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be a seedling, with the old bulbs at the bottom. This state of the plant having occasioned some perplexity to a correspondent of the Mag. Nat. Hist. is represented by a figure in that work. vol. i. 380. E.) Petals golden yellow. Woodw. (Plant acrid. Leaves more or less hairy : lobes of the lower ones nearly egg-shaped ; upper leaves in linear segments. E.) Nectary short, inversely heart-shaped ; in R. hirsutus, it is oblong eggshaped. This circumstance alone is sufficient to distinguish the two
species. (Var. 2. Flore pleno. Flower double. About Leamington and Warwick.
Perry. E.) BULBOUS CROWFoot. Butter Cup. Gold Cup. (Welsh : Chwys Mair;
Blodau yr ymenyn. E.) Meadows and pastures, (which are chiefly indebted to this plant for that brilliant golden hue which must attract the admiration of every beholder during Spring. E.)
P. May. R. RE'PENS. Calyx expanding : fruit-stalks furrowed: suckers creep
ing: leaves compound, (upper ones entire. E.) Curt. 211–(E. Bot. 516. E.)-Blackw. 31. 1-Fl. Dan. 795–Dod. 425–
Lob. Obs. 379. 1, and Ic. i. 664. 2-Ger. Em. 951. 1-Pet. 38. 7 and 8
H. Or. iv. 28. 18-Pet. 38. 8-Ger. 804. 1. The stem creeping and striking out roots from the joints, will always dis
tinguish this from R. bulbosus. Fruit-stalks with five furrows, and one or two flowers. Calyr hairy, deciduous, not reflexed. Blossom of a deeper yellow than R. acris. (Petals -notched. Flowering-stems erect,
one to two feet high. E.) CREEPING CROWfoot or BUTTER Cups. (Welsh : Crafange y fran
ymlusgaidd. E.) Meadows, pastures, on rubbish under hedges, and in gardens, in moist situations.
P. June-Aug. R. ARVEN'sis. Seeds prickly: upper leaves doubly compound, strap
shaped : (stem erect, branched, many-flowered. E.) Curt.-E. Bot. 135—Kniph. 12—Walc.-Fl. Dan. 219-Fuchs. 157–J. B.
ii. 859. 1- Dod. 427. 2-Lob. Obs. 380. 1, and Ic. i. 665. 2-Ger. Em.
951. 3- Park. 328. 4-H. Ox. iv. 29. 23—Pet. 38. 10-Ger. 805. 3. (Stem twelve to eighteen inches high, nearly smooth, upright, much
branched, cylindrical. Petals inversely egg-shaped, narrow. E.) Whole plant pale, (but slightly hairy. E.) Segments of the upper leafits, strapshaped. Flowers small, pale yellow. Pericarps (compressed, large. E.) more obviously muricate than those of R. parviflorus. Seeds and flower's
on the same plants, at the same time. CORN CROWFOOT. Common in corn-fields.
It has lately been said that cows, horses, and sheep, in Italy eat it greedily, though it is so acrid as to poison the latter. Three ounces of the juice killed a dog in four minutes. Its growing chiefly, if not solely, in corn-fields, where cattle are excluded, may possibly be the reason why we bare not heard of mischief being done by it in this country. (Though several British species of Ranunculus are disposed to become double, and are sometimes observed so in a wild state; the more showy kinds, which display an endless variety of the richest colours in our gardens, are of Turkish and Persian origio. E.)
TROL’LIUS.* Cal. none: Petals about fourteen : Capsules
many, egg-shaped, many-seeded : (Nectary compressed.
E.) T. EUROPÆ'Us. Petals converging: nectaries five to ten, as long as the
Kniph. 4Fl. Dan. 133-E. Bot. 28—Clus. i. 237. 1— Dod. 430. 1--Lob.
Obs. 385. 1, and Ic. i. 675–Ger. Em. 955. 12–Ger. 809. 13–J. B. iii.
419-H. Ox. xii. 2. 2-Matth. 613- Park. Par. 219. 11. (Stem upright, about eighteen inches high, cylindrical, smooth, branching
upwards. Seeds black and shining. E.) Blossoms globose, yellow. Nectaries yellow, not longer than the stamens. Leaves round in their circumscription, divided to the base into five, segments very entire at the base, jagged upwards. Capsules ribbed transversely, terminated by a crooked horn, pointing outwards, giving the head a star-like appearance.
Woodw. GLOBE-FLOWER. GOWLANS. (Lucken-Gowan ; i. e. CABBAGE Daisy, in
Scotland. E.) Sides of mountains, and mountainous meadows in Wales and the North of England. Hudson. (Common in Scotland. Hooker. E.) Skirrith Wood, and moist woods about Settle, Yorkshire. Curtis. Near Troutbeck, Westmoreland. Mr. Woodward. At the road side néar Dale Park, in Furness Fells. Mr. Atkinson. Marshes in the county of Durham, common. Mr. Robson. (Meadows at Hays, Shropshire, plentifully. Waring. Boggy grassy lands to the left of the roail from Dolgelle to Trawsfynaid, Merionethshire. Rev. J. Davies, in Bot. Guide. At the foot of the Black Cataract, near Moentwrog, North Wales. Miss Roberts. Near Buxton. Bree, in Purt. Woods on Derwentwater. Mr. Winch. Banks of the Water of Leith. Mr. Maughan. Hook. Scot. Banks of the Clyde at Bothwell ; and the Falls. Hopkirk. Aspatria Mill, Cumberland. Rev. J. Dodd. Banks of Winandermere. Mr. W. Christy. Convoy and Lough Gartan, Donegal. Mr. Murphy. E.)
P. May-June.t HELLEB'ORUS. Bloss. none : Cal. five leaves, often
coloured: Nectaries bilabiate, tubular : Caps. like a legu
men; many-seeded, rather upright, beaked. H. vir'idis. Stem many-flowered, leafy : leaves digitate: petals ex
(A name invented by Gesner, who thus latinized the German word trôl, spherical ; descriptire of the globular form of the blossom. E.)
+ It is cultivated in flower gardens; and in its double state makes a bandsome appearance. The term Lucken, (meaning closed as a cabbage ) applied to this kind of Gowan, may tend to reconcile the prevalent opinion, and to identify the Globe-flower with the one introdaced in the garland presented by the young Laird to Edinburgh Katy; or we should bare supposed the Marsh Marigold, (which see), of more general occurrence, to bare answered the description sufficiently well :
“ We'll gae to some burn-side to play
The Lucken-Gowans frae the bog." A. Ramsay. E.)
Jacq. Austr. 106-Curt.-Blackw. 509 and 510-E. Bot. 200-Kniph. 1
Fuchs. 274–J. B. iij. 636–Clus. i. 275. 1-Dod. 385. 2-Lob. Obs. 387. 2. and Ic. i. 680.2-Ger. Em. 976. 2-Park. 212. 2 and 3–H. Or. xii.
4. 5—Ger. 825. 2-Trag. 405—Lonic. i. 171. 2—Matth. 1221. Pistils three, sometimes four, rarely five. Crantz. Segments of the leaves'
deeply serrated, particularly upwards. Flowers mostly two; drooping, yellowish green, (as are the large calyx leaves. E.) Root fleshy, black, with many long fibres. Stem upright, a foot high, forked at the top, Jeafy, smooth. Leaves large, smooth, shining ; root-leaves petiolate, stem
leaves sessile. Fl. Brit. E.) GREEN-FLOWERED HELLEBORE. Woods and dry pastures in chalky soil.
Bigwin Closes, Ditton, and Whitwell, Cambridgeshire. Arundel Castle, Sussex. Knowlton, E. Kent; and Stoken Church, Oxfordshire. Orchard near Mr. Ballard's, Robinson's End, Malvern Chase. Mr. Wells. Near Piersbridge, but scarce. Mr. Robson. (Near Harefield, Middlesex. Miss Jane Baynes. Fl. Brit. Kiddow Lane, between Leeds and Tadcaster ; about Aberford. Rev. W. Wood. Banks of the river opposite the mill, Knaresborough. Rev. J. Dalton. Bot. Guide. In the wood above Tollard Royal, Dorset. Dr. Pulteney. IIedge banks between the Dell and Longridge, Painswick. Mr. O. Roberts. Banks of the Tees, near Whorlton. Winch Guide. In the deep stony lane on the left hand, just before the turning to Norton farm, and at the top of Middle Dorton under the hedge, near Selborne. White's Nat. Hist. Dunglass glen. Dr. Parsons, in Lightf. Westfield wood, near Sandgate, Kent. Mr. Lee, in Sm. Obs. In a field near Studley Castle, Warwickshire. Purton. Between Rosmorran and Thenegie, Cornwall, near the brook. Dr. Forbes.
P. March-May.* H. Fet'dus. Stem many-flowered, leafy : leaves pedate: petals con
verging. (E. Bot. 613. E.)- Woodv. 19—Kniph. 12—Blackw. 57-Fuchs. 275–J. B.
iii. 880—Trag: 251- Dod. 386–Lob. Obs. 387. 4, and Ic. i. 680. 1–Ger. Em. 976. 4-Lob. Obs. 387. 3. and Ic. i. 679. 2–Ger. Em. 976. 3—Park.
212. 3-H. O.x. xii. 4. 6-Ger. 826. (Plant bushy, fetid, evergreen. E.) Leaves deep, lurid, green. Branches,
leaf-stalks, floral-leaves, and flowers pale greenish yellow. Stipulæ at the divisions of the branches oval-spear-shaped, embracing the stem, solitary, with three deep clefts at the end tinged with purple. Floral-lcaf ovalspear-shaped, entire, solitary, at the base of each fruit-stalk, tinged with purple. Woodw. Flowers numerous, panicled, drooping, globose, green, or tinged with purple at the edges. Stem about a yard high, pale, leafy.
E.) BEAR's-Foot. SETTERWORT. Ferid HELLEBORE. (Irish: Crub Mahuin ;
Dahow Duh. Welsh: Crafrange yr arth; Llewyg y llyngyr: E.) Meadows, shady places, and hedges. Cherry-Hinton, Fulbourn, Triplow, Cambridgeshire. Downs near Chichester, Sussex. Woods
A violent cathartic not to be administered without caution ; being nearly similar in effect to its congener, and on the Continent often adopted for that. The powdered es, used as snuff, are said to bave cured several cases of nyctalopia, and to be worthy of trial in other diseases of the eyes. (These species will tourish under trees, and are ornamental in shady walks and shrubberies. E.)
between Congersbury and Backwell, Somersetshire. Bath Hills, near Bungay. Mr. Woodward. W'oods in Tortworth Park, Gloucestershire. Mr. Baker. (Rockingham Forest, Northamptonshire. c 'mmon. Mr. Pitt. Lanes at Campsall, near Doncaster. Teesdale. Woods in Allondale, Northumberland. Mr. Winch. Bot. Guide. Side of Jack's Green, Shepscombe, Painswick. Mr. O. Roberts. Studley Castle, Dunnington and Arrow, Warwickshire. Purton. All over the High-wood and Coneycrofthanger, near Selborne. White's Nat. Hist. Near Tyfry, Anglesey. Welsh Bot. Banks of the Clyde at Blantyre Priory. Hopkirk. E.)
P. Jan.- April." CALTHA.T Calyx none: Petals five: Nectaries none: Cap
sules several, many-seeded. C. PALUSTRIS. (Stem erect: leaves cordate, suborbicular, obtusely
crenate. E.) (E. Bot. 506. E.)-Kniph. 7-Munt. Phyt. 436. 122–Curt.-Fl. Dan. 668
,-Matth. 846— Clus. ii. 114. 1- Dod. 598. 1-Lob. Obs. 323. 2, and Ic. i. 594. 1-Ger. Em. 817. 1-Trag. 142–J. B. iii. 470—Lonic. i. 88. 3
Park. 1213. 1-Ger. 670. 2 and 1-Walc. Leaves kidney-shaped, entire, sometimes veined and regularly toothed.
Petals bright yellow, five to seven. Stamens in two rows, inner row with broad anthers, outer row twice as long, club-shaped, with the anthers compressed. (Flowers several, large, showy, pedunculate. E.) (Stem half a foot or more in height, but little branched, more or less upright, furrowed, smooth, stout, succulent.) Blossoms occasionally double, as represented in
Park. 1213. 2-Clus. ii. 114. 2–Ger. Em. 818. 3—Ger. 681. 3. MARSH MARIGOLD. MEADOW-BOUT. (In Scotland, Gowans.) (Irish :
Duilliur Spuink. Welsh: Troed yr ebol; Gold, neu Rhuddos y gors. Gaelic: A'chorra-shod. E.) Moist Meadows. Banks of rivers and pools, common.
P. April-May. I
* The dried leaves are frequently giren to children to destroy worms, (and have been recommended in different species of mania. E.) but they must be used sparingly, being violent in their operation ; and instances of their fatal effects are recorded. (The powdered roots mixed with neal destroy mice. E.) Country people put the root into setons made through the dewlaps of oxen, (with the expectation of drawing off or relieving by tbe discharge, murrain or any other disease of cattle, a rery ancient practice, recorded by Absyrtus and Hierocles. E.) A decoction of one or two diachis operates as a drastic purgative. (Mr. Purton nerer could increase the dose of powdered leaves beyond ten grains without considerable disturbance in the intestinal canal ; nor can the same quantity of the fresb-dried plant be exceeded with any degree of safety. Mid. Fl. H.niger of the ancients, (described by Sibthorp in Fl. Græc. as H. officinalis, t. 523) according to Dioscorides, Pliny, and other authorities, appears to have possessed yet more powerful qualities, and was celebrated as an antimaniacal remedy. Experience may be too dearly purchased by trials of herbs so alarming in their effects as are eren the British species of Hellebore, or it might be regretted that medical practitioners have acquired so little accurate knowledge of their virtues. The different species of Hellebore flourish under the shade of trees, and exbibit their singular blossoms during the most steril season. They are therefore acceptable in shrubberies, especially the Christmas Rose, supposed by some be the real Black Hellebore of the ancients. E.) + (From calathus, a little basket; which the expanded Power somewhat resembles. E.)
The flowers gathered before they expand, and preserved in salted vinegar, are a good substitute for capers. The juice of the petals, boiled with a little alum, stains paper
(Var. 2. Radicans. Stem creeping; leaves triangular, heart-shaped,
Bharply crenate. C. radicans. Forst. Linn. Tr. vol. 8. t. 17. Sm. E. Bot. 2175. De Cand.' C. palustris ß. Hook. Grev. Found by Mr: G. Don, and Mr. Dickson, in Scotland; also by Mr. W'inch on Helvellin by the footpath leading Stainwards, and on the shores of every lake in Cumberland : by Mr. J. Backhouse, on Egleston Fell, and in Raby Park, Durham. On examining numerous specimens we find some resembling Mr. Forster's, mixed wiih almost every gradation between them and the more common appearance of C. palustris. We observe leaves with entire or crenate edges even on the same plant, and also exhibiting the gradation from the heart or kidney, to the triangular shape. The stalk may be found creeping or upright, as the situation is moist or dry. So greatly do these plants vary in size, that the luxuriant picture by Curtis may be deemed equally correct, with the stunted and diminutive representations of Knip
hofius or the Flora Danica. E.) SAGITTA’RIA.* Stamens and pistils in different flowers on
the same plant: Cal. three leaves : Bloss. three petals.
B. Filam. about twenty-four.
F. (Seeds numerous, bordered. E.) S. SAGITTIFO'LIA. Leaves arrow-shaped, acute. E. Bot. 84–Gies. 64-Fl. Dan. 172_Walc. 5—Dod. 588. 2-Lob. Obs. 161.
2, and Ic. i. 302. 1-Ger. Em. 416. 2- Park. 1247. 2-J. B. iii. 789
Pet. 43. 11. (Root tuberous, with fibres. Herb milky, smooth. Leaves varying accord
ing to situation ; when deeply immersed in water or exposed to a rapid current, diminish almost to nothing; hence several evanescent varieties,
E) S'alls with six edges. Leaves all from the root ; the first Tin, E2 EET in der wat r, lug, strap-shaperl, by scme authors € #silered as a varie y, and well figured in Fl. Dan. 172, and ill done in Pet 43. 9; the succeeding, which rise above the water, arrow-shaped, very entire, smooth, with parallel ribs and reticulated veins. Leaf
yellow, I but ihe colour so produced is reported not to be permanent. E.) The remarkable yellowness of butter in the spring has been supposed to be caused by this plant, (and with equal improbability by the Crowfoot, E.); but cows will not eat it, unless compelled by extreme hunger, and then, Boerbaave says, it occasions such an intianimation that they generally die. Upon May.day, country people strew the towers before their doors, (and wreath them into garlands. -The Scrits Dame Gowlan or Gowan, though indiscriminately applied to several spring flowers, is generally understood more particulariy to designate the daisy, dandelion, crowfoot, and meadow-bout; thus "gowany glens," has been interpreted “ daisied dales; " and with like reference Burns :
“We twa hae run about the braes,
And pu't the Gowans fine.” Goats and sheep eat this plant; horses, cows, and swine refuse it. Encyc. Brit. That the atmosphere, especially of a consued apartment, may be contaminated by the gaseous exhalations of plants and flowers, during the night often fatally mephitic, is unquestionable ; and it woulul appear that evro medicinal properties may be thus evolved ; for on a large quantity of the powers o‘Nadow-buuts being put into the bed-room of a girl who had heen subject to fits, the fits ceased. An infusion of the flowers were afterwards successfully Used in ratious fits both of children and adults.-Few plants will be found more ornamental on the margin of the pleasure ground lake, wberein the rich golden blossons are often reflected with admirable effect. The double-blossomed variety is admitted into gardeas, E.)
(From sagitta, an arrow, the leaves resembling the bead of ibat missile. E.)