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Leaves crowded, very small, yellowish or brownish green. Fruit-stalk from the upper branches, half an inch long. Dill. It forms a cushion on the rocks. Linn. In the specimens before me some plants are distinctly of the barren, and others of the fertile kind.
B. hypnoides 8. Huds. (Trichostomum obtusum. Sm. E.) On Snowdon. Dillenius and Mr. Griffith. Aug.
Var. 7. Shoots long, prostrate, leaves pointing one way, in bundles or distinct, awl-shaped, bent, very slender and fine, but not hair-pointed. There is not any figure of this. The plant is brown green, four or five inches long, branches few, very short; fruit-stalk scarcely longer than the leaves. Shoot distinct, composed of a bundle of brown red fibres. Specimen from Mr. Dickson.
B. Capsules on fruit-stalks, upright.
(4) Stems upright.
a. Capsules roundish.
B. RETICULA'TUM. Capsules pear-shaped, toothed: leaves egg-shaped, serrated, reticulated. Dicks. ii. 4.
Dicks. 4. 6. a. b.-(E. Bot. 2507. E.)
Shoots upright. Leaves distant, rather pointed, of a remarkable net-work texture, transparent, serrated towards the end, below very entire. Fruitstalk from the base of the plant. Capsule teeth bent in. Dicks.
(RETICULATED THREAD-MOSS. B. reticulatum. Dicks. Splachnum reticulatum. Sm. and assimilated with S. Frelichianum, Musc. Brit. ix. by Hooker and Taylor, but considered distinct by Smith. E.) On Ben High, in the Highlands.
B. PENNATUM. Capsules very small: fruit-stalks terminal: shoot simple, upright, wing-cleft: leaves pointing two ways, spearshaped vary entire.
Hedw. Stirp. 1. 29—(E. Bot. 2213—Musc. Brit. viii. E.)—Dicks. 1. 4. Plant half an inch high; naked at bottom. Barren stems wing-cleft. Fertile stems, some star-like, some bearing capsules; very slender, bright green. Leaves distinct, egg-spear-shaped, pointing from two opposite lines. Fruit-stalks very slender, green, one-eighth of an inch long, rising out of an involucrum resembling that of the barren flower. Capsule upright, very small, green, roundish, but lopped when the lid has fallen off. Veil none observed. Lid very blunt, reddish. Fringe naked. Dicks. Veil falling off entire. Hedw.
(WING-CLEFT THREAD-MOSS. E.) Mnium Osmundaceum. Dicks. Gymnostomum pennatum. Hedw. (G. Osmundaceum. Sm. Schistostega pennata. Brid. Musc. Brit. Hollows in old hedge-banks, in a rich soil on the road from Zele to South Tawton, four miles from Oakhampton: Mr. Newberry; (and in the same county, by the Rev. J. S. Tozer, near the village of Haberton, two miles from Totness; near Chelwill in the same parish; also near Meavy Parsonage; always on mouldering hedge-banks. Musc. Brit. We are also favoured by an unknown friend with the following station for this favourite Moss : April, 1826; It is now abundantly in fructification in Nottingham
Forest, where it grows on the roofs of the sandstone caverns, just beyond the Jews' burying-ground, on the west side of the Gallows Hill. E.) B. April-June. B. VERTICILLA'TUM. Capsules small roundish fruit-stalks twisted when dry shoots all of the same height : leaves hair-pointed. Dicks. H. S.-(E. Bot. 1258-Musc. Brit. xv. E.)—Dill. 47. 35. Grows in dense tufts. Stems slender, adhering closely together, about an inch high; branched. Leaves hair-like, fine pale green, towards the bottom of the plant whitish. Fruit-stalks numerous, short, pale, terminal. Capsules small, roundish, greenish. Lid very small, red, pointed. Dill. Haller unites it with B. æstivum. Linn.
(WHORLED THREAD-MOSS. Grimmia verticillata. Turn. Sm. Weissia verticillata. Schwaegr. Musc. Brit. Grev. and B. fasciculatum. With. to Ed. 7. E.) In Yorkshire. Richardson, in Dill. Ön rocks near the sea, Bangor. Brewer, in Dill. (Auchtertool Linn, Fifeshire. Dr. Greville. E.) P. April-Aug.
B. POMIFORME. Capsules globular: lid flat: shoot branched: leaves strap-spear-shaped, tiled, but spreading: bristle-pointed.
Dicks. H. S.-(Hook. Fl. Lond.-E. Bot. 998-Musc. Brit. xxiii. E.)— Dill. 44. 1-Fl. Dan. 478-Vail, 24. 9 and 12-Buxb. v. App. n. 4—H. Ox. xv. 6, row. 4 and 6.
Leaves bristle-shaped. Fruit-stalks solitary, purplish below. Capsules globular. Veil very much pointed, very small, oblique. Linn. Grows thick together in broad patches. Stems about an inch high; the old ones branched, the young ones simple. Leaves very slender, serrated towards the ends. Fruit-stalks full half an inch long, from the ends of the younger shoots, one or more in a place. Capsule at first slender, when ripe globular. Mouth wide, fringed, the teeth turned inwards. Veil deciduous. Weis. and Dill. Leaves mid-ribbed.
(APPLE THREAD-MOSS. Bartramia pomiformis. Sw. Hedw. Sm. Turn. Hook. E. Bot. E.) Heaths, rocks, and banks. A. Feb.-April. (In Musc. Brit. our first kind is described under var. a minor; stems shorter, leaves flexuose. To which is added var. ẞ major; stems much lengthened out, branched; leaves longer; crisped, especially when dry. Bartramia crispa. Brid. Turn. E. Bot. 1526. E.)
B. MACROCAR PON. Capsules roundish fruit-stalks terminal: shoot branched: leaves expanding, spear-shaped, slender.
Dill. 47. 29; A. B. the fresh, C. the dried plant-Fl. Dan. 476—Happ. iii. 3. Plant yellow green; much branched; leaves slender, curled. Capsule brown, beak very small. Dill. Fruit-stalk but little higher than the tops of the shoots. Capsule very small. Lid red, with a very slender needleshaped point.
E.) Br. Hypnoides 7. Huds. On
Snowdon. Mr. Griffith.
B. PATENS. Capsules egg-oblong, fringed: fruit-stalks very short: shoots nearly upright: branches expanding, rising to nearly the same height: leaves strap-spear-shaped.
Dick. 4. 8. a. b.-(E. Bot. 1990-Musc. Brit. xix. E.)
Shoots somewhat slanting, nearly cylindrical, tapering towards the base, very much branched. Branches unequal, rather pointed, somewhat higher than the fruit-stalks. Leaves tiled, pressed to, the points standing out, quite straight, strap-spear-shaped, pointed, channelled. Fruitstalks from the sides of the uppermost branches, few, solitary, very short, often zigzag. Capsules rather pear-shaped, small. Fringe fringed. Dicks. Capsules egg-oblong, as expressed in the figure.
(EXPANDING THREAD-MOSS. Trichostomum patens. Schwaeg. Hook. Di cranum patens. Sm. Also Trichostomum obtusum, of the latter author, according to Musc. Brit. which Smith considers synonymous with B. Hypnoides var. Huds. With. E.) On rocks in mountainous rivulets. On Ben Nevis, Scotland. Dickson. Rocks above the chapel at Gwydir, Carnarvonshire. Mr. Griffith.
B. STELLIGERUM. Capsules semi-globular, naked: leaves strap-shaped, in star-like whorls. Dicks. ii. 3.
Dicks. 4. 4. a. b.
Shoots branched, star-like at the end. Leaves expanding, a little bowed back at the ends; somewhat whorled. Fringe naked. Lid flattish, the beak somewhat oblique; as long as the capsule. Dicks. (STAR THREAD-MOSS. Gymnostomum stelligerum. Schrad. Sm. G. cur virostrum. Musc. Brit.? vid. B. æstivum. E.) Woods in the Highlands.
B. ACU'TUM. Capsules roundish shoots branched, pointed: leaves bristle-shaped, upright.
(E. Bot. 1644—Musc. Brit. xiv.-Fl. Dan. 538. 2. E.)—Hill. 47. 34. Slender, one inch high, branches two or three, sometimes more. Leaves dark green, hairy, sharp-pointed. Fruit-stalks short, when young terminal. Veil brownish. Capsules short, roundish. Dill. In moist situations the capsules are rather longer, and sometimes the fruit-stalks are bent like those of B. fragile. Griff.
(POINTED THREAD-MOSS. B. acutum. Dicks. B. Splachnoides. Dill. Weissia acuta. Hedw. 35. Hook. Grimmia acuta. Turn. Sm. E.) Snowdon, and mountains about Llanberris. Dillenius. On Ben Lomond, and sides of Highland mountains. Lightfoot. Crib y Ddescil. Mr. Griffith. Aug.-May. Dill. Oct-June. Lightf.
B. LATERA'LE. Capsules nearly globular, lateral: leaves bristleshaped, pointing one way. Lightf.
Hedw. Stirp. ii. 40-(E. Bot. 997-Musc. Brit. xxiii. E.)-Hall. Enum. 3. 8, at p. 109. Hist. 46. 8, at iii. p. 56—Hall. It. Helv. ii. 1. 2. in Opusc. p. 300-Fl. Dan. 823. 1; and 538. 3.
Stems forming tufts, from one to three inches high; almost upright, purplish, but little branched; covered at the base with fox-coloured wool. Leaves numerous, very green, bristle-shaped, soft, long. Fruit-stalks upright, short, purple. Veil conical, sharp, pale, deciduous. Capsules fringed, tawny. Lid conical, very short, tawny. Huds. Barren and fertile flowers in the same involucrum. Fruit-stalks short, stiff, but bending by the weight of the capsule, fixed to the end of the last year's shoot, but the growth of the new shoot makes it appear lateral. Outer fringe of sixteen teeth. In B. pomiforme, the leaves are more equally tapering, and the fruit-stalks are longer.
(LATERAL THREAD-MOSS. B. laterale. Huds. Lightf. With. Dicks. Ehrh. Bartramia Halleriana. Hedw. Turn. Sm. Hook. E.) On the banks of the river Isla, Angus-shire. Mr. Brown; who assures me that it was first discovered in Scotland by Dr. Walker on Hartfell mountain near Moffat. E.) Boggy ground on the ascent to Crib y Ddescil, from Llanberris. About Llyn Idwell, in the ascent to Twll dù, in great abundance. Mr. Griffith. P. May-Sept.
B. Capsules on fruit-stalks, upright.
(4) Stems upright.
b. Capsules egg-shaped.
B. CIRRATUM. Capsules egg-oblong: lid taper-pointed: veil reaching but half-way: shoots branched: leaves strap-spear-shaped, midribbed, acute.
(E. Bot. 2356-Musc. Brit. xv. E.)—Vaill. 24. 8—Fl. Dan. 538. 4. Grows in large dense patches. Fruit-stalks from one half to one inch, the young ones terminal, the older form the forks of the branches. Lid reddish, pointed, very slender, readily falling off. Mouth with a short fringe. Weis.
(FRIZZLED THREAD-MOSS. Grimmia cirrata. Sm. Weissia cirrata. Hedw. Musc. Brit. The latter authority assimilates with the present species, Grimmia Dicksoni. Sin. E. Bot. 1420. B. Dicksoni of With. E.) Mnium cirratum. With. Ed. ii. and Gmelin doubts whether it ought not still to be considered as a Mnium, arranging with the Dicrana of Hedwig. Mr. Griffith observes, that B. viridulum at the foot of a hill gradually changed in the course of the ascent until it became B. cirratum. Woods, mountainous heaths, walls, and hedge-banks. P. March-July.
B. LANCEOLATUM. Capsules egg-oblong, toothed: shoots nearly upright leaves spear-shaped, concave, taper-pointed.
Hedw. Stirp. ii. 23—(E. Bot. 1408-Musc. Brit. xiv. E.) Stem upright, three or four lines high, rarely branched. Leaves the lower ones smaller than those above. Lid, beak generally bent. Veil pale green to whitish, upright, splitting at the side. (LANCEOLATE-LEAVED THREAD-MOSS. B. lanceolatum. Dicks. With. Relh. Grimmia lanceolata. Sm. Leersia lanceolata. Hedw. Ehrh. Dry heaths. Hedge-banks about Croydon. Spring and Autumn. P.
B. LINOIDES. Capsules cylindrical, bearded: leaves distant, spearshaped, roundish, but pointed. Dicks.
Dicks. iii. 8. 3.
Shoot upright, simple. Leaves expanding, pointed by the projecting of the mid-rib. Fringe twisted. Veil awl-shaped, twice the length of the capsule. (The authors of Musc. Brit. assimilate this plant with their Tortula fallax, xii. the larger specimens, with longer and sharper leaves than the other varieties. E.)
(FLAX-LEAVED THREAD-MOSS. B. Linoides. Dicks. With. Hull. Hedw. Trichostomum Linoides. Fl. Brit. not E. Bot. 2295, (fid. Musc. Brit.) which rather belongs to B. trifarium. E.) Pastures in Scotland. Dickson. (Gathered by Mr. Backhouse at the High Force, Teesdale; also in Weardale by Mr. Winch. E.)
Capsules egg-oblong, toothed: shoots very much branched: leaves crowded, spear-shaped: curled when dry. (E. Bot. 1217—-Musc. Brit. xix. E.)—Dill. 48. 41.
(Veil striated, at length torn at the edge. Lid awl-shaped. E.) Resembles the B. cirratum so much that they are not to be distinguished without maceration. That, however, is a more slender plant, has fewer · fruit-stalks, and the capsules are paler. Dill. (The authors of Musc. Brit. observe: "this species may be easily known from other Trichostoma by the greater length and narrowness of its leaves, and by their remarkably crisped appearance when in a dry state. The capsules are generally crowded, and the teeth of the peristome connected at the base in filiform pairs."
(POLYPHYLLOUS THREAD-MOSS. B. polyphyllum. Dicks. With. Hull. Dicranum polyphyllum. Sm. Trichostomum polyphyllum. Schwaeg. Turn. Hook. Trichostomum cirratum. Sm. "Habitus Dicrani polyphylli, at major." Fl. Brit. Rocks and mountains. B. cirratum ß. Huds.
Autumn. Ray mentions a var. with much smaller leaves, which is B. cirratum y. Huds.
B. CANESCENS. Capsules egg-oblong: leaves crowded, spear-shaped, bent back, white-haired at the ends.
Hedw. Stirp. iii. 3—(E. Bot. 2534-Musc. Brit. xix.-Vaill. 26. 14-Dill. 47. 27. D, E, F.
Stem upright when young, afterwards declining, and sending out a few branches of various lengths. Leaves spear-shaped, keeled, pressed to when dry. Fruit-stalk straight, three-fourths of an inch in height. Cap sule oblong-egg-shaped. Lid a slender cone. Mouth fringed with sixteen long, hair-like teeth, divided down to the base. Veil slender, long, ragged at the bottom. Fruit-stalks lateral. Hedw.
(COMMON HOARY THREAD-MOss. E.) Bryum Hypnoides B. Fl. Suec. Trichostomum canescens. Hedw. Stirp. iii. p. 5. (Turn. Sm. Hook. Grev. T. Ericoides of authors, E. Bot. 1991, and identified in Fl. Brit. with B. Hypnoides. Linn. Huds. With.) "has somewhat of a pinnated appearance, arising from its numerous very short branches; but in the form of its leaves, capsule, and peristome, it perfectly accords with T. canescens.” Musc. Brit. E.) Differs from B. Hypnoides in its upright stem, its leaves being very slightly serrated only at the ends, and in its longer fruit-stalk. Hedw. When moist and growing, yellowish green, when dry woolly, from the number of hairs which terminate the leaves. Dill.
Common in dry, high, barren, sandy places.
Var. 2. Shoots simple, or but little branched.
Dill. 47. 27. A, B, C.
About an inch and a half high. Fruit-stalk lateral. Capsules upright, egg-cylindrical. Leaves spear-shaped, slender, keeled, hair-pointed; hairs grey and bent inwards when dry.
Specimen from Mr. Griffith, accompanied by others of a stunted growth, on bleak rocks, not half an inch high, and very much crowded with leaves.
Var. 3. Leaves spear-awl-shaped, mid-ribbed; shoots branched.