmic. It flourishes most when surrounded by plants taller than itself. Cows, horses, goats, and sheep eat it. Swine refuse it. (It is supposed to be an ingredient in Rowley's British herb tobacco and snuff. Though the medicinal properties of Eyebright bave long fallen into discredit, frequent mention is made of them in the older writers: and Milton, probably with no small personal feeling in his days of darkness, thus alludes to them:

." But to nobler sights
Michael from Adam's eyes the film remov'd,
Which that false fruit that promis'd clearer sight
Had bred; then purg'd with Euphrasy and rue
The visual nerve, for he had much to see." E.)

(From λog, black; and wupos, wheat; communicating a grey colour when mixed with wheat flour. E.)

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