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dry. Fructifications rare. Capsules small, red brown. Fruit-stalk short, white, rising out of a toothed involucrum. Dill. Scales of the involucrum cloven, membranous. Leaves when magnified cloven, not unlike those of J. curvifolia. Griff. (Leaves never undivided, as in the figure of
E. Bot. Hook. E.) SILVERY ALPINE JUNGERMANNIA. E.) Wet rocks and by the side of
rivulets on Cader Idris, Glyder and Snowdon, and the Highland mountains. Mr. Griffith. On rocks on the sides and tops of hills in Dartmoor, Devon. Mr. Newberry.
P. Sept.-Oct. J. CONCINNATA. (Stem erect, branched : leaves very closely imbricated,
erect, concave, ovate, obtuse, emarginate: fruit terminal: calyx none. Hook. E.)
(Hook. Jung. 3-E. Bot. 2229—Fl. Dan. 1002. E.) Grows matted in tufts, reddish brown above, pale green below. Stalks a
quarter of an inch high, very slender, brittle when dry, closely tiled with leaves, thickest at the ends. Leaves undistinguishable by the naked eye, smooth, membranous at the edge, always pressed to. Fruit-stalks terminal, short. Capsules brown. Lightf. Shoots compressed, but obscurely four-cornered. Scales of the involucrum, entire, rounded, which distinguishes it from J. julacea. Griff. (with which it has very gene
rally been confounded both on the Continent and in Britain. E.) (MATTED JUNGERMANNIA. E.) Rocks on the Highland mountains frequent. On Snowdon. Mr. Griffith.,
Sept.- Oct. J. RUPESTRIS. Shoots cylindrical : leafits awl-shaped, pointing one way.
Dicks. H. S.-(E. Bot. 1277. E.)-Dill. 73. 40. Whole plant very short, being about one-third of the length of a pin,
blackish, upright, seldom branched. Linn. Shoots branched, dark green. Leafits bent back. Involucrum cylindrical, not tiled as in J. alpina. Web.
Grows densely crowded together, short, naked below. Leaves very slender, reflexed, dark green, blackish when dry, pointing one way. Involucrum very minute, terminal, reddish, not scaly. Fruit
stalk very short. Capsules very small. Dill. (Dusky Rock JUNGERMANNIA. E.) On moist rocks on Snowdon and
Glyder, Carnarvonshire ; north of England, and Highland mountains. Plentifully upon rocks on the sides and tops of hills in Dartmoor, Devon. Mr. Newberry.
P. March-Oct. J. TRICHOPHYL'LA. (Stem creeping, irregularly branched: leaves
imbricated on all sides, here and there fasciculated, setaceous, jointed, patent straight: fruit terminal: calyx oblong, the mouth
contracted, ciliated. Hook. E.) (Hook. Jung. 7–E. Bot. 2252. E.)-Schmid. 42. 1 to 23—Dill. 73. 37. Shoots only a few lines in length, closely surrounded by very slender leafits,
of a pale yellow green. Fruit-stalk terminal. Involucrum long, cylindrical, cloven. Weis. When magnified, the leafits appear divided quite down to the base into three or four awl-shaped segments, composed of globular joints. Fruit-stalk half an inch long. Capsules black. Leers. Leaves pale green, extremely slender. Branches numerous, irregular. Dill
. (Hooker describes the joints of the leaves as "a little longer than they are broad, and perfectly cylindrical.” E.)
(GLOBULAR-JOINTED JUNGERMANNIA. E.) Turfy heaths near North
Brierly, Yorkshire. Richardson, in Fl. Ang. 516. (On Craig Calleach and Schehallion, in Breadalbane, Perthshire; and on Ben Luyal, in the north of Sutherland. Dr. Hooker. E.)
P. April. J. ALPI'NA. Shoots cylindrical : leafits egg-shaped, expanding; involu.
crum tiled. Dicks. H. S.-(E. Bot. 1278. E.)-Fl. Dan. 1002. 1-Dill. 73. 39. Shoots half to one inch high, crowded together in tufts, branching into
short forks. Involucrum terminal. Fruit-stalk seldom found; very short. Web. One to two inches long; cylindrical, not brittle. Involucrum scaly, light red, resembling the bud of the Beach tree. Capsule
dark red. Dill. (CHOCOLATE ALPINE JUNGERMANNIA. E.) Wet rocks on Snowdon and
Glyder, Carnarvonshire, and Bogs on Cader Idris. Dillenius. On the mountains on the north of England. Hudson. And of the Highlands.
Lightfoot. On the top of Carnedd Llewelyn. Griffith. P. April-Oct. J. CURVIFOʻLIA. Shoots creeping, branched, cylindrical: leaves tiled,
roundish, taper-pointed, cloven, the segments hooked. Dicks. ii. 15.
(Hook. Jung. 16—E. Bot. 1304. E.)—Dicks. 5.7. The points of the leaves next to the involucrum upright. Dicks. (Fruite
stalk about half an inch high, whitish and tender. Capsule dark brown, splitting into four acute valves, as in other species. E. Bot. (Colour of leaves and surculi pale green, changing to a fine purple, in those parts
which are most exposed. Hook. E.) CURVE-LEAVED JUNGERMANNIA.. (Forming patches of a deep purple
colour, and a few inches in diameter. E.) Highlands of Scotland. Many places in the ascent to Crib y Ddeseil from Llanberris. On the summit of Carnedd Llewelyn, also near Llyn Llumbren, Denbighshire. Mr. Griffith.)
(May. E.) J. CINE'REA. Shoots creeping, doubly winged above: fruit-stalk from the middle: sheath cylindrical : leaves rounded. Dicks. ii. 15.
Mich. 6. 18-Dill. 72. 28. Grows creeping upon other mosses. Shoots short. Leaves round, grey,
very small, tiled. If immersed in water and magnified, other secondary
leafits may be found underneath these. Dill. (MINUTE GREY JUNGERMANNIA. E.) Woods. Bagley Wood, near
Oxford. Dillenius. J. PUMILA. (Stem ascending, nearly simple: leaves elliptical, ovate:
fruit terminal: calyx oblong-ovate, acuminate, the mouth contracted, denticulate. Hook. E.)
(Hook. Jung. 17-E. Bot. 2230. E.)-PLATE XVIII. f. 4. Grows matted together. Shoot simple, about one-eighth of an inch high.
Leafits six to eight, circular, entire, tiled, nearly opposite. Sheath
toothed. Fruit-stalk terminal, a quarter of an inch long, or more. (PedUNCULATED JUNGERMANNIA. E.) Communicated by J. Wynne
Griffith, Esq. who first discovered it an Cwm Idwell. (Aberdour. Greville. Studley, Yorkshire. Hooker. On mountains near Bantry. Miss Hutchins. E.)
TARGIOʻNIA. Calyr of two valves, compressed, containing
at bottom a capsule, nearly globular, many-seeded. See
vol. 1, p. 370. T. HYPOPHYL'LA. Fructifications solitary: calyx open. Dicks. E. Bot. 287-Mich. 3, Targionia–Dill. 78. 9-Buxb. 1. 61. 4-Col. Ecphr.
1, p. 331, f. 333. Not larger than the little finger nail. Green, not pellucid; rough with
white rising dots. Leaf heart-spear-shaped, at first green, afterwards dark purple, blackish underneath. Fructification at the end, on the underside, the size of a vetch. Calyx black; opening, containing the fruit covered with a yellowish skin, and filled with a yellowish pulp
which rubs to powder between the fingers, and stains them. Col. Ecphr. SINGLE-FRUITED TargiONIA. Moist heaths and sides of ditches, rare.
Near Dawlish, Devonshire. (Near the Tarbet of Cantire, on the confines of Knapdale. Lightfoot. E.)
P. March—May. T. SPHÆROCAR'PUS. Fructifications crowded together: calyxes perfo
rated at the end. Dicks. 8.
E. Bot. 299–Mich. 3. Sphærocarpos--Dill. 78. 17. Culyr reticulated like the leaf of a Jungermannia. Capsules sessile;
brownish when ripe. Dicks. The thick tops of this plant have much the appearance of some of the smaller Mosses, and have, doubtless, on that account been overlooked, but they have a glaucous hue which instantly
announces them to the eye accustomed to observe them. Woodw. (CLUSTERED Targionia. E.) Sphærocarpos terrestris. E. Bot. Clover
fields, Heyden and Norwich. Mr. Bryant. Very common on our cloverfields in autumn, on sandy loams with Riccia glauca, the first year of the clover. Mr. Woodward.
MARCHANTIA.t Barr. Fl. Calyr salver-shaped : Anthers
numerous, imbedded in its disk.
side: Capsules opening at the top: Seeds fixed to
elastic fibres. For a more particular account of the parts of fructification, see vol. i. p.
351 and 369. M. POLYMOR'PHA. Leaf bluntly lobed: calyx of the fertile flowers
mostly ten-cleft. Schmid. 29. 1 to 30–Hedw. Theor. 24. 127 to 131, fructification-E. Bot.
210-Dill. 76. 6. E. F.-Mich. 1. 1 and 3-Lon. i. 319. 2-Fuchs. 473. (misprinted 476)- Trag. 523-Matth. 1038-Lob. Obs. 646. 1. Ic. ii. 246. 1- Dod. 473. 2-Ger. Em. 1565. 3–Ger. 1376—Matth. a. C. B. 732Gars. 300.
(So named by Micheli in honour of his friend and fellow-labourer in natural history Dr. Cyprian Targioni of Florence, whose valuable museum has been highly celebrated. E.)
+ (Named after M. MARCHANT, a French naturalist ; author of some ingenious papers in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences. E.)
From three to five inches long, one broad, and irregularly lobed; dark
green, shining. Fruit-stalks in the angles of the lobes, one to three inches high. Capsules greenish, dividing into eight or ten segments. On the upper surface we here and there observe certain glass-shaped conical cups, on short pedicles, with a wide and scolloped margin. Weis. which inclose about four little bodies, very finely serrated at the edges. Pol. In figure somewhat resembling an oak leaf; surface reticulated. Dill. (A very elaborate description of the structure of this plant may be seen
in Musc. Brit. E.) (STAR-HEADED MARCHANTIA or LIVER-GREEN. E.) In wet places both
shady and open. On wet shady walks, and on the sides of wells and springs.
P. June-Aug. Var. 2. Plant smaller; not shining. Dill. 77. 7–Mich. 1 and 2-Lob. Obs. upper right hand fig.- Lob. Ic. 246–
J. B. iii. 758. 2. Leaves smaller and shorter than in 1; fine green, not shining, not reticu.
lated; densely compacted one upon another. Dill. On the north side of walls, and stones, and in shady areas behind houses. Dill.
July-Aug. Var. 2. Calyx with eight clefts.
Mich. 1.5. M. CRUCIA’TA. Fertile calyx with four divisions : segments tubular.
Dill. 75. 5-Mich. 4. Lunaria Burb. i. 62. 2. Crowded in its growth, sometimes branched, new leaves proceeding from
the ends of the old ones, from half to one inch long, pleasant green, not pellucid, nor veined. Calyx with four, and sometimes five divisions.
Dill. Fruit-stalk white, tender, brittle; one to two inches high. Stackh. (Cross-SHAPED Marchantia. E.) Shady courts and garden walks.
P. June-Oct. M. HEMISPHÆʻRICA. Leaf scolloped : fertile calyx five-cleft: hemis
pherical (E. Bot. 503. E.)-Schmid. 34-Dill. 75. 2–Mich. 2. 2–Fl. Dan. 762
Burb. ii. 5. 1. Head hemispherical, with five globules underneath. Globules bursting,
and pouring out seeds. Linn. Leaf from half to one and a half inch long, concave, edge waved and scolloped ; at first simple, cloven when older, and a young one issuing from the end. Fruit-stalks an inch high,
brownish, naked. Dill. (HEMISPHERICAL MARCHANTIA. E.) Sides of rivers and wet ditches, and wet rocks.
P. April-May. M. CO'NICA. Leaf forked, indented: fertile calyx somewhat egg-shaped,
with about five cells underneath, (E. Bot. 504. E.)-Schmid. 31.—Hedw. Theor. 25. 134 to 136–Mich. 2. 1
-Dill. 75. 1–Vaill. 33. 8-Fl. Dan. 274–Col. Ecphr. 331. 1-Park.
1314. 4. Leaves pleasant pale green, slippery to the touch, creeping on the ground,
dotted on the surface, producing new leaves from the end of the old ones.
Dill. Barren flowers on the leaf, resembling warts. Linn. Fruit-stalks three or four inches high, transparent, very tender. Common calyr, five cells bursting at the base, often varying in number from some proving abortive. Seeds when ripe hanging out attached to threads, having the appearance of the woolly substance which contains the seeds of Lycoperdons. Woodw. Leaves in large clusters, indented, blunt, green, with
several white tubercles. (Conical MarchaNTIA. E.) On the ground on the banks of brooks in
shady places, and sometimes on rocks. Dillenius. Very common, but I have only found it in fruit on the shady banks of a ditch at Ditchingham, Norfolk, where I have observed it for some years. Mr. Woodward. In a wet ditch near Belsey Bridge, Ditchingham. Mr. Stone. Road from Kingshill to Cam, Gloucestershire, in fruit. Mr. Baker. (Stream side, between Painswick and the Edge, in fruit. Mr. O. Roberts. E.)
P. March-April. M. ANDRO'GYNA. Leaf forked, segments strap-shaped: fertile calyx
entire, hemispherical. Dicks. H. $.–(E. Bot. 2545. E.)-Dill. 75. 3. A. C.-Mich. 2. 3—Dill.
75. 3. B. Shoots strap-shaped, forked, dotted; often notched at the end; mid-rib
blackish. Web. Fruit-stalk terminal, half to one inch high. Plant green, strap-shaped, smooth, flat, in forked divisions. Dill. (Ďr. Hooker suspects that the fig. in E. Bot. above cited, (excluding the two lower),
rather belongs to M. hemisphærica. ANDROGYNOUS MARCHANTIA, E.) Under wet rocks on the mountains of
Scotland. Dickson. ii. 17.
a tube through which the seeds escape. See vol. i.
pp. 352 and 371. B. PUSIL'LA. (Hook. Jung. 82. 83. 84-E. Bot. 1328. E.)-Schmid. Blasia.--Hedw. Theor.
27. 156 to 164–Dill. 31. 7-Mich. 7, Blasia-Fl. Dan. 45. Seeds when ripe flowing out of a cup-like cylindrical vessel, so small that
their figure is not discernible to the naked eye. Linn. Suec. n. 1053. Leaves in a circle from one to two inches in diameter, deep purple at the base, green at the edges, jagged. Grows in a circular form in shady places. Leaves thin, green, pellucid, with whitish veins towards the base, waved at the edge, cloven at the ends. Fruit-stalk one-eighth of an inch high, several rising in succession from near the ends of the leaves. Dill. (It bears capsules in the Spring months : gemmæ throughout the whole year. E.) +
* (Named by Micheli, after Blasi, an Italian monk, addicted to the study of Botany. E.)
+ ( Besides the means of increase by seed, some of the Jungermanniæ, like most other Cryptogamous plants, possess the property of propagating their kind by gemmæ ; in the same way as many species of Allium, Polygonuin viviparum, &c. among tbe Pbænoga. mou's. Hook. E.)