Imatges de pàgina

On the ground under hedges, on the trunks of trees, especially young ones, on wood and stones.

P. March-April. H. VELUTI'NUM. Shoot creeping: branches crowded, upright : leaves

awl-shaped. (E. But. 2421-Musc. Brit. xxv. E.)-Dill. 42. 61Happ. iii, IIypn. 6–

Fl. Dan. 475-Vaill. 26. 9. Leaves hairy at the end. Fruit-stalks lateral, an inch long. Involucrum

scaly, inclosing the thick base of the fruit-stalk. Capsules cylindrical, or egg-shaped. Lid conical, short. Weis. Shoots crowded, interwoven, firmly adhering to the earth and the bottom of trees by the rust-coloured woolly fibres. Stem-leaves broader than the branch-leaves. Involverum short, hairy. Lid blunt. Dill. (Very nearly allied to H. rutabulum ;

so also with H. intricatum of authors. Musc. Brit. E.) At the roots of trees, in woods, and hedges, in shady places and barren

pastures. (Velvet FEATHER-MOSS. E.) Capsules appearing in autumn, and com

ing to perfection in Feb. and' March. Var. 2. Smaller, shorter, of a paler green. R. Syn. Shoots seldom more than three or four lines long. Leaves egg-shaped.

Neck. (H. confer’rum. Stems branched : leaves erecto-patent, ovate, acu.

minate, concave, serrated ; nerve reaching half-way: capsule ovate, cernuous : fruit-stalk smooth: lid rostrate.

Dicks. 11. 14-E. Bot. 2407--Musc. Brit. xxvi. A small var. growing on trees, has leaves occasionally sub-secund. CLUSTERED FEATHER-Moss. H. confertum. Dicks. Sm. Hook. H. clavel

latum. Huds. With. to Ed. 7, and, according to Musc. Brit. not distinct from H. serrulatum. Hedw. Trunks of trees, rails, and on banks.

P. Feb. E.)



JUNGERMANNIA.* (Common Receptacle of the Fruit none:

Perianth or Calyx monophyllous, tubular, rarely wanting:
Cupsule four-valved, terminating a peduncle which is

longer than the perianth. Hook. E.) (Many of these plants afford singularly beautiful microscopic objects. For

a fuller account of the parts of fructification, see vol. i. p. 349 and 370 of this work; and the subject elegantly illustrated in a Monograph of British Jungermanniæ by Dr. Hooker, wherein nearly one hundred species are described. E.)

(Named by Ruppius and Micheli in honour of Lewis JUNGERMANN, a native of Leipsic, and Professor of Botany at Altdorf and Giessen in the early part of the seven teeoth century. He published Illustrations of the Flora of Germany, and formed a five Hortus-siccus, wbich is still preserved at Altdorf. E.)

+ (And bere we would observe, in respect to the wonderful discoveries of the microscope, especially in the Cryptogamic department of Botany, that by its aid we are enabled to.


A. Plant unbranched and without a mid-rib.
B. 1. Leaves winged; fruit-stalks terminal.

2. Leaves winged; fruit-stalks lateral, or at the base. C. 1. Leaves winged ; leafits with appendages; fruit-stalks terminal. 2. Leaves winged ; leafits with appendages; fruit-stalks lateral, or

at the base. D. Shoots tiled with leafits.

A. Plant simple, without a mid-rib. J. EPIPHYL'LA. (Stem none: frond bluntly lobed, bearing the sheaths

on its upper surface, with a little leaf at the base of each.

E. Bot. E.) Dicks. H. S.—(Hook. Jung. 47. E.)-Hedw. Theor. 21 and 22 and 23— E. Bot. 771-Schmid. Jung: f. 1 to 6Dill

. 74. 41-Fl. Dan. 359--Happ. i. Jung. 1-Mich. 4. Marsilea. ICol. Ecphr. i. 331. 3—Park. 1314. 54

Mull. Frid. 2. 6 and 5. Leaf variously scolloped and curled at the edge, pale green, firmly fixed to

the mud by fibres from its under side. Weis. Fruit-stalks hollow, two inches high. Scop. Bears its fruit in the spring, but flowers in autumn, the barren flowers appearing like dots on the older leaves, and the fertile ones in the cylindrical sheaths. Involucrum of one leaf, irregular, wrinkled. Germen globular, smooth, on a very short fruit-stalk, which is ensheathed. Lower part of the involucrum fixed in a kind of groove. Style very short. Filuments on the germen of no determinate number. Knapp.' Leaf short, roundish, moderately broad; segments blunt, shallow, fine green, pellucid. In winter a dark green head appears upon the middle of the leaf. In spring this head breaks forth from a valve on the surface of the leaf, circular and open at the top, afterwards cut into four shallow segments. Out of this the fruit-stalk rises, growing rapidly to the height of one and a half or two inches, white, pellucid, supporting a dark green globe which opens into four brownish and roundish segments, discharging a yellow brown powder mixed with fibres. This being done, the old leaf dies, and one or more young ones shoot out.

Dill (In the situation of its anthers, observes Professor Hooker, J. epiphylla

differs from every known species; they being placed singly, and im

mersed in small scattered tubercles upon the surface of the nerve. E.) (Var. 7. furcigera, of the same author, is most abundant in autumn, when

the apices of the fronds are produced in a very remarkable manner; forming branched elongations, which are considerably more narrow, and of a paler green than the rest of the frond, and have the ultimate

recognize the power of the Creator great eren in those things which ignorance regards as too minute merit attention: for we thuis perceive each little herb aplele in its own peculiar structure, and beautiful in its sympietrical proportions, as the most magnificent productions of His hand : and to the obserrant eye, (the mental as well as corporeal vision), the stately monarch of the forest will be scarcely an object of more profovod admiration, that the genitive Moss : E.)


branches always more or less forked. In the month of March, on * plants of this description the branches become wider and of a deeper colour, and gradually partake more of the usual appearance of the plant: roots descend from their under sides, and the old frouds seem to, be going into a state of decay: so that these curious processes are, in all probability, destined by nature as a mean of increasing the species, different from any that has yet been noticed in other Jungermanniæ.

Hooker's Monograph. E.) (Broad-LEAVED JURGERMANNIA, or STAR-TIP. Moist hedges, abundant.

E.) Ellingham Fen, near Bungay, by the direction post. Mr. Stone. (Var. y. not uncommon. Cheddar Rocks. About Torquay. Hooker.

P. March-April. J. PUSIL'LA. (Stem creeping: leaves imbricated in two ranks, angular,

without auricles : sheaths plaited, bell-shaped : valves of the

capsule dilated and jagged. E. Bot. E.) (Dicks. H. S.-Hook. Jung. 69-E. Bot. 1775Schmid. 22Hedw. Theor.

18. 89, to 92— Mlich. 5. 10Dill. 71. 22. C. D. E. E.) (The plant grows either in detached individuals; or thickly matted together

so as to form light, pellucid, green patches of many inches in diameter, and firmly adhering to the ground by its roots. In the calyx, two remarkable peculiarities may be observed, in the widely-expanded mouth, and the stipulaceous processes, or bracteæ, as they might be called, at the base. The situation, too, of the fructification is very curious, unaccompanied by perigonial or perichætial leaves; and the whole plant diffuses an agreeable odour, not unlike that of the Sweet Sedge (Acorus Calamus. Hook. The large bell-shaped plaited sheath will at once distinguish

this otherwise diminutive plant. Purt. E.) (DWARF JUNGERMANNIA. J. pusilla. Linn. Hedw. Huds. With. Relh.

Hook. J. angulosa. Dicks. With. Not uncommon in shady lanes and on moist banks, especially in clayey soil.

P. March-Oct. E.) J. FURCA'TA. Frond strap-shaped, branched, entire, the ends forked

and obtuse: (sheaths hairy. E.) (Hook. Jung. 55 and 56. E.)Hedw. Theor. 19 and 20–(E. Bot. 1632.

E.)- Dill. 74. 45Vaill. 23. 11- Mich. 4. 4. In stony shady places where it thrives well, it grows in tufts, and the

plants support one another nearly upright, but when scattered amongst other Mosses on trees or on the ground it creeps. Leaves flat, come pressed, very thin, pale green, pellucid, with a distinct vein running through the middle, more or less lobed, trifid or bifid at the end ; lubes

blunt. Dill. (FORKED JUNGERMANNIA. E.). On the ground, on rocks, in woods on

the truuks of trees, and wet shady places, (forming large dense patches, closely appressed to the surface. E.) Bungay. Mr. Stone. (On the

bark of a beech tree in Frith Wood, Painswick. Mr. O. Roberts. Var. y. æruginosa. J. fruticulosa. E. Bot. J. furcata. var. y. Hook.

Riccia fruticulosa. With. Ed 4. Remarkable for its colour, of a fine verdigris green, especially towards the ends of the frond, which are considerably dilated, and of a more delicate texture than the preceding. Hook.

Hook. Jung. 55, f. 22, 23-E. Bot. 2514. The plant becomes more decidedly æruginose when dried. It produces

viviparous germs towards the ends of the branches. Br.

On the bottom of trunks of trees among moss. At Callington, near Edinburgh. Mr. Brown.

P. April-May, E.) J. SINUATA. Frond doubly wing-cleft, flat, indented, open, ending in

two unequal lobes. Dicks. ii. 16.

(Hook. Jung. 45E. Bot. 1476. E.)-Dill. 74. 44-Mich. 4. 3. Leaves permanent deep green, thin, pellucid, flat, cut into winged seg.ments. Dill. Leaves lying one upon another, in which way it appears to increase till it has covered a large patch of rock. (When moist and first gathered, it exhales a fine aromatic scent, which, uniting with the fragrance of certain Mosses, imparts to the air a peculiar and refreshing odour, often perceptible from grassy walks under trees or shadowy rocks, especially after showers. Prof. Hooker perceives no difference between this plant and J. multifida, except that the frond is somewhat wider, and the divisions frequently, but by no means constantly, so short that the margins appear to be here and there sinuate, rather than cut

into segments. E.) (JAGGED JUNGERMANNIA. J. multifida var. ß sinuata. Hook. E.) At

the head of Elm Crag Well, under Bell Bank, near Bingley, Yorkshire. Dillenius; (a spot in which Mr. Hailstone detected it in fruit, April 1801, E.) Plentifully at the head of a spring in Middleton Wood, two miles from Leeds, on rocks and stones entirely under water, Mr. Wood. Stream head, between the Lodge farm and the Shepscombe road, near Painswick. Mr. O. Roberts.

P. April. E.) J. PINGUIS. Frond oblong, indented, slippery: (stem none. E.) (Hook. Jung, t. 46. E.)-E. Bot. 185-Schmid. 35-Dill. 74. 42–Mich. 4.

Marsilea 2-Pluk. 42.2Vaill. 19. 4. Fertile plant smaller and more jagged, the other growing close to it, and by

mutual support becoming upright Dill. in R. Syn. 110. Fruit-stalks with a sheathing involucrum, white, pellucid, from one to three inches high. Capsules egg-shaped, black, shining, opening with four valves. Other leaves of a longer form not bearing capsules are set with green

warty substances about the middle. Weis. (SLIPPERY JUNGERMANNIA. E.) Marshy places and bogs, (sometimes

ander water. E.) Bungay, Suffolk. Mr. Stone. (Pentland Hills. Dr. Greville. E.)

P. April. J. MULTIF'IDA. (Stem none: E.) frond with doubly winged clefts.

(Hook. Jung. 45Schmid. 55. E.)-E. Bot. 186–Dill. 74. 43. Leaves pale green; clefts blunt. Involucrum at the base of the leaves, and

at the edges of the segments; cylindrical. Fruit-stalk about an inch long from the base of the leaves. Neck. (Fronds prostrate; sheaths white, which, with the great length of the valves, and their fringe-like

termination, at once distinguish this species. Purt. E.) (MANY-LOBED JUNGERMANNIA. E.) Woods and moist shady places.

Caen Wood, near Highgate, and Charlton, Kent, Dillenius; and about Hampstead. Huds.

P. April-May. B. (1) Leaves winged: fruit-stalk terminal. J. ASPLENIOIDES. (Shoots somewhat branched: leaves crowded, in

two rows, without auricles, obovate, obliquely, finely toothed É. Bot. E.)

(Hook. Jung. 13-E. But. 1788Fl. Dan. 1061. E.)-Hedw. Theor. 16,

17. 81 to 88-Dill. 69. 5-Mich. 5. 3. oo. Shoots three or four inches long; pale green. Leaves, upper edge fringed

with little teeth, alternate. Fruit-stalks terminal, an inch long, rising out of a sheathing involucrum. Capsules egg-shaped, purplish black, shining. Weis. Trailing, sometimes branched. Leaves pellucid, pale

green, without veins. I have never observed any roots. Dill. (SPLEEN-WORT JUNGERMANNIA. SWEET-SCENTED Moss. E.) Road sides

and on trees, in woods and wet shady places; also near springs and rivulets, when it is sweet scented. (It grows plentifully on the sides of the Holy Well of St. Winifred, in Flintshire: also at the spring consecrated to the Virgin Mary, near the chapel, in the sequestered dell of Wyg-fair, (Mary's bower), Denbighshire. E.) Earsham and Sexton woods, near Bungay. Mr. Stone. (Var. 1 and 2 on the bank between the Beech lane and Longridge, Painswick. Mr. Oade Roberts. E.)

P. Feb.-April Var. 1. Leafits more crowded. Fl. Dan. 1061-Dill. 69. 6Mich. 5. 1, and 2– Vaill. 19. 7-H. Or. xv. 6,

row 2. 42—Scop. 62, 1337, instead of 1338, at ii. 7. 321. Plant from one to two inches long. Fruit-stalks twelve lines long, termi.

nating. Neck. Shoots more branched than in one, and shorter. Leafits

smaller and more crowded. Weis. In the same situations with the preceding. Var. 2. Leafits not fringed. This variety was found by Mr. Stackhouse growing under the water of the

celebrated spring called Holywell, in Flintshire. J. SCALA'RIS. (Stem creeping, simple: leaves round, concave, entire,

emarginate: stipule broadly subulate: fruit terminal : calyx immersed in the leaves. Hook.

Hook. Jung. 61-E. Bat. 605. Plants growing in dense, wide patches, pale green. Stems scarcely half an

inch long, procumbent. Leaves distichous, crowded, spreading, semiamplexicaul, the margin entire, rarely notched. Peduncle a quarter to

half an inch high. Calyx concealed by the perichætial leaves. Grev. Fern JUNGERMANNIA. J. scalaris. Schrad. Hook. which has often been

mistaken for J. lanceolata, Linn. Hook. t. 18. a species which abundantly differs, not only in the absence of stipulæ, but in the large and naked calyx, and is at least a very doubtful native of Britain. J. lanceolata. E. Bot. Prof. Hooker considers J. scalaris of Schmidel to be no more

than the gemmiferous state of J. Trichomanis, which has not unfrequently : been so misunderstood. Abundant, upon a loamy soil, in woods, wastes, and hedge banks.

P. April - Oct. E.) J. BIDENTA’TA. (Stem procumbent, branched : leaves broadly ovate,

decurrent, bifid at the apex; the segments very acute, entire: stipulæ bi-trifid and laciniate: fruit terminal: calyx oblong, sub

triangular: the mouth laciniate. Hook. E.) (Hook. Jung. 30—E. Bot. 606. E.)—Dill. 70.11—Fl. Dan. 888—Vaill. 19.

8-H. 01. xy. 6, row 2. 47-Mich. 5. 12-Pet. 13. 4..

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