Imatges de pàgina

Ox. xi. 5. row 1. 1. f. 1-Pet. 32. 6-Fuchs. 351-Trag. 198-J. B. 301Matth. 944-Ger. 577. 2.

Stems leafy, one to two feet high, square, hairy. Root-leaves oblong-heartshaped, scolloped, hairy, on long leaf-stalks. Stem-leaves distant, spearshaped, serrated. Woodw. Stem-leaves more strap than spear-shaped. Hairs on the stem laid flat and pointing downwards. Blossom purple, (or dull rose-colour, rarely white, downy. The leaves are often discoloured by dots occasioned by a minute Lycoperdon. E.)

WOOD BETONY. (Welsh: Cribau St. Fraid; Dannogen. E.) Woods and shady groves. Plentiful about Manchester, both in shady and exposed places. Mr. Caley. Meadows in St. Faith's, near Norwich. Mr. Crowe. Ripton, Huntingdonshire; pastures, Herts. Mr. Woodward. (Hollington, near Hastings. Dr. Bostock. Collington and Auchindenny woods. Maughan. Hook. Scot. E.) P. July-Aug.

STACHYS. Bloss. upper lip vaulted; lower lip reflexed at the sides; middle segment notched: Stamens after shedding the pollen bent to the sides.

S. SYLVATICA. Six flowers in a whorl: leaves heart-shaped, stalked. Curt. 183-(E. Bot. 416-Fl. Dan. 1102. E.)-Riv. Mon. 26. 2-Stachys sylvatica.-Blackw. 84. 2—Clus. ii. 36. 1—Ger. Em. 704. 5-Park. 908. 1-H. Ox. xi. 11. 10-Pet. 32. 7-Trag. 5-Lonic. i. 109. 3-Blackw. 84. 1.

(Herb hairy all over. Stems undivided, two feet high, solid. Spike interrupted, leafy at the base, bearing floral-leaves towards the top. Fl. Brit. E.) Floral-leaves spear-shaped, acuminate. Blossoms deep purple with white spots. Tube of the blossom much longer than the calyx.

(Var. 2. S. ambigua. E. Bot. 2089 seems chiefly distinguished by a hollow stem, according to Smith, leaves less decidedly heart-shaped, and paler herbage.

Woods at Inverary. Maughan. Orkneys, and in Ross-shire. Hooker. Habbies How, Pentland Hills. Mr. Weatherhead. By the London road, about a furlong north of Quorndon, also at Sheepshead, Leicestershire. Rev. W. Parkinson. Sm. Eng. Fl. By the Skern, near Burdon mill, Durham. Mr. Winch. E.)

Var. 3. Smaller leaves angular.

HEDGE WOUNDWORT. (Welsh: Briwlys y goedwig. E.) Hedges and woods. P. July-Aug.t

(This plant was formerly much used in medicine, and considered an universal remedy, but it is discarded from modern practice; perhaps merely from the disappointment of unreasonable expectation. Antonius Musa, physician to the Emperor Augustus, introduced it into such general repute in Italy, that "Vende la tonica, et compra la Betonica," sell your coat and buy Betony, became a prevalent proverb. Fernelius and Pliny likewise extol its virtues; and in Spain, of the superlatively excellent it is said, "She has as many virtues as Betony." E.) It is not destitute of virtues, for when fresh it intoxicates, and the dried leaves excite sneezing. It is often smoked as tobacco. The root promotes vomiting, (and is violently purgative. E.) Sheep eat it. Goats refuse it. (It has been suspected that the sternutatory effect is merely mechanical, occasioned by the hairs of the leaves. It enters into the composition of Rowley's British herb tobacco and snuff. E.)

+ (From σrayus, a spike, or ear of corn; the flowers affecting that form. E.)

It will dye yellow. The whole plant has a fetid scent, and toads are thought to be


Six to ten flowers in a whorl leaves strap-spear

shaped, half embracing the stem, sessile.

Curt. 208-(E. Bot. 1675-Fl. Dan. 1103. E.)-Kniph. 7—Riv. Mon. 26. 1, Stachys palustris.—Sheldr. 45—Ger. 565. 2—Ger. Em. 1005-Blackw. 273-Ger. 852-Park. 852-Pet. 33. 9.

(Roots creeping, becoming tuberous in autumn, and hence difficult of extirpation. Sm. E.) Stems quadrangular, rough with hairs pointing downwards. Leaves in opposite pairs, very soft, unequally serrated, spreading half way round the stem. Floral-leaves, two small ones under each whorl. Calyr purple, beset with fine hairs terminating in small globules. Blossom reddish purple, mottled; tube white; mouth compressed; upper lip, and all the segments of the lower lip, slightly notched at the end. (Spike long and dense, herbage strong-scented. E.)

ALL-HEAL. (MARSH WOUNDWORT. Irish: Cuslin gan Dauri. Welsh: Briwlys y gors. E.) Watery places and banks of rivers. P. Aug.* S. ARVEN'SIS. Six flowers in a whorl leaves heart-shaped, crenate, blunt, almost naked: blossoms as long as the calyx: stem weak. Curt. 246—(E. Bot, 1154. E.)—Fl. Dan. 587—Riv. Mon. 27. 2, Stachys arv. min.-Pet. 33. 12.

Stem twelve to eighteen inches high, quadrangular, blunt, with spreading branches, sometimes decumbent; rough with hair. Leaves much less hairy than the stem. Leaf-stalks hairy. Calyx sessile, hairy, with five equal, sharp-pointed, shallow clefts. Blossom whitish, or flesh colour, scarcely so long as the calyx; helmet very entire; lip trifid, the middle one the broadest, purplish, dotted, not notched.

CORN WOUNDWORT. (Welsh: Briwlys yr âr. E.) In corn-fields, (not uncommon. E.) A. June-Aug.

fond of living under its shade; (rather, as in some other instances, from the moisture of such spots, than from any peculiar predilection in the reptile for disagreeable smells. E.) Sheep and goats eat it. Horses, cows, and swine refuse it. (Mr. Purton suggests that with many others of this Class, it may be converted to the same purposes as hemp and flax. F.)

(A plant formerly in high repute as a vulnerary, as its English names intimate. For a curious account of its problematical virtues refer to Gerard. In a sceptical age, little credit is given to the accounts transmitted by our forefathers of the wonder-working efficacy of various native herts; and the plants are therefore rather too unceremoniously cast aside. Doubtless many of them merit more strict attention, and that they and their reported virtues may not be wholly lost sight of, it is still important to discriminate them by their more ancient or vulgar names. Nor were these, to the confiding patients, devoid of comfort: for, as it is pleasantly observed in the Journal of a Naturalist, “modern science may wrap up the meaning of its epithets in Greek and Latin terms; but what pleasure it must have afforded the poor sufferer when the good neighbour came to bathe his wounds, or assuage his inward torments, with such things as "All-heal, Break-stone, Bruise-wort, Gout-weed, Fefer-few " (fugio), and twenty other such comfortable mitigators of his afflictions; why, their very names would almost charm away the sense of pain! And then the herbalist of old professed to have plants which were All-good;" they could assuage anger by their "Loose-strife; "they had "Honesty, True-love, and Heartsease." The extra tropical condiments of these days were not required, when the next thicket would produce "Poor Man's Pepper, Sauce Alone, and Hedge Mustard;" and the woods and wilds around, when they yielded such delicate viands as "Fat-hen, Lambs'quarters, Way-bread, Butter and Eggs, with Codlins and Cream," afforded no despicable bill of fare. The terms of modern science fluctuate daily; names undergo an annual change, fade with the leaf, and give place to others; but the ancient terms, which some may ridicule, have remained for centuries, and will yet remain till nature is swallowed up by art." E.)


S. GERMAN'ICA. Many flowers in a whorl: serratures of the leaves lapping over each other, densely silky: stem cottony.

Jacq. Austr. 319-Kniph. 10-(E. Bot. 829. E.)-Riv. Mon. 27. 1, Stachys mont.-Fl. Dan. 684-Barr. Ic. 297-Fuchs. 766—J. B. iii. 320-Trag. 9. 1-Lonic. i. 110. 1-ii. 30. 4—Ger. 563. 2-Matth. 830-Dod. 90. 3Lob. Obs. 285. 4, and Ic. i. 530. 2-Ger. Em. 695. 2-Park. 48. 2—H. Ox. xi. 10. 1.

Whole plant white with a thick silky down. Lower-leaves heart-spearshaped; upper spear-shaped, wrinkled, sharply serrated. Blossom, lip covered with down. Woodw. Leaves thick, soft and cloth-like. Blossom purplish red.

(HOARY OF DOWNY WOUNDWORT. E.) GERMAN WOUNDWORT. Hedges about Witney Park, Oxfordshire, plentiful, and four miles south of Grantham, near the London road, opposite Easton. Frequent in Oxfordshire. Mr. Newberry. Between Blenheim and Ditchley. Mr. Woodward. (Pinxton, Derbyshire. Mr. Coke, in Bot. Guide. Near Olney. Mr. W. Christy. E.) P. July.* BALLO'TA.+ Calyx salver-shaped, with five teeth and ten furrows: Bloss. upper lip concave, crenate.

B. NI'GRA. Leaves heart-shaped, undivided, serrated: calyx (somewhat truncated, with short spreading segments. E.)

Kniph. 6-Blackw. 136-E. Bot. 46-Fuchs. 154—J. B. iii. 318. 1—Riv. Mon. 65. 1, Marrubiastr.-Matth. 825-Clus. ii. 34. 1-Dod. 90. 1-Lob. Obs. 279. 1, and Ic. i. 518. 2-Ger. Em. 701. 1-Park. 1230. 3-H. Ox. xi. 9. 14-Pet. 32. 4.

(Whole plant pubescent, with a pungent, acrid odour. Stem two or three feet high, upright, branched, with hairs reflexed. E.) Lower leaves heart-shaped, upper ones egg-shaped. Floral-leaves bristle-shaped, fringed. Whorls extending half way round the stem. Calyx hairy, rim five-cornered; teeth ending in sharp bristle-shaped points. Blossom tube containing honey, closed above by five hairy tufts; upper lip hairy, not very entire, purple, variegated with white lines. The calyx attaining its full size long before the blossoms expand, the latter appear as if already fallen off, though, on examination, they will be found at the bottom of the cup.

BLACK HOREHOUND, or HENBIT. (Welsh: Marddynad ddu. E.) On rubbish and in hedges, common. P. July-Aug.

(Certain species of Bees, with their mandibles, industriously scrape off the soft woolly material afforded by these plants, and rolling it into little balls with their fore legs, convey it to their nests, and closely envelop the cells with a coating impervious to every change of temperature. Thus may instinct often afford instruction to reason: and the contemplation of the minute insect, infinitely disproportionate as the little creature is to our own powers and faculties, is calculated to elevate the reflecting mind to that source of all wisdom, which we cannot penetrate, and which surpasses human conception. Whatever God has created must be worthy the respect and consideration of man: and the more intimately we become acquainted with His works, the more ready shall we be to admit

"The hand that made them is divine." E.)

+ (From Baλλw, to cast off, thrust out, or purify, as a deobstruent. E.)

It is recommended in hysterical cases. The Swedes reckon it almost an universal remedy in the diseases of their cattle. Horses, cows, sheep, and goats refuse it, (Apion

Var. 2. Blossoms white, with a tinge of red. B. alba of Linn. (Cam. Epit. 572. E.)

Near Hammersmith, on the road side. Mr. Woodward. Norwich. Mr. Crowe. Stafford. Dr. Stokes. (Near Hartlepool. Mr. Winch. In the lane leading from the Camp ground to Cheriton Street, near Sandgate. Mr. G. E. Smith. E.)

MARRUBIUM.* Calyx salver-shaped, rigid, with ten furrows: Bloss. upper lip cloven, strap-shaped, straight. M. VULGARE. Teeth of the calyx ten, bristle-shaped, hooked: (leaves roundish-ovate, serrated, rugose. E.)

(E. Bot. 410. E.)-Fl. Dan. 1036-Ludw. 145-Riv. Mon. 66. 1, Marrubium alb.-Blackw. 479-Ger. 561. 1-Fuchs. 590-J. B. iii. 316-Matth. 828-Lonic. i. 110. 2-Trag. 8. 2—Clus. ii. 34. 1-Dod. 87. 1—Lob. Obs. 278. 3, and Ic. i. 517. 2—Ger. Em. 693. 1—Park. 44-Pet. 32. 3—H. Ox. xi. 9. row. 3. 1.

Whole plant hoary with pubescence. Stem bluntly quadrangular, branching from the bottom, one to two feet high. Lower-leaves roundish, wrinkled, with thick veins and woolly beneath. Upper-leaves somewhat egg-shaped. Calyx woolly, fringed on the inside at the bottom of the teeth with soft hairs. Blossoms nearly white, small, compressed, in crowded whorls; upper lip spear-shaped; lower lip, middle segment slightly scolloped, lateral segments spear-shaped, short. Anthers with a black substance in the middle.

WHITE HOREHOUND. (Irish: Orafunt. Welsh: Perchwerwyn; Llwyd y cum. párov, (Prasium,) of the old medical writers. E.) Road sides, and amongst rubbish. P. July-Sept.t LEONU'RUS. Anthers incumbent, sprinkled with shining particles (upper lip of the blossom shaggy. E.)

L. CARDIACA. Stem-leaves spear-shaped, three-lobed: (upper ones entire or nearly so. E.)

Kniph. 4-Ludw. 5-Fl. Dan. 727-Riv. Mon. 20. 1, Cardiaca.—Blackw. 171-E. Bot. 286-Dod. 94-Lob. Obs. 278. 1, and Ic. i. 516. 1—Ger. Em. 705-Park. 42. 7-Ger. 569-Fuchs. 395-Lonic. i. 110. 3-H. Ox. xi. 9. 18.

(Stem two or three feet high, quadrangular, coloured, downy. Leaves numerous, on leaf-stalks, woolly and veined underneath. Whorls many

(Curculio) vernale feeds principally on this plant; though sometimes on Urtica dioica or Lamium album. Kirby. E.)

⚫ (From a town of that name in Italy, where it abounds. E.)

It is very bitter to the taste, and not altogether unpleasant to the smell. It was a favourite medicine with the ancients in obstructions of the viscera. It large doses it proves cathartic. It is a principal ingredient in the Negro Cæsar's remedy for vegetable poisons. A young man, who had occasion to take mercurial medicines, was thrown into a salivation which continued for more than a year. Every method that was tried to remove it, rather increased the complaint. At length Linnæus prescribed an infusion of this plant, and the patient got well in a short time. Horses, cows, sheep, and goats refuse it. (A tea prepared from it, sweetened with honey, is an excellent domestic medicine in coughs and obstructions of the lungs. E.)

‡ (From Newv, a lion; and spa, a tail; from some fancied resemblance thereto. E.)

flowered. Cal. with sharp spreading teeth. E.) Flowers purplish within, white and downy on the outside. Anthers brown, partly covered on the outer side with white opaque globules which look like enamel, but are not of a bony hardness.

MOTHERWORT. (LION'S-TAIL. Welsh: Mamlys; Llys y fammog. E.) Hedges, on rubbish and waste spots. (Between Tickhill and Worksop. Hudson. In a lane near Combe Wood, Surry. Mr. Sowerby. Near Wycliffe. Mr. Winch. King's Coughton, Warwickshire; and near Malvern. Purton. On the Point, near Beaumaris. Welsh Bot. E.) Ditchingham, Norfolk, in a hedge, and on an adjoining bank, in a gravelly soil. Mr. Woodward. At North Bovey, and Kennock-kiln, near CanonTeign, Devon. Rev. J. Pike Jones. In a shady walk behind Fisherrow, and in Collington woods, Edinburgh. Maughan. Hook. Scot. E.) P. June-Aug. Stamens crooked: Anthers approaching: Involucr. many-bristled, inclosing the ribbed calyces. C. VULGARE. Heads roundish, hispid: floral-leaves bristle-shaped. Fl. Dan. 930-Kniph. 11—(E. Bot. 1401. E.)-Clus. i. 354. 2—Lob. Obs. 269. 2-Ic. i. 504. 2—Ger. Em. 675. 2-Park. 22. 4-H. Ox. xi. 8. row 1. 1—Pet. 32. 9—Riv. Mon. 43. 1, Clinopodium—Trag. 36. 2—Lonic. i. 118. 1-Matth. 814-Lonic. ii. 21. 1.


(Blossom on branched stalks, purplish red, with a yellow protuberance on each side of its mouth. Tube long; upper lip notched, lower crenate. Whole plant hairy. Calyx with thirteen scores. Whorls few. Stems

square, hairy, reddish, twelve to eighteen inches high. Leaves eggshaped, serrated, sometimes nearly entire, on short leaf-stalks. Smell aromatic. E.)

WILD BASIL. (Welsh: Breninllys gwyllt. E.) Meadows, hedges, and dry pastures, especially in calcareous soil. P. July. ORIG'ANUM. (Calyx without ribs: Involucrum of numerous dilated, flat leaves, with the flowers forming a spikate, quadrangular cone. E.)

O. VULGARE. Spikes roundish, panicled, clustered: floral-leaves eggshaped, longer than the calyx.

(E. Bot. 1143. E.)-Kniph 4-Ludw. 90-Curt. 338-Woodv. 164-Riv. Mon. 60. 1, Origanum.-Ger. 541. 4-Matth. 1701-Dod. 285. 2-Lob. Obs. 263. 1, and Ic. i. 492. 2-Ger. Em. 666. 4-Park. 12. 6—H. Ox. xi. 3. 12-Pet. 34. 8-Blackw. 280-Fuchs. 552-J. B. iii. 236—Trag. 36. 1 -Lonic. i. 118. 2-Fl. Dan. 638.

Stem a little woolly, about a foot high, often coloured. Leaves egg-heartshaped, very slightly serrated, opposite, dotted, more or less hairy. Floral-leaves spear-shaped, coloured. Calyx nearly equal; mouth closed with bristly hairs, which at first lie parallel to the sides, but when the blossom falls off they stand out closing up to the mouth; without beset

The leaves have a strong but not an agreeable smell, and a bitter taste. Goats, sheep, and horses eat it. Cows are not fond of it. Swine refuse it.

✦ (From xλn, a couch; and mode, a little foot; the flowers growing in whorls, resembling the ancient turned feet of bedsteads. E.)

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