Imatges de pÓgina

(B. DEMISSUM. Stem very short, branched: leaves ovate, cuspidatoacuminate, reticulated; the nerve excurrent: seta arched: theca curved and pyriform, pendulous.

Grev. Scot. Crypt. 92-Musc. Brit. Sup. vi.

Stems one to five lines long, with a few simple branches arising from their base. Leaves imbricated, yellowish green, reddish at the base; apex almost piliferous. PENDULOUS THREAD-MOSS. Discovered on Craig-calleach in Bredalbane, and the neighbouring mountains, by Dr. Hooker. Grev.

D. Capsules on fruit-stalks, drooping.

(2) Stems upright.


B. NIGRI'TUM. Capsules egg-shaped, toothed: shoots in bundles: leaves spear-shaped, keeled, acute. Dicks.

Hedw. Stirp. iii. 39-(E. Bot. 1825-Musc. Brit. xiv. E.)

Plant black green. Fruit-stalk black red. Capsules shining, black, brittle. Lid convex, with a small point.

(DUSKY THREAD-MOSS. E.) Weissia nigrita. Hedw. (Hook. Grimmia nigrita. Sm. E.) Boggy heaths, Scotland. Dickson.


B. PULVINA'TUM. Capsules roundish: veils minute: shoot branched: leaves oblong, mid-ribbed, hair-pointed.

(Hook. Fl. Lond.-E. Bot. 1728-Musc. Brit. xiii. E.)-Dill. 50. 65— Happ. iii. Bryum. 1–Vaill. 29. 2—Pet. Gaz. 95. 15—H. Ox. xv. 6, row the last, 21. p. 629.

Fruit-stalks bending down so that the capsules are buried in the foliage: but in some stages of the growth they are upright. Neck. In circular convex dense patches, about half an inch high. Leaves, the lower ones brown and without hairs. Fruit-stalks terminal, very short, at first upright, but as the capsule ripens bending down. Mouth toothed. Veil deciduous. Lid short, pointed. Weis.

(GREY-CUSHIONED THREAD-MOSS. Grimmia pulvinata. Sm. Hook. Dicranum pulvinatum. Sw. Turn. Fissidens pulvinatus. Hedw. E.) Walls, rocks, and roofs; one of the most common of all Mosses. March-April. Var. 2. Capsules shorter and rounder; plant white with hoary hairs. Specimen sent by Mr. Griffith. The uppermost leaves ending in very white hairs, as long or longer than themselves.

B. CUBITA'LE. Capsules club-shaped, oblong: shoots and fruit-stalks bent: leaves arrow-shaped, points bordered. Dicks. ii. 9.

(E. Bot. 2554. E.)-Dicks. 5. 2.

The largest of all the Brya. Shoots somewhat branched, rather recumbent at the base. Leaves expanding, taper-pointed, with a thick mid-rib and reddish edge. Fruit-stalk terminal, very long, a little above the base with an elbow-like bend, a gold coloured reddish brown, brightly glittering. Capsule depressed and pendent, club-shaped, very long. Fringe, teeth numerous, upright. Dick. Stems trailing near the root, often three

inches long. Fruit-stalk two to three inches long. Griff. Leaves sometimes bristle-pointed, but not always so. In the specimens of smaller growth the stems are nearly upright, and the bend at the base of the fruit-stalk is less observable.

(ELBOW-STALKED THREAD-MOSs. E.) On moist banks in the Scotch mountains, near Aberfeldy. On wet brows by the sides of rivulets in the neighbourhood of Snowdon, Mr. Griffith; who considers this plant as not specifically distinct from B. alpinum. (Hooker and Taylor arrange it under B. ventricosum, which latter they consider scarcely distinct from B. alpinum. E.)

B. ALPI NUM. Capsules egg-cylindrical fruit-stalk axillary: shoots branched: leaves tiled, spear-shaped, mid-ribbed, pointed, keeled.

(E. Bot. 1263-Musc. Brit. xxviii. E.)-Dill. 50. 64.

Grows densely compacted; variously branched; branches irregular in length. Leaves very numerous, oblong, keeled, straight, acute; opake, smooth, shining, purplish green, but in old plants dark purple below, dark red above. Barren branches taper at the end, those with fruitstalks broader. Fruit-stalks an inch high, dark red purple, issuing from a large purple tubercle. Veil purplish. Dill.

(This species is best known by its deep shining purple colour, its rigid stems and leaves, which latter are straight, as well when dry as when moist. It is difficult, nevertheless, to form a specific character that will separate it from some varieties of B. ventricosum. Musc. Brit. E.) (RED ALPINE THREAD-MOSS. On rocks in mountainous countries. E.) P. April-June. B. MARGINATUM. Capsules egg-cylindrical: lid beaked: leaves eggspear-shaped, pointed, finely toothed, bordered. Dicks. ii. 9.

Dicks. 5. 1. a. b.-E. Bot. 1493-Musc. Brit. xxxi. E.)

Shoots mostly simple. Leaves, teeth remote, the mid-rib and edge red and thick. Fruit-stalks solitary. Capsule half egg-shaped. Lid conical. Veil awl-shaped. Dicks.

(Whole plant yellowish; when seen through a microscope the margin and nerve of the leaf appears of a deep blood colour, and the veil of a red hue, which renders this Moss very discernible at first sight. Musc. Brit. BORDERED-THREAD-MOSS. B. serratum. Schrad. E.) Mnium serratum. Gmel. Pastures, Scotland; (north of England and Ireland. E.) woods, and shady banks.

HYP'NUM. Fruit-stalk from a lateral tubercle, fenced with scales: Capsule, outer fringe with sixteen teeth. Barr. Fl. a bud, generally on a different plant.


A. (1) Unbranched, winged with leaves: capsules upright.

(2) Unbranched, winged with leaves: capsules leaning.

(3) Branched, branches winged with leaves: capsules leaning.
(4) Branched, branches winged with leaves: capsules drooping.

B. (1) Branches irregular: leaves irregular: capsules upright.

(2) Branches irregular: leaves irregular: capsules leaning.

C. (1) Shoots winged with branches: branch leaves imbricated: capsules upright.

(2) Shoots winged with branches: branch leaves imbricated: capsules leaning.

(3) Shoots winged with branches: branch leaves imbricated: capsules drooping.

D. (1) Leaves bent back: capsules upright.

(2) Leaves bent back: capsules leaning.

E. Plant shrub-like: branches fasciculated.

F. (1) Shoots nearly cylindrical: capsules upright.
(2) Shoots nearly cylindrical: capsules leaning.
(3) Shoots nearly cylindrical: capsules drooping.
G. (1) Shoots crowded: capsules upright.

(2) Shoots crowded: capsules leaning.

A. (1) Plant unbranched, winged with leaves.

Capsules upright.

H. BRYOIDES. Fruit-stalks terminal: capsules oblong: lid acute : leafits spear-shaped, acute.

Hedw. Stirp. iii. 29-(E. Bot. 625—Musc. Brit. xvi. E.)—Dill. 34. 1Vaill. 24. 13-Fl. Dan. 473. 1—H. O.r. xv. 6, row 4. 11-Buxb. i. 64. 3. Very small, but distinguished by its capsules, edged at the mouth with a deep red fringe. Linn. The smallest of the genus. Shoots two or three lines long. Leafits seven or eight pair. Fruit-stalks as long, or longer than the shoots, generally solitary. Capsules upright, egg-shaped. Weis. Many growing together as if from one root, but each plate has its separate rate, though sometimes two or three shoots spring from one root. Shoots not branched, short, reclining. Leaves green, not pellucid. Capsules small, upright, oblong, green. Veil very small, greenish. Lid scarlet. Fruit-stalks reddish, issuing from near the end of the shoots, and without any evident involucrum. Dill. Mid-rib of the leafits pellucid. Stackh.

(BRYUM-LIKE FEATHER-MOSS. E.) Shady places, woods, and ditch banks. A. Feb.-May.

(The arrangement of this species according to Musc. Brit. is as follows, Dicranum bryoides. Fruit-stalks terminal, perichætial leaves resembling the cauline ones.

a. Stem short, simple, capsule erect. D. bryoides. Sw. Sm. Turn. Hook. Fissidens bryoides. Hedw. Hypnum bryoides. Linn. Dicranum viridulum. Sw. Sm. E. Bot. 1368. Bryum vividulum. Linn. Dicks. i. 1. 5. Dill. 34. 1.

3. Stem clongated, somewhat branched, capsule erect. Dicranum osmundioides. Turn. Sin. E. Bot. 1662. Hypnum asplenivides. Dicks. 2. 5. 5.

7. Stem short, simple, capsule inclined. Dicranum tamarindifolium. Turn. Sm. E.)*

A. (2) Unbranched, winged with leaves. Capsules leaning.


Seldom branched: fruit-stalks from the base: capsules cylindrical: lid blunt: leaves wedge-shaped, acute, in pairs, two-rowed.

(E. Bot. 1260-Musc. Brit. xxiv. E.-Dill. 34. 5-H. Ox. xv. 6, row 1. 36-Vaill. 29. 8.

Leafits triangularly egg-shaped, hooked. Web. Shoots several, lying on the ground, half to one and a half inch long, seldom branched. Leaves in a double row on each side, soft, pellucid, shining, pale green, pointed and bent back towards the end. Fruit-stalks from the base of the shoots, reddish, an inch or more in length. Capsules oblong, straight, covered by the veil, which is of a straw colour; becoming bent as it approaches to maturity. Lid short. Dill.

(Drs. Hooker and Taylor discriminate var. a. angustifolium; leaves ovatolanceolate, distant, quite plane; and chiefly among mountains, the less frequent.

Var. B. obtusifolium: leaves ovate, more or less obtuse, slightly concave. These learned Muscologists also consider H. Donnianum, E. Bot. 1446, as merely an intermediate variety. E.)

(SHARP FERN-LIKE FEATHER-MOSS. E.) Woods, and moist shady places on the ground, and on trunks of trees. P. Mar.-April.

A. (3) Branched: winged with leaves: capsules leaning. H. TRICHOMANOIDES. Leaves oblong, blunt, hollowed on the under edge: capsules nearly cylindrical: beak bent.

(The authors of the work above cited mention having in their possession specimens of this little plant gathered by the adventurous Mungo Park in the interior of Africa. This might have been the identical species to whose exhilarating influence even his prolonged existence may be ascribed, as happily alluded to in the very interesting "Wonders of the Vegetable Kingdom." "The exhausted traveller found himself in the midst of a rast wilderness, surrounded by savage animals, and by men still more savage. He was fire hundred miles from the nearest European settlement, and, considering his fate as certain, he thought that he had no alternative but to lie down and perish. At this moment the extraordinary beauty of a small moss irresistibly caught his eye, and, though the whole plant was not larger than the top of one of his fingers, he could not contemplate the delicate formation of its leaves and capsules without admiration. Can that Being, thought he, who planted, watered, and brought to perfection, in this obscure part of the world, a thing which appears of so small importance, look with unconcern upon the situation and sufferings of creatures formed after his own image? Thoughts like these would not allow him to despair. He started up, assured that relief was at hand, and he was not disappointed." Ed. 2. p. 148.

"Should fate command me to the farthest verge
Of the green earth, to distant barbarous climes,
Rivers unknown to song;

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E.)—Dill. 34. 8.

(E. Bot. 1493-Musc. Brit. xxiv. Leaves convex above, the ends reflexed. Dill. Leaves inversely egg-shaped, but somewhat hollowed on the under edge: very broad at the end, but with a minute point. Fence leaves spear-awl-shaped. Capsules nearly upright. (The remarkable curvature of the leaf, (scymitar-shaped,) is peculiar to this Hypnum. Musc. Brit. E.)


H. trichomanoides. Schreb. Turn.

Sm. Hook. E.) H.complanatum ß. Huds. and With. Ed. ii. Ditches in woods, and roots of trees.


H. ADIANTOI'DES. Plant somewhat branched: fruit-stalks from the side capsules nearly cylindrical: lid conical, short; leafits spear-shaped.

Dicks. H. S.-Hedw. Stirp. iii. 26-E. Bot. 264-Musc. Brit. xvi. E.)— Dill. 34. 3-Vaill. 28. 5-Buxb. ii. 1. 4.

Two or three inches long, straight; leafits twelve to sixteen pair. Fruitstalks one inch high. Neck. Branched from the base. Leaves not pointed. Capsules reclining. Lid red. Veil as long as capsule. Scop. Upright, branched. Leaves shining. Fruit-stalks red, lateral. Capsules brownish, turning red. Lid scarlet, pointed. Dill. Leafits not serrated as mentioned by Leers. Griff. (Wahlenberg considers this a var. H. taxifolium. E.)

(GREATER FERN-LIKE FEATHER-MOSS. Dicranum adiantoides. Sw. Turn. Sm. Hook. E.) Fissidens adiantoides. Hedw. Bogs; moist heaths. P. Mar. April. H. SYLVATICUM. Plant branched, trailing: fruit-stalks from the side: leafits acute.

Dill. 34. 6-(Musc. Brit. xxiv. E.)

Shoots branched. Branches undivided, few, not shining. Fruit-stalks lateral. Lids of the capsule pointed. Dill.

(WOOD FEATHER-MOSS. E.) Woods, at the roots of trees. Rivelston wood near Edinburgh. Sir J. E. Smith. Near Bungay, Suffolk. Mr. Stone. P. April-May. H. COMPLANA'TUM. Plant flatted, much branched: capsules eggshaped lid conical: leaves in two rows, tiled, bluntly eggshaped, doubled together.

(E. Bot. 1492-Musc. Brit. xxiv. E.)—Dill. 34. 7–Vaill. 23. 4; and 21. 17-H. Ox. xv. 5, row 2. 5, and row 3. 15. Forming broad leafy strata on the trunks of trees. Plant from one to three or four inches long, creeping. Leafits alternate, in two rows, in the young shoots very closely crowded. Fruit-stalks half an inch high, numerous ou the mid-rib, or from the fork of the branches. Fence large, hairy. Capsule egg-shaped. Lid conical, beaked. Weis. Two or three inches long. Branches opposite, or alternate. Leaves soft, pellucid, yellow green, shining. Fence scaly. Veil slander, whitish, crooked. Dill.

(FLAT FEATHER-MOSS. E.) Trunks of trees, common.

P. March-April.

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