Imatges de pÓgina

(CUT-LEAVED ARCHANGEL. Welsh: Marddanadlen gôch a dail gwahanedig. E.) L. rubrum minus, foliis profunde incisis. Ray Syn. 240. L. purpureum B. Huds. Relh. With. Ed. ii. (Fl. Brit. L. incisum. Willd. Sm. Hook. Grev. L. dissectum. With. Ed. 3 and 4. Hull. Sym. E.) Kitchen gardens and fallow fields, not unfrequent. On a bank between Pimlico and Chelsea. Curtis. (In corn-fields, near Bungay, frequent. Mr. Woodward. In great plenty at Hunnington, Suffolk; also in a field of tares at Pakenham. Rev. C. R. Leathes. In waste places about Darlington. Mr. Robson. Bowden churchyard, near Altrincham, Cheshire. Mr. H. Christy. In Anglesey. Welsh Bot. Fields near Newhaven. Grev. Edin. E.) A. April-Sept.

L. AMPLEXICAU'LE. (Floral-leaves sessile, embracing the stem, blunt, kidney-shaped, crenate, partly lobed: teeth of the calyx linearawl-shaped, as long as its tube. Sm. E.)

(E. Bot. 770. E.)-Curt. 109-Kniph. 11-Riv. Mon. 63. 1 and 2-Fl. Dan. 752-Lob. Ic. i. 463. 2-Ger. Em. 616. 4-Park. 762. 2—Pet. 33. 4 -H. Ox. xi. 11. 12—Ger. 493. 4.

Lower-leaves on leaf-stalks, heart-shaped, blunt, deeply and bluntly serrated, the upper in opposite pairs, heart-shaped broad, sessile, inclosing but not embracing the stem, with five lobes; lobes scolloped, the middle one as broad again, and with three clefts at the end, the lateral ones small. Woodw. (Calyx thickly set with hairs: Bloss. fine crimson, with a long slender tube: but the early flowers rarely expand or protrude beyond the calyx, yet perfect their seeds. E.)

GREAT HENBIT. HENBIT ARCHANGEL or DEAD-NETTLE. (Welsh: Marddanadlen gôch cylchddail. E.) Pollichia, amplexicaulis. Gmel. Sandy corn-fields, and cultivated ground.

A. Feb.-June. (L. maculatum. Under this designation we have to consider the plant figured and described in E. Bot. 2550; "Leaves heart-shaped, pointed, deeply serrated; whorls ten-flowered:" and also another variety both having recently been admitted into the British Flora. The former of these, originally discovered by Lady Vaughan, beside the lane leading directly from Redland Court to the garden, (close to the garden wall,) and shown by her ladyship in that station, (the only one known in these Islands,) to the Editor several years ago, has since been brought under constant observation. We have the best authority for believing this plant to be L. maculatum of Linnæus, though it would appear from his general description that the species so named was intended to comprehend both our varieties. It is likewise undoubtedly the Lamium which prevails in the south of Europe, to the exclusion of L. album, with which it must be allowed to stand in intimate alliance. "The whole of the plant accords much with L. album:" and again, "habit like that of L. album:" says Smith: and, (with the exception of the purple flowers, and fewer of them in a whorl,)" in other respects very like L. album." Hooker. Ludwig Ect. t. 162, except in colour, well represents our plant. Rivinus describes it, but without distinguishing it, as a species, from L. album. It may likewise be recognized in the description of Schkuhr.

The young leaves both of this and the preceding species may be eaten with other potherbs. Goats, sheep, and horses eat it; cows refuse it. (Phalana chrysitis feeds on these plants. E.)

It should be kept in mind that the tendency of L. album to become tinged with red, is admitted by Smith: that also in Fl. Lond. that species is stated to occur with a purple flower in the south of France: that Curtis reports having found it tinged in England: and that Linnæus himself confirms the same remark, "Variat flore carneo." On the other hand, Schkuhr informs us that the flowers of L. maculatum, usually purple, are "sometimes pale red, or nearly white ;" and moreover, "on the plants that bear flowers, the spotted leaves are often wanting." The discrepancies between our numerous specimens and the proposed specific character, have rendered us in no small degree sceptical as to the possibility of establishing any such permanent distinction. The number of flowers in a whorl is far from being definite, though in general, it must be allowed, fewer than those of L. album. The lip of the blossom being spotted or speckled, is by no means peculiar to this kind of Lamium. Neither is the trivial name unexceptionable, if understood to refer to the spots on the leaves; for the foliage of this plant, described as "guttatim dispersa," in Column. Ecphr. 191, is never, so far as we have observed, such as to justify the expression in E. Bot. "distinguished by large white spots on the radical leaves:" inasmuch as these marks are variable both as to duration, strength, and position, indeed equally pervading all parts of the plant, and at other seasons than those mentioned in the context; nor with us can it correctly be said “ Macula foliorum alba æstate disparet." Linn. In fact, on close inspection of these spots, they have always appeared to us to be occasioned, not by those less intelligible operations of nature on which depend the proper varieties of plants, but rather by some more immediate agency, and accompanied by the destruction, or abrasion, of the cuticular membrane and parenchymatous substance of the parts affected, as indicating a state of disease, or the depredations of minute Aphides, which may be found, though not so frequently, committing similar ravages on L. album, and others of this tribe. Curious specimens, as we apprehend also thus produced, have just been communicated to us, as L. maculatum, with leaves more or less freckled, or speckled, from Compton wood, near Bristol. But we are restrained from further digression, by a conviction that, however the Redland plant may be ultimately disposed of, it has little or no pretension to be deemed indigenous, limited as it is to the one very suspicious spot already described. The other, and somewhat more legitimate, variety, to which we have alluded, is still more remarkable, almost every leaf being embellished throughout the year, not with "obscure scattered spots," but with a well-defined white central line, as though streaked with white paint: "Foliis area longitudinali alba.” Linn. L. alba linea notatum.” Bauh. Pin. 231. This we believe to be L. maculatum of Flora Græca, wherein it is mentioned in contradistinction to the Redland plant. We have received it from the Chelsea Botanic Garden. It is said to have been brought thither from Edinburgh by Mr. G. Don. We are informed that it prevails in the kingdom of Leon with a white var. It is cultivated in the Scotch gardens, whence likewise we have it; but whether Dr. Hooker in Fl. Scot. intended to apply the description from E. Bot. solely to a variety similar to the one growing at Redland, (which elicited that description,) or to include our latter variety, it is to be regretted that the researches of the learned Professor should have failed to produce a single "local habitation," more satisfactory than that of "Woods in Scotland, rare." On the authority of Professor Henslow we are enabled to state that even this var. does not retain its distinctive character, and that the seedlings lose their stripes.

For a complete elucidation of these obscure points, we await the publication of M. Gingin of Bern, who has been long engaged in preparing a Monograph of this family of plants, and to whom we have submitted specimens. E.)

GALEOP'SIS.* Bloss. upper lip vaulted, somewhat scolloped ; lower lip trifid, with a concave pointed tooth on each side.

G. LA'DANUM. (Stem not swollen below the joints: leaves spearshaped, more or less serrate, hairy: upper lip of the blossom slightly crenate. E.)

(E. Bot. 884. E.)-Kniph. 12-Riv. Mon. 24. 1—Pet. 33. 11.

Stem a foot high, upright, quadrangular, somewhat hairy, with spreading branches. Leaves opposite, on leaf-stalks, sometimes spear-shaped, serrated, at others very entire, taper-pointed, naked, or somewhat hairy, with three or four serratures on each edge. Flowers red, slightly woolly. Blossom helmet toothed; lips scolloped, the middlemost segment red and white. Calyx teeth tapei-pointed, or thorny. Huds. (The Rev. R. Forby has found the terminal flower sometimes regularly quadrifid as in G. Tetrahit, and in Norfolk a variety with narrower and almost entire leaves most frequent. E. Bot. E.)

RED HEMP-NETTLE. E.) Corn-fields in calcareous soil, frequent.

A. June-Aug.

Var. 2. Calyx remarkably woolly; stems thickening upwards. Blossoms reddish purple; upper lip oval, hairy without; lower lip reflexed, irregularly scolloped, with two oval yellow spots; teeth not observable. I suspect this will prove a different species, at least it differs from the preceding in three very striking circumstances, viz. the stem thickening upwards, the great woolliness of the calyx, and the blossoms being larger though shorter.

In a corn-field two miles west of Stratford-upon-Avon, near a limestone
quarry. (On limestone hills at Fulwell, near Sunderland. Winch Guide.
At the foot of Scoot Scar, near Kendal, and Giggleswick Scar, near
Settle. Mr. Gough. E.)
A. Sept.

(G. VILLO'SA. Stem not swollen below the joints: leaves egg-spearshaped, serrated, soft and downy: upper lip of the blossom deeply notched. E.)

Dicks. H. S.-(E. Bot. 2353—Riv. Mon. 24. 2. E.)-Pet. 33. 10.

Stem upright, quadrangular, of equal thickness between each joint; branching, woolly. Leaves woolly, or silky, on leaf-stalks, opposite; those near the root egg-shaped, those of the stem spear-shaped, taper-pointed, with straight veins. Calyx teeth thorny. In habit it agrees with G. Ladanum, but differs in breadth, serratures, veins and soft hairs of the leaves, and in the colour of the blossoms. Huds. The hairs on the calyxes in this species are straight and glandular, but in the preceding white, and curled like wool or cotton. (Blossom four times as long as the calyx, of a pale sulphur colour, the palate deep yellow. E. Bot. E.)

(From yaλŋ, a cat; and os, a countenance; from an imaginary resemblance of the blossom to the feline physiognomy. E.)

(DOWNY HEMP-NETTLE. G. grandiflora. Gmel. Willd. With. to Ed. 7. E.) G. villosa. Huds. Sm. Dicks. Sandy corn-fields, Yorkshire and Lancashire. Near Newark, and about Bangor. Hudson. A. July-Aug. G. TETRA HIT. (Stem bristly, swollen below each joint: blossom twice as long as the calyx: upper lip nearly straight. E.) (Hook. Fl. Lond. 191. E.)-Riv. Mon. 31, Cannab. spur-E. Bot. 207 — Kniph. 8-(Fl. Dan. 1271. E.)-Dod. 153. 4-Lob. Ic. i. 527. 2—Ger. Em. 709. 2. a-Ger. Em. 709. i-Ger. 573-Pet. 33. 8.

Blossom generally purplish, (nearly three-fourths of an inch long; lowerlip three-lobed, mottled, with darker lines in the middle; tube white, E.) sometimes white, in numerous dense whorls. Calyx, teeth terminated by sharp awns as long again as those of G. Ladanum. Woodw. (Upper-lip always narrower and flatter, nearly erect; in the following species, broader, more convex, and bends down more over the tube of the corolla. Fl. Lond. Stem covered with strong bristles, quadrangular, one to two feet high. Leaves rather large, ovate, hispid on both sides.

Var. 2. Blossoms white, and much larger than those of the preceding. Cannabis spuria flore albo magno eleganti. R. Syn. 240.

Var. 3. Terminal flower regularly salver-shaped, with four equal stamens. Observed by Dr. Smith at Matlock in 1788. See E. Bot. 207. Linn. Fl. Lapp. Ed. 2. 201.

In all these varieties the leaves are egg-spear-shaped, and only the upper parts of the stem and branches are hairy.

COMMON HEMP-NETTLE. (NETTLE-HEMP. Welsh: Penboeth gyffredin. E.) Hedge-banks, borders of corn-fields, and amongst rubbish.

A. July-Aug. G. (VERSI COLOR. Stem hispid, swollen below each joint: blossom thrice as long as the calyx: upper lip tumid; middle lobe of the lower heart-shaped. E.)

(Curt.-E. Bot. 667. E.)-Riv. Mon. 32, Cannab. spur. fl. maj.-Fl. Dan. 929-Barr. Ic. 1158-Lob. Ic. i. 527. 3-Ger. Em. 709. 2. b.-Park. 599. 1-Pluk. 41. 4.


(In general habit resembling G. Tetrahit, but larger in all its parts. E.) Stem and branches very hairy in every part. Leaves paler green and more hairy underneath than the last. Calyx purplish red. about one inch long, pale yellow; lower lip deep yellow, its middle segment purple, bordered with white. The seeds produced similar plants year after year, and the beauty of its blossoms might challenge a place in the flower garden.

It varies in having the leaves broad and egg-spear-shaped, or narrower and spear-shaped.

(BEE-NETTLE. LARGE-FLOWERED HEMP-NETTLE. G. versicolor. Curt. Sm. Hook. Purt. Grev. G. cannabina. Oed. With. Willd. G. Tetrahit ß. Linn. Lightf. Huds. E.) Hedges at Kirkby in Furness, and in fallow ground, near Hutton Roof, Westmoreland. Mr. Atkinson. (Plentiful near Norwich, and at Watlington, Norfolk; also about Moffat and near Edinburgh. Sir J. E. Smith. Observed by Sir T. G. Cullum at Gretna Green very abundant. Fl. Brit. Melrose, Scotland, and Jesmond near Newcastle. Mr. Winch. In corn-fields about Bingley and Keighly. Whitaker's Craven. Corn-fields about Congleton, Stockport, and Ches

ter. Mr. W. Christy. On the coast north of Oban. Dr. Bostock. Common about Edinburgh. Greville. E.) Moist corn-fields in a gravelly soil, and under a moist hedge at Birches Green, near Birmingham. A. July-Aug.* GALEOB'DOLON.+ Bloss. upper lip entire, vaulted; lower lip without teeth, in three acute, undivided segments: Anthers fleshy on the back.


Curt. 223-E. Bot. 787-Walc.-(Fl. Dan. 1272. E.)-Dod. 153. 3—Lob. Ic. i. 521. 1-Ger. Em. 702. 2-Park. 606-H. Ox. xi. 11. 5-Pet. 33. 6 -Riv. Mon. 20. 2, Lam. fl. lut.-Kniph. 3—Ger. 567. 2—J. B. iii.

323. 1.

(Stem one foot to eighteen inches high, simple, leafy, hairy, quadrangular, striated. Blossom yellow; middle segment of the lower lip orange marked with three lines, and spotted. Floral-leaves bristle-shaped, one at the base of each flower. E.) Leaves spear-shaped, on leaf-stalks, unequally serrated, hairy, especially at the edges, lower ones nearly heart-shaped. Whorls, the uppermost with six flowers, the rest with from seven to ten. Involucrum leaves growing to the base of the calyxes. Anthers fleshy or glandular on the back part. Seeds oblong, convex on the outer side, triangular on the inner.

YELLOW ARCHangel or DeAD-NETTLE. (G. luteum. Huds. With. Sm. Hook. G. galeopsis. Curt. Leonurus Galeobdolon. Willd. Lamium luteum. R. Syn. E.) Galeopsis Galeobdolon. Linn. Oed. Lightf. Pollichia Galeobdolon. Gmelin, who includes under his genus Pollichia the Lamium amplexicaule, but that has teeth on the side of the blossom, and the name Pollichia had before been given to another plant. Woods, shady places, and moist hedges. Bath Hills, near Bungay; and woods, Norfolk. Mr. Woodward. Hedges near Malvern Chase. Mr. Ballard. (About Dorking, and Matlock. Mr. Winch. Bradley woods, near Newton, Devon; and near Mirables, Isle of Wight. Mr. Fred. Russell. In Belbank wood near Bingley. Whitaker's Craven. In sandy soil frequent, in Kent. Mr. G. E. Smith. Stockwood lanes, Keynsham, Somersetshire; Staffordshire and Warwickshire, not uncommon. E.)

P. May. Sir T. G. Cullum mentions, in Bot. Guide, a curious and elegant variety with the blossom, or at least the terminal flower, flat, and six-cloven, growing for many years in a lane near the Grove at Hardwick, one mile and a half from Bury. E.)

BETON'ICA. Calyx awned: Bloss. upper lip upright, flat: Tube cylindrical, incurved: Stamens not longer than the mouth of the tube.

B. OFFICINALIS. Spike interrupted: middle segment of the lower lip


Ludw. 2-Curt. 154-Kniph. 5 and 11-(E. Bot. 1142. E.)-Riv. Mon. 28, Betonica.-Woodv. 244-Walc. 5-Ger. 577. 1-Blackw. 46-Sheldr. 36-Fl. Dan. 726-Lonic. i. 138. 1-Tourn. 96-Clus. ii. 39. 1-Dod. 40. 1-Lob. Obs. 286. 4, and Ic. i. 532. 2—Ger. Em. 714-Park. 614. 1—H.

(Several species of this genus yield a fibre worthy of being manufactured as hemp. E.) † (From yuàŋ, a cat ; and ßèsλos, a fetid scent; descriptive of its strong smell. E.)

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