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y gwaewlleiaf Gaelic: An lus-mor; Ghlaisleun. E.) Bogs, boggy meadows and sides of rivulets.
P. Jurie-Sept. (R. reptans of Linn. Lightf. With. and other authors, even in the time of
Lightfoot, was suspected to be only a variety of this species, and in that opinion more recent Botanists generally concur. It has been frequently observed in a series of gradations between the two; it is thus described by Mr. Woodward. Leaves one to four at each joint, upright. Stem slender, creeping. Flowers solitary, terminal, or at the joints; small, yellow. (Leaves very narrow, approaching to strap-shaped; whole plant diminutive, three to five inches in length; radicating from the joints.
E.) Dicks. H. S.-Kniph. 9-Lightf. 1, frontispiece-Fl. Dan. 108-Amman. 13.
1-Fl. Lapp. 3. 5. Narrow-leaved Crowfoot. R. flammula d. Hal. Scop._Sm. E.) Sides
of lakes, (not unfrequent in the north of England. E.) West end of Loch Laver. Stony margin of Conniston Water, Lancashire. Mr. Wood. ward. In a field between an old intrenchment and the high road near Manchester race ground. Mr. Caley. (On the margins of Loch Tay. Mr. Brown. By Loch Leven, and Derwent-water. Mr. Winch. Margins of lakes in Anglesey. Welsh Bot. E.)
P. July-Aug. R. LIN'GUA. Leaves elongate lanceolate, somewhat serrated, nearly
sessile: stem upright, (many flowered. E.) (Hook. Fl. Lond. 171. E.)-E. Bot. 100—Fl. Dan. 755—Ger. 814. l
Ger. Em. 961. 1-Park. 1215. 1-H. Ox. iv. 29. 33–Pet. 39. 5--J. B. iii.
865. A much larger plant than R. flammula. Leaves in length equal to many
times their breadth, ending in a long taper point, but in R. flammula they are in length only three or four times their breadth, and do not end in a long point. Blossom large, deep yellow. (Stem three or four feet high. Calyr hairy. Plant usually silky with appressed hairs; but the degree
of hairiness seems to vary, and sometimes the leaves are entire. E.) GREAT SPEARWORT, or Crowfoot. (Welsh : Blaen y gwaew mwyaf. E.)
Wet pastures and sides of lakes. Bogs on Iver Heath, near Uxbridge. Between Rotherhithe and Deptford. Bogs on Malvern Chase, Worcestershire. Mr. Ballard. Kineson Pool, near Stafford Dr. Stokes. Ditches about Restennet, Angus-shire. Mr. Brown. Sides of Ancot Pool, Salop. Mr. Aikin. (Crosby Marsh, near Liverpool. Dr. Bostock. In ditches at Preswick Carr, Northumberland. Mr. Winch. In a bog in the parish of Llangoed, Anglesey. Welsh Bot. Duddingston Loch, near Edinburgh. Parsons, in Lightf. E.)
P. June-July. R. GRAMIN'Eus. Leaves spear-strap-shaped, (many-ribbed, sessile: E.)
stem upright, very smooth, few-flowered : root tuberous.
* It is very acrid. Applied externally it inflames and blisters the skin, (as regularly practised in tħe Highlands and Islands of Jura, where the bruised leares are applied in a limpet shell. E.) Horses eat it. Cows, sheep, goats, and swine refuse it. Its acrimony rises in distillation. Some years ago a man travelled through several parts of England admipistering emetics, which, like wbite citriol, operated the instant they were swallowed. The distilled water of this plant was his medicine : and, from the experience I have liad of it, I feel myself authorised to assert, that in the case of poison being swallowed, or other circumstances occurring, in which it is desirable to produce instantaneous romiting, it is preferable to any other medicine yet known, and docs not excite those painful contractions in the upper part of the stomach which wbite vitriol sometimes does, thereby defeating the intention for which it was given.
(E. Bot. 2306. E.)-- Bauh. Hist. iii. 866. 3. About a foot high. Leaves quite smooth, long and narrow like those of
grasses. Flowers pale yellow, smaller than those of R. lingua. (Calyx
perfectly smooth, lying open, but not reflexed. GRASSY CROWFOOT. E.) Brought from North Wales, by Mr. Pritchard.
P. May-June. (2) Leaves dissected and divided, not uniform, R. AURI'COMUS. Root-leaves kidney-shaped, scollopped, cut: stem-leaves
digitate, strap-shaped : stem many-flowered. Curt.-(E. Bot. 624. E.)-Fuchs. 156 — Trag. 97-J. B. iii. 857. 3- Lonic.
i. 162. 2_Kniph. 2-Fi. Dan. 665-Lob. Ic. 669. 2~Ger. 954. 7-Park.
326.7-Pet. 38. 2-H. Or. iv. 28. 15—Pet. 38. 6–Ger. 807.8. Nectary a small oblique hole at the bottom of the petals not covered by any
scale. Curt. Blossoms yellow, large. Stem about a foot high, leafy, slightly hairy on the upper part, slender. Leaves very slightly pubescent, the root-leaves on long leaf-stalks; the stem-leaves sessile. Calyx hairy, not reflexed, yellow. Flowers sometimes imperfect in the petals. Not
acrid as are some of its congeners. E.) Wood Crowfoot. GOLDILOCKS. (Welsh : Peneuraidd. E.) Woods, groves, and hedges.
P. April-May. R. SCELERA'TUS. (Stem hollow, branched : lower leaves palmate, the
upper digitate: fruit oblong. (E. Bot. 681. E.)- Curt.- Fl. Dan. 571-Fuchs. 159–Trag. 93–J. B. iii.
858, 1-Lonic. i. 163. 2-Dod. 426, 2-Lob. Obs. 382. 1, and Ic. i. 669. 1 Ger. Em. 962. 4-Park. 1215. 6-Pet. 38. 11-H. Ox. iv. 29. 27 and
28 - Matth. 610. Plant acrid, succulent, much branched, light-coloured. Stem smooth,
thick, one to two feet high. Leaves smooth, with three or four deep divisions ; segments spear-shaped, more or less jagged. Flowers sinali, yellow. Flowers numerous, pedunculated. Fruit egg-oblong, with
very many seeds, E.) WATER, OR CELEBY-LEAVED CROW FOOT. (Irish : Turkis fihain. Welsh : Crafange yr eryr. E.) Shallow waters.
A. May-June. R. A'CRIS. Calyx expanding : fruit-stalks cylindrical, not furrowed :
leaves with three divisions, and many clefts ; the uppermost
strap-shaped, entire. Curt.-(E. Bot. 652. E.)-Woodv. 246—Walc.-J. B. iii. 416– Blackw.31. 2
and E.-Dod. 426. 1-Lob. Obs. 379. 2, and Ic. i. 665. 1--Park. 328. 2
Pet. 38. 3-H. Or. iv. 28. 16.
E.) Calyx hairy, coloured. Leaves hairy, segments black or deep purple
The whole plant is rery corrosive ; and beggars use it to ulcerate their feet, which they expose in that state, to excite compassion.--(It has been used as a substitute for Cantharides, but the wounds prove more troublesome and difficult to Leal. E.) Goats eat it. Cows, horses, and sheep refuse it.
(Frequently cultivated in gardens with double blossoms, (Yellow Batchelors'
Buttons,) and found so in a wild state at Mill Green, near Ravensworth,
by Mr. Winch. E.) BUTTER Cups. (UPRIGHT MEADOW Crowfoot. (Irish: Fearban,
Welsh : Cafrange y från sythboethus y gweunydd. E.) Meadows and pastures, very common.
P. June-July. (3) Leaves dissected and divided ; uniform. R. PARVIFLORUS. Seeds rough with tubercles ending in hooked points:
leaves heart-shaped, hairy, lobed or toothed ; upper ones three
lobed : stem prostrate. E. Bot. 120-Ray. 12. 1. at p. 326-H. Ox. iy. 28. 21-Pet. 38. 9–
Pluk. 55. 1. Whole plant trailing close on the ground, (six or eight inches long. E.)
Root-leaves on very long leaf-stalks, kidney, or heart-shaped, toothed. Stem-leaves kidney-shaped; upper ones sessile, simple or with three divisions; all the leaves extremely soft to the touch. Flowers small, yellow. (Petals narrow, sometimes partially wanting. E.) Seeds flatted;
with minute hooked prickles on their sides. SMALL-FLOWERED CROwpoor. (Welsh : Crafunge y från manflodeuog. E.)
Corn-fields and meadows, in a gravelly soil. Near Camberwell, and Greenstreet Green, near Dartford. Ray. Malvern Hill, Worcestershire. Mr. Ballard. Near Norwich. Mr. Pitchford. And Worcester. Dr. Stokes. St. Vincent's Rocks, Bristol. Rev. G. Swayne. (Bootle, near Liverpool. Dr. Bostock : and Crosby. Mr. Shepherd. Near Brockham, Surry, and Cockerton, Durham. Mr. Winch. Top of Oversley Hill, Warwickshire; and hedge banks near Alcester mill, on the Worcester road. Perry. In hedges bordering on Tywyn y Capel, near Holyhead, and at Aberffraw. Welsh Bot. E.) Lymington, Hants; and Lulworth Cove, Dorsetshire, plentiful.
A. May-June. R. HEDERA'CEUS. Leaves roundish, three to five-lobed, very entire:
stem creeping. Curt. 247—(E. Bot. 2003. E.)-Fl. Dan. 321–J. B. iii. 782. 2-H. O.c.
iv. 29. 29-Pet. 38. 12. Leaves shining, some-kidney-shaped, lobes nearly heart-shaped. Leaf
stalks flatted. Fruit-stalks not furrowed. Petals small, spear-shaped, white. Stamens five, six, seven, rarely more. Nectaries yellowish.
Seeds wrinkled. (Stems prostrate, or floating on water ; radicating. E.) Ivy-LEAVED CROWFOOT. (Welsh: Crafange y frân eiddewddail. E.) On the mud of slow shallow rivulets, and other watery places.
P. June-Aug. R. ALPESTRIS. Leaves very smooth : root-leaves nearly heart-shaped,
Sheep and goats eat it. Cows, horses, and swine refuse it. Linn. Cows and horses leave this plant untouched, thougti their pasture be ever so bare. (Such seems to be the case in general; but necessity will not always admit of choice, and we are also inclined to believe that the young shoots may be less acrimonious. E.) It is very acrid, and easily blisters the skin. (Curtis relates that even gathering the plant and carrying it some distance in the naked hand will produce a tendency to inflammation, E.)
blunt, threc-cloven, lobed ; those of the stem spear-shaped, very entire : stem with one flower.
Jacq. Austr. 110-E. Bot. 2390. (Plant four or five inches high, erect, smooth in every part. Leaves chiefly
radical, veined. Flower large. E.) Petals inversely heart-shaped, of a brilliant white. Calyx smooth, bordered with white. Stem-leaf often ternate; the radical ones greatly resemble those of R. aquatilis that float on the surface, and in watery places may be mistaken for them. Linn. Tr.
vol. 10. p. 434. ALPINE White Crowfoot. Discovered by the sides of little rills, and in
other moist places about two or three rocks on the mountain of Clova, - Angus-shire, very rare, and but seldom flowering, by Mr. Don, who suga
gests that its herbage, bearing a great resemblance to several of its kindred, may easily have been overlooked, but when in blossom it is truly an attractive plant.
P. May. E.) R. AQUAT'ILIS. (Stem floating, submersed : leaves hair-like; those
above somewhat peltate, lobed, notched, with nearly central
leaf-stalks. E.) E. Bot. 101-Pet. 39. 1-J. B. iii. 781. 1-Barr. 565–Dod. 587. 2-Lob.
Obs. 497.2, and Ic. ii. 35. 2-Ger. Em. 829. 2- Park. 1216.84H. Or. iv.
29. 31. Flowers on fruit-stalks which arise from the same sheath with the leaves.
Petuls white, with a yellow spot at the base. Nectary a short open tube. (Stems cylindrical, leafy, lengthened branched out, according to the depth of water. Plant often covering the surface in extensive dense masses,
with a profusion of flowers. E.) Var. 2. Large-flowered. None of the leaves hair-like; flowers very large. In a pool that had been a quarry, near Sodbury, Gloucestershire. Rev.
G. Swayne. Var. 3. Circinatus. All the leaves hair-like, forming a roundish line. Pluk. 55. 2—Pet. 39. 3—C. B. Pr. 73. 2–J. B. iii. 784. 1-Park. 1257. 8. Var. 4. Diffusus. All the leaves hair-like, segments spreading, outline irregular.
H. Or. iv. 29. 32-Ger. 679-J. B. iii. 781. 2-Pet. 39. 2. Var. 5. Fluviatilis. All the leaves hair-like ; segments very long, parallel,
taking the direction of the rapid stream, (and thus exhausted, rarely pro
ducing flowers. E. Fl. Dan. 376–J. B. iii. 782. 1-Lob. Ic. i. 791. 1-Ger. Em. 827. 3-Park.
1256. 5-Pet. 39. 4. Water Crowfoot. Rait. (Irish: Niul uisge. Welsh : Crafrange frún dyfrle. Ponds, ditches, and rivers.
* This is a troublesome weed in ponds, but its flowers produce a beautiful effect when in such profusion as to cover the whole surface of the water. The rarieties in the leaves seem entirely occasioned by the greater or less depth of the water, and by its being stagnant or pot, and are therefore by no means constant. (Mr. Thomson remarks that in plauts even not aquatics, but which happen to be planted in water, we may perceire the metamor.
R. HIRSU'TUS. (Root fibrous : stem hairy, many-flowered : calyx glan.
dular, hairy, accuminate, at length reflexed: seeds tuberculated. E.)
Curt.-(E. Bot. 1504. E.)–J. B. iii. 417. 3. Stem more branched and spreading ; hairs stiffer and longer than in R. bul
bosus. Leaf-stalks of the lower leaves hollow, and if cut asunder, the nerves appear projecting into the inside of the tube. Leaves, lobes three more distinct, the middle and outermost rounder and less deeply divided at the edges, the side ones with a portion as if cut out from the inner edge; frequently with irregular pale or whitish spots, and the upper surface beset with projecting points, from which the hairs arise. Flowers more numerous, smaller, and seeds smaller than in R. bulbosus. Curt. Root, fibres long, thick, white. Root-leaves either entire or three-lobed, the middle leafit on a leaf-stalk. Flowers pale yellow. Woodw. (Whole plant covered with spreading hairs; varying greatly in luxuriance ; rather
pale. E.) (Pale Hairy Crowfoot. E.) Moist clayey places, where water has re
mained stagnant during the winter. Salt marshes near Gravesend. Ray. Various places about London; side of the road between Croydon and Mitcham; and plentifully by the sea side on the gravelly banks about Southampton. Curtis. Road sides, rubbish, &c.; Cambridgeshire. Relhan. Amongst corn in a clayey soil, and on new made banks of salt marshes, Yarmouth. Mr. Woodward. (Crosby, near Liverpool. Dr. Bostock. St. Anthon's Ballast Hills, Durham. Mr. Winch. "Pentland Hills. Mr Arnott. Grev. Edin. Magilligan, Derry. Mr. Murphy. E.)
A. June-Sept. (R. parvulus of Linn. and Fl. Brit. has been fully ascertained by Mr. D. Turner and Mr. Forster to be only a starved procumbent plant of R.
hirsutus. E.) R. BULBO'sus. Root bulbous: calyx reflexed: fruit-stalks furrowed :
stem upright, many-flowered : leaves compound: (seeds smooth.
E.) (E. Bot. 515. E.)- Mill. III.-Curt.-Kniph. 7-Walc.-Fl. Dan. 551--
Dod. 431. 1-Lob. Obs. 380. 3, and Ic. i. 667, 1-Ger. 953. 6—Park. 329.
5-Pet. 38. 4-Fuchs. 160–J. B. iii. 417. 4-Ger. 806. 6—Matth. 614. Root globular, fibrous at the base. Stems a foot high, upright, bare at the
base, towards the top leafy, and branched. Lyons. Calyx at the bottom thin and semi-transparent. Stem never throwing out suckers like R. repens. Curt.
Upper leaves, divisions strap-shaped. Bulb formed above the bulb of the preceding year. When it comes into flower, the old one, in a dry soil, may be found in a state of decay under the new one, and surrounded by the fibres, but without the least appearance of suckers proceeding from either of them. In a turf containing six plants, the roots were all distinct, excepting one, which appeared from its size, to
phose from the flat to the capillary leaves taking place in the fresh shoots before they gain ibe surface of the water, after wbich they assume the form consonant to the natural babit of the plant, as in Horebound, &c. E.) So far is Water Crowfoot from possessing the deleterious qualities usually attributed to it, that Dr. Pulteney, in the fifth vol. of Lion, Tr. has given ample testimony to its capability of alipost alone supporting horses, cows, and pigs, in good condition, aud the animals eat it with avidity.