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(Nearly resembling the above is R. subglobosa, Sm. Eng. Fl. R. tomentosa, var. and n. Woods. The whole plant, except the prickles "conical, hooked, compressed," and the calyx "copiously pinnate," bears more resemblance to R. villosa than tomentosa, and is particularly remarkable for its "large, globular, half-ripe fruit." Sm. E)
(R. GRACILIS. Flower-stalks bristly, generally bracteated: branches globular: fruit and calyx bristly: larger prickles hooked: leafits doubly serrated, hairy on both sides.
E. Bot. 583.
Flowers generally solitary, but occasionally two or three together: fruit scarlet.
Var. 2. Fl. alb. with the segments of the calyx usually divided. It is by far the most elegant of the British Roses, and, were it not for its hooked prickles, comes very near to R. involuta, var. ß. Sabini.
TALL BRISTLY ROSE. R. gracilis. Woods, in Linn. Tr. v. xii. Sm. Eng. Fl. R. villosa. E. Bot. At Baydales, near Darlington. Mr. J. Backhouse. In hedges three miles and a half from Keswick, on the Lorton or Cockermouth road, ascending Finlatter, where Mr. Woods observed it; and at Pooley Bridge. Var. 2, in Ennerdale, or between that and Lampleugh Cross. Winch. Geog. Distr. E.)
(Mr. Edwin Lees announces, in Mag. Nat. Hist. i. 394, a more southerly station than has hitherto been assigned to this species, viz. in thickets near Cruckbarrow Hill, Worcester, 1828. E.)
(R. TOMENTOSA. Fruit broadly elliptical, bristly: calyx copiously pinnate prickles slightly curved: leafits ovate, acute, more or less downy. Sm.
Hook. Fl. Lond. 124-E. Bot. 990.
A smaller plant in all its parts than R. villosa, resembling in general habit R. canina, but that the leaves are pubescent on both sides, with a greyish cast. Fruit scarlet. Petals whitish at the base, above of a beautiful rose-colour. Fl. Brit. Fruit very different from that of R. villosa. Winch. Smith adds, "I have seen this plant, on removal to a rich garden soil, assume so rank and prickly a habit as scarcely to be recognized, and even in wild situations the pubescence varies greatly; still I find no considerable alteration in the division of the calyx, nor in the elliptical shape of its tube." Woods enumerates no less than fifteen varieties.
DOWNY-LEAVED DOG ROSE. (Welsh: Rhosyn lledwlanog. R. tomentosa. Woods. Lindl. Sm. With. Ed. 6. Winch. Purt. R. villosa. Var. 2. Huds. R. villosa. Var. With. Ed. 5. Wild Briar, or Dog Rose, with large prickly heps. Ray. Hedges, common. Ray. Woodward. Near London. Hudson. Shropshire, Wales, Norfolk. Withering. Bootle, near Liverpool. Mr. Shepherd. By no means rare in the north. By Sheriff Hi waggon-way, near Gateshead; at Hamsterley, near Medomsley, and in the lane between High and Low Team, Durham; also about Darlington and Keswick. Mr. Winch. Near Brent, Devon. Rev. J. Pike Jones. Near Dyffryn, in the parish of Penmynydd, Anglesey. Welsh Bot. S. June-July. E.)
(Var. 2. Fruit globose, bristly.
E. Bot. 1896.
Much resembling R. tomentosa, but having prickles more straight and slender, leaves harsher, and petals white, only blotched with red. E. Bot. A very distinct species from R. tomentosa, and readily distinguishable by its fruit, from either that or R. villosa. The buds are peculiarly handsome when sufficiently expanded to show the bright red tints, with which the outer edge of the white petals are marked. Winch. Notwithstanding the above respectable testimony, and specimens kindly communicated by Mr. Winch, which certainly in the individuals demonstrate an obvious difference at least, as regarding the fruit, that of R. scabriuscula appearing far more globose and bristly than that of R. tomentosa, (vera,) there is reason to question the permanency, both of those characteristics, and also of the one derived from the more or less pubescence or harshness of the leaves. That very accurate observer, Mr. Winch, himself admits such a probability; and, in confirmation of the more recent arrangement of Smith and others, Purton remarks, “I have a specimen of R. scabriuscula which accords perfectly with the figure and description in E. Bot. On the same bush I have frequently found the unripe fruit smooth, without the calyx; others ripe, with the flower-stalk and fruit bristly; and the latter still crowned by the calyx. The leaves of the branches supporting the smooth fruit were smooth underneath, whilst those bearing bristly fruit were more or less pubescent."
Roughish-leaved Dog Rose. Welsh: Rhosyn lledarw. R. scabriuscula. E. Bot. Woods. Tr. Linn. Soc. v. xii. Winch. Geog. Distr. With. Ed. 6. R. tomentosa B, Eng. Fl. a, Hook. Grev. Purt. In Ennerdale, and by the river Greta, near Keswick. Mr. Winch. In Anglesey, but not common. Welsh. Bot. E.)
(R. HIBER'NICA. Fruit nearly globose, smooth: flower-stalks smooth: prickles of the stem slightly hooked: leafits elliptical, smooth, with hairy ribs.
E. Bot. 2196.
Fruit slightly elongated upwards, but always round and broad at the base. Stem six feet high, upright, much branched, and very prickly. Prickles scattered. Flower-stalks often solitary, often two or three together. Petuls pale blush-coloured. Styles distinct at the base. It is remarkable for continuing in blossom from the early part of June to the middle of November. The scarlet fruit distinguishes this species from every variety of R. spinosissima. E. Bot.
IRISH ROSE. Discovered in the county of Down, growing abundantly about Belfast harbour, by John Templeton, Esq. who consequently became entitled to the reward of £50, offered by the patrons of Botany at Dublin, for the discovery of a new Irish plant. P. June-Nov. E.)
(2) Fruit ovate.
R. RUBIGINO'SA. (Fruit obovate, bristly towards the base: calyx pinnate: prickles hooked, compressed, with smaller, straighter ones interspersed leafits elliptical, doubly serrated, hairy, clothed beneath with rusty-coloured glands. Sm. E.)
(Hook. Fl. Lond. 116-E. Bot. 991. E.)-Fl. Dan. 870-Jacq. Austr. 50— Walc.-Ger. Em. 1269. 1, left hand fig.-Park. Par. 419. 8.
Branches smooth, but with scattered rather large prickles. Leafits generally seven, egg-shaped, pointed, scattered underneath with rubiginous
resinous globules. Leaf-stalks rough with hairs, and minute prickles, and, as are the floral-leaves, beset with minute glands on pedicles. Fruit nearly globular, beset, especially at the base, with a few small prickles. Fruit-stalks with very minute prickles. Blossoms red. R. eglanteria differs in growing taller, having straight prickles, and blossoms large, yellow, and scentless. Linn. (This latter remark is proved by the great expounder of the learned Swede, to refer to the Yellow Briar, of which the Austrian Rose, R. bicolor of Jacquin, is a transient variety.) Much branched, four or five feet high. Fruit orange red. E.)
SWEET BRIAR. EGLANTINE. (Irish: Feirdriss. Welsh: Rhoslwyn pêr. E.) (R. rubiginosa. Linn. Mant. Sm. Hook. Willd. Purt. Jacq. Hull. Lindl. a. R. suavifolia. Lightf. Oed. R. odoratissima. Scop. R. eglanteria. Linn. Sp. Pl. by error in Ed. 1; and see Afzelius, in Annals of Botany, vol. ii. Huds. Du Roi. Woods. Winch. E.) Hedges and heaths. Hedges, Norfolk, but not frequent. Mr. Woodward. Between Dudley and Tipton. In Mr. Terne's garden, Worcester, from a gravel pit, near Claines church. Dr. Stokes. (At Battersea. Mr. Sowerby, in E. Bot. Box Hill, Surry. Mr. Winch. On the banks of the Dee, undoubtedly wild. Mr. Anderson. Near Kimbolton; and Galley-wood Common, Essex. Mr. W. Christy. In Eastwear Bay, Kent. Mr. G. E. Smith. About Chudleigh. Rev. J. P. Jones. Alne Hills, above the village, near Alcester. Purton. Near Llysdulas, Anglesey. Welsh Bot. Sea side between Caroline Park and Cramond. Dr. Greville. Not originally indigenous to the north, and only met with on ballast hills, or occasionally in hedges. Mr. Winch. E.) S. June-July.
(The refreshing fragrance, especially after vernal showers, both of the leaves and flowers of this species, causes it to be much esteemed. Double flowering and evergreen varieties have been introduced in our gardens. The Parisian floriculturists have produced no fewer than fifty-seven sorts. It bears clipping well, and knits together so as to form an agreeable secondary hedge. But Sir Walter, with perhaps better taste, deprecates this practice:
Marm. Cant. 3.
In its more luxuriant native grace, it has for ages attracted the favourable notice of poets:
"Cherish the tulip, prune the vine,
or, more affectingly,
was frequently attuned to its praise. The bower,
"The wild harp, which silent bangs By silver Avon's holy shore,"
Oer-canopied with luscious woodbine,
And thus Shenstone :
The leaf of Eglantine, whom not to slander,
"Come, gentle air! and while the thickets bloom,
Convey the woodbine's rich perfume,
Nor spare the sweet-leav'd Eglantine.”
But no child of feeling or of song has more delicately assimilated its charms than Burns:
(Var. 2. Small-flowered Sweet Briar. R. micrantha. Woods. Sm, R. rubiginosa B. Lindl. Hook. Purt.
Hook. Fl. Lond. 116. f. 10. E.)-E. Bot. 2490.
Fruit ovate, somewhat bristly, as are the flower-stalks. Stem straggling, with scattered, hooked prickles. Leafits ovate, acute, clothed beneath with rusty-coloured glands.
Inferior to the true Sweet Briar in scent and compactness, as in the beauty of its blossoms, they being less than those of any other British rose. Common in hedges and thickets: more so than the better sort. E. Bot. E.)
R. CANI'NA. (Fruit ovate, smooth or somewhat bristly, like the aggregate flower-stalks: calyx pinnate, deciduous: prickles strongly hooked: leafits simply serrated, pointed, quite smooth. Sm. E.) Curt. 299-(E. Bot. 992. E.)-Kniph.7-Fl. Dan. 555-Blackw. 8—Ludw. 70-Walc. 5-Park. 1017. 1-J. B. ii. 43. 2-Trag. 986. 2—Ger. 1087. 2. (Six to twelve feet high, with long trailing or over-arching branches. E.) Leafits two or three pair, with an odd one, pointed; serratures terminated by minute purple glands. Leaf-stalks sheathing; edges beset with purple glands. Prickles broad, flat, bowed downwards. Calyx segments two, furnished with long teeth on both edges, two without, and the fifth with teeth on one edge. Petals red, sometimes nearly white; one lobe larger than the other. (Flowers pale pink, clustered; soon out-topped by the leading shoots of the shrub. Fruit scarlet, oval. Calyx deciduous. Leaves dark shining green. The young shoots very strong, armed with large hooked prickles. Winch. The Rev. Mr. Sutton observes, in E. Bot. that as the fruit of R. rubiginosa is occasionally smooth, so that of R. canina is very rarely a little hispid. Professor Hooker states as a remarkable peculiarity in R. canina, that the further to the north any var. of it is found, the more villous are the styles; and the less so as it proceeds southward; these organs being quite destitute of hair in Madeira. E.)
(R. Forsteri. Sm. R. collina B, and y. Woods, differs chiefly from this species in having the mid-rib hairy; a trivial, and probably variable distinction. R. bractescens, Woods, has also been referred to R. canina. E.) DOG ROSE. HEP TREE. WILD BRIAR.
"O bonie was yon rosy brier,
(CANKER ROSE, in Devonshire.
That blooms sae far frae haunt o'man,
Yon rose buds in the morning dew
How pure, amang the leaves sae green,
But purer was the lover's vow
They witness'd in their shade yestreen.
All in its rude and prickly bower,
That crimson rose, how sweet and fair!
But love is far a sweeter flower
Amid life's thorny path o'care."
The bedeguar frequently observed on this species is called Sweet-briar Spunge; and, asin other instances, the original depredator having been destroyed by the remorseless Ichneumon, it becomes the cradle of that fly. E.)
Welsh: Ciros; Egroeswydd. Gaelic: An fhearr-dhris. E.) Hedges and woods; frequent in most parts of Britain.
(R. SYSTYLA. Fruit ovate-oblong, smooth: flower-stalks glandular: calyx pinnate, deciduous: prickles hooked: leafits simply serrated: floral receptacle conical: styles combined, smooth. Sm. E. Bot. 1895.
This plant has the general habit and appearance of R. canina, but with flowers more numerous in each cluster; and (what perhaps affords a more essential distinction) styles united into a long smooth column. LONG-STYLED ROSE. R. systyla. Woods. Tr. Linn. Soc. vol. xii. Lindl. Sm. Hook. R. collina. E. Bot. In hedges and thickets. Common in Sussex. Mr. Borrer. At Walthamstow, Quendon, and Clapton, near
A perfumed water may be distilled from the blossoms: (said to be infinitely more fragrant than common rose-water, and thus eulogized by Haller, "Fragrantia ejus olei omnia alia odoramenta superat, ut inter regiadona sit."
"As swete as is the Bramble floure
That bereth the red hepe." Chaucer.
An esteemed drink made from the leaves and twigs is used in Tartary and Siberia, where likewise the plant is known by a name signifying Dog-fruit. The flowers yield a spirit, and are preserved with honey and sugar by the inhabitants of the Volga. E.) The pulp of the berries, beat up with sugar, makes the conserve of heps of the London Dispensatory. Mixed with wine it is an acceptable treat in the north of Europe. (In preparing the pulp from the heps much care should be taken to separate the rough prickly matter inclosing the seed, a neglect of which precaution has sometimes occasioned vomiting and other alarming symptoms. As the conserve is merely used to give form to other articles, the Edinburgh College have omitted it.) Though fieldfares and thrushes, when and where available, prefer feeding on insects and worms, (vid. Zoolog. Mag, vol. i.) yet they do, as every sportsman knows, freely devour the fruit both of the White Thorn and the Wild Rose. The value of the fruit of the Wild Briar as winter food for the songsters of the grove is thus prettily described by the poet :
"The woods are stripped with the wintry winds,
"Tis the ruby fruit of the Wild-briar tree.
The strong have bowed down, the beauteous are dead;
And bared is full many a lofty head;
But there's fruit on the lowly Wild-briar tree.
By the simple, faithful, Wild-briar tree." E)
The leaves of every species of Rose, but especially of this, are recommended in the Eph. Nat. Curios. as a substitute for tea, giving out a fiue colour, a sub-astringent taste, and a grateful smell, when dried and infused in boiling water. (On the strong shoots of this species garden Roses are now grafted, and thus are trained tall stems throwing out heads of considerable size, which, when clustered with varied blossoms, are highly ornamental, especially on grass lawns. By the Greeks Wild Roses were called: xuvopolo, because the root was thought to cure the bite of a mad dog; and hence the Latin canina, our Dog Rose; whose arching branches and lively odorous flowers, where "Blushing, the uncultur'd Rose
Hangs high her beauteous blossoms,"
(intermediate in floral succession between the Hawthorn of Spring and the Honeysuckle of Autumn,) decorate our hedge rows through the prime of Summer. E.)