Imatges de pÓgina
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(Var. 2. Radicans. Stem creeping; leaves triangular, heart-shaped, sharply crenate. C. radicans. Forst. Linn. Tr. vol. 8. t. 17. Sm. E. Bot. 2175. De Cand. C. palustris ß. Hook. Grev. Found by Mr. G. Don, and Mr. Dickson, in Scotland; also by Mr. Winch on Helvellin by the footpath leading Stainwards, and on the shores of every lake in Cumberland: by Mr. J. Backhouse, on Egleston Fell, and in Raby Park, Durham. On examining numerous specimens we find some resembling Mr. Forster's, mixed with almost every gradation between them and the more common appearance of C. palustris. We observe leaves with entire or crenate edges even on the same plant, and also exhibiting the gradation from the heart or kidney, to the triangular shape. The stalk may be found creeping or upright, as the situation is moist or dry. So greatly do these plants vary in size, that the luxuriant picture by Curtis may be deemed equally correct, with the stunted and diminutive representations of Kniphofius or the Flora Danica. E.)

SAGITTA'RIA.* Stamens and pistils in different flowers on the same plant: Cal. three leaves: Bloss. three petals. B. Filam. about twenty-four.

F. (Seeds numerous, bordered. E.)

S. SAGITTIFO'LIA. Leaves arrow-shaped, acute.

E. Bot. 84-Gies. 64-Fl. Dan. 172-Walc. 5-Dod. 588. 2-Lob. Obs. 161. 2, and Ic. i. 302. 1-Ger. Em. 416. 2-Park. 1247. 2—J. B. iii. 789— Pet. 43. 11.

(Root tuberous, with fibres. Herb milky, smooth. Leaves varying according to situation; when deeply immersed in water or exposed to a rapid current, diminish almost to nothing; hence several evanescent varieties, SE) S'alks with six edges. Leaves all from the root; the first vile are always under wat r, long, strap-shaped, by some authors considered as a varie y, and well figured in Fl. Dan. 172, and ill done in Pet 43.9; the succeeding, which rise above the water, arrow-shaped, very entire, smooth, with parallel ribs and reticulated veins. Leaf

yellow, but the colour so produced is reported not to be permanent. E.) The remarkable yellowness of butter in the spring has been supposed to be caused by this plant, (and with equal improbability by the Crowfoot, E.); but cows will not eat it, unless compelled by extreme hunger, and then, Boerhaave says, it occasions such an inflammation that they generally die. Upon May-day, country people strew the flowers before their doors, (and wreath them into garlands. The Scots name Gowlan or Gowan, though indiscriminately applied to several spring flowers, is generally understood more particularly to designate the daisy, dandelion, crowfoot, and meadow-bout; thus "gowany glens," has been interpreted "daisied dales; " and with like reference Burns:

"We twa hae run about the braes,
And pu't the Gowans fine."

Goats and sheep eat this plant; horses, cows, and swine refuse it. Encyc. Brit. That the atmosphere, especially of a confined apartment, may be contaminated by the gaseous exhalations of plants and flowers, during the night often fatally mephitic, is unquestionable; and it would appear that even medicinal properties may be thus evolved; for on a large quantity of the flowers of Meadow-bouts being put into the bed-room of a girl who had been subject to fits, the fits ceased. An infusion of the flowers were afterwards successfully used in various fits both of children and adults.-Few plants will be found more ornamental on the margin of the pleasure ground lake, wherein the rich golden blossoms are often reflected with admirable effect. The double-blossomed variety is admitted into gardens, E.) (From sagitta, an arrow, the leaves resembling the head of that missile. E.)

stalks tapering, convex underneath, concave above, covered by the water. Flowers three in a whorl. Flower-scales small, oval, spear-shaped, one at the base of each fruit-stalk, embracing the stem. Fruit-stalks of the barren flowers an inch long, of the fertile flowers about half an inch, and stronger. Calyx one leaf with three divisions. St. Flowers white with a purplish tinge at the claws of the petals, but so readily falling off that it is difficult to carry them home for examination.

Var. 2. Smaller. Ger. 337—J. B. iii. 790. 2—Pet. 43. 12.

On the Thames' shore, opposite Lambeth palace; and before the Earl of Peterborough's house, above the horse ferry, on Westminster side. R. Syn. The of Linnæus and ẞ of Haller, are surely imaginary, for the strap-shaped leaves will always be found both before and after flowering. Woodw.

ARROW-HEAD. (Welsh: Saethlys, saeth-ddeiliaidd. E.) Ditches and margins of slow rivers.

P. July.*

There is always a bulb at the lower part of the root, growing in the solid earth, beneath the mud. This bulb constitutes a considerable part of the food of the Chinese, and upon that account they cultivate it. (The North American Indians also roast the roots for food. Barton. E.) Horses, goats, and swine eat the plant; cows are not fond

of it.

CLASS XIV.

DIDYNAMIA.

GYMNOSPERMIA.

(1) Calyx mostly five-cleft, nearly regular.

LEONU'RUS. Anthers sprinkled with hard granulations: (upper lip of the blossom shaggy. E.)

GLECHO'MA. Anthers in pairs, each pair forming a cross. MEN' THA. Filaments expanding, straight: Bloss. nearly regular.

VERBE'NA. Bloss. nearly regular: upper segment of the calyx shorter.

TEU'CRIUM. Bloss. without any upper lip: upper segment of the petal divided.

A'JUGA. Bloss. upper lip shorter than the stamens, notched. GALEOB'DOLON. Bloss. upper lip entire, vaulted: lower lip trifid : : segments broad, acute: Anthers fleshy on the

back.

BETON ICA.

Bloss. upper lip flat, ascending: Tube cylindrical: Stam. as long as the mouth of the tube. LA'MIUM. Bloss. with a bristle-shaped tooth on each side the lower lip, (on each side the mouth.)

GALEOP'SIS. Bloss. with two teeth upon the lower lip. STA'CHYS. Bloss. lateral segments of the lower lip reflexed: Stamens after flowering expanding to the sides.

NEPETA. Bloss. lower lip scolloped: Mouth with the edge

reflexed.

BALLOTA. Calyx with ten scores: Bloss. upper lip vaulted. MARRUBIUM. Calyx with ten scores: Bloss. upper lip linear, straight.

[Origanum. Thymus Nepeta.]

(2) Calyx bilabiate.

SCUTELLA'RIA. Calyx after flowering closed with a cover, and resembling a helmet.

THY'MUS. Calyx (mouth small;) closed with soft hairs. PRUNEL'LA. Filaments forked, one of the points bearing the anther.

ORIG'ANUM. Calyces without ribs, forming an imbricated

cone.

CLINOPO'DIUM. Involucrum many-bristled, inclosing the calyces.

MELIT TIS. Cup wider than the tube of the blossom: Upper lip of the blossom flat, entire: Anthers crossing each other.

[Teucrium.]

ANGIOSPERMIA.

(1) Calyx cloven, or two-leaved.

ROBAN'CHE. Caps. one-celled: Bloss. nearly equal, quadrifid: a gland under the base of the germen.

(2) Calyx four-cleft.

LATHRÆ A. Caps. one-celled: Bloss. gaping: a gland beneath the germen.

BART'SIA. Caps. two-celled: (Seeds angular: E.) Bloss. gaping.

EUPHRA'SIA. Caps. two-celled: Bloss. gaping: lower anthers spinous.

RHINAN'THUS. Caps. two-celled: Calyx compressed: Bloss. gaping.

MELAMPY'RUM. Caps. two-celled: Bloss. gaping: Seeds two, gibbous.

(3) Calyx five-cleft.

LIMOSELLA. Caps. (semi-orbicular, E.) one (or two) celled, many-seeded: Bloss. bell-shaped, regular.

SCROPHULA'RIA. Caps. two-celled: Bloss. reversed; the lip with an intermediate segment within.

SIBTHORP'IA. Caps. two-celled: Bloss. wheel-shaped : Stam. in pairs, converging.

DIGITA LIS. Caps. two-celled: Bloss. (tubular) bell-shaped, gibbous on the under side: Stam. declining.

ANTIRRHI'NUM. Caps. two-celled: Bloss. gaping, closed by a palate, with a more or less projecting nectary beneath.

PEDICULA'RIS. Caps. two-celled: Bloss. gaping: Seeds angular, pointed, few.

LINNEA. Berry three-celled, juiceless: Bloss. bell-shaped : Calyx superior, double.

GYMNOSPERMIA.

A'JUGA. Bloss. upper lip very small, notched, shorter than the stamens.

A. PYRAMIDA'LIS. Plant hairy, with its numerous flowers forming a tetragonal pyramid: leaves oblong, crenate: root-leaves very large.

Fl. Dan. 185—(E. Bot. 1270. E.)-Blackw. 64. 2. (Plant four or five inches high. E.) Stem and leaves very hairy; rootleaves oblong wedge-shaped, sessile, entire, very large; stem-leaves oval, slightly toothed or scolloped, not three-lobed, diminishing upwards, so as to give the whole plant somewhat of a pyramidal form; in opposite alternate pairs; the upper tinged with purple. Floral-leaves longer than the flowers. Flowers from the bosom of the leaves, not more than three together, (in whorls, E.) Calyx very hairy, divided half-way down: segments awl-shaped, nearly equal. Woodw.

(PYRAMIDAL BUGLE. E.) Dr. Hope informs me that it has been found on Ben Nevis in Lochaber, and on the Burn of Killigower, and on the Ord of Caithness. On Torn Aichaltie, a hill near Brahan Castle, Ross-shire, by Mr. Gibb. P. May-June. E.) (A. ALPINA. Stem simple: leaves nearly smooth, unequally toothed, nearly all of a size: whorls rather distant, many-flowered. E.) E. Bot. 477-Ludw. 8-Kniph. 3—J. B. iii. 432. 1—Pet. 34. 4—Riv. Mon. 76; Bugula montana.

The pairs of the leaves and the whorls are rather distant, by no means crowded into a pyramidal form as in A. pyramidalis, nor are the radical leaves (as in that species) three or four times as large as those on the stem, and very hairy; but, on the contrary, the lower leaves are but little larger than the others, and all very nearly smooth, veiny, unequally toothed. The bractea sometimes quite entire, sometimes toothed; the uppermost only tinged with purple; whereas in A. pyramidalis, they are

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