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Thorpe, near Norwich. Sir J. E. Smith. (On a wall by the road side opposite Parson's Green. Mr. Steuart. Grev. Edin. E.) P. Nov.-July. B. PAUCIFOLIUM. Capsules oblong: lid taper-pointed: veil reaching half way round: leaves strap-spear-shaped.
Dicks. H. S.-(Dicks. 4. 11.3-E. Bot. 2506-Musc. Brit. vii. E.) Whole plant scarcely more than the eighth of an inch high, the smallest of this Genus which I have seen. Leaves three or four, when viewed through a magnifying glass strap-spear-shaped, ribbed underneath. Fruit-stalk yellowish, sometimes two from the same point. Capsule upright, oblong, somewhat cylindrical, brownish when ripe, with a swollen red ring. Lid taper-pointed, somewhat crooked, nearly as long as the capsule. Veil oblique, minute. Fringe toothed; teeth numerous, bent in. Differs from B. paludosum in the leaves not being bristle-shaped, and in the shape of the capsule. Dicks. (This species is remarkable in having two kinds of leaves, of which the outer and lower ones are much the shortest and broadly lanceolate, whilst the inner and uppermost are linear-lanceolate. Musc. Brit. E.)
(FEW-LEAVED THREAD-MOSS. B. paucifolium. Dicks. Gymnostomum paucifolium. E. Bot. Dicranum cylindricum. Fl. Brit. Gymnostatum tenue. Hedw. Hook. On sandstone rocks, rare. E.)
B. Capsules on fruit-stalks, upright.
(2) Stem very short: rarely branched.
(B. VIRIDIS'SIMUM. Leaves broadly lanceolate: capsule ovate lid oblique, rostrate.
E. Bot. 1583-Musc. Brit. vi.
Stems scarcely an inch in height, of a pale yellow green. Leaves most beautifully dotted.
BRIGHT-GREEN THREAD-MOSS. Gymnostomum viridissimum. Sm. Hook. Dicranum viridissimum. Sm. Turn. with which Messrs. Hooker and Taylor also assimilate Bryum Forsteri. Dicks. With. E. Bot. 2225. Trees, principally in the south of England, rare in Scotland. Musc. Brit. E.) B. FASCICULA'RE. Capsules roundish pear-shaped: mouth naked: shoots leafless below: leaves fasciculated, egg-spear-shaped, taper-pointed. Dicks.
Dicks. H. S. and Fasc. iii. 7. 5—(Musc. Brit. vii.—E. Bot. 1245. E.) Roots strong, brown. Shoots nearly upright. Leaves toothed, twisted at the end; with a mid-rib. Lid very blunt. Veil tumid, contracted at the base. Dicks. (TWISTED-LEAVED THREAD-MOSs. Gymnostomum fusciculare. Hedw. Sm. Hook. Barren sandy places.
B. FLEXIFOLIUM. Capsules egg-cylindrical, mouth with a membranous fringe: shoots nearly stemless: leaves waved, spearshaped, serrated. Dicks.
(By some this minute plant is considered the Bryum Ægypti, of Hasselquist ; abundant on the walls of Jerusalem; and therefore presumed to be "the Hyssop that springeth up out of the wall." (Hyssopus Salomonis, Linn. sub Bryo truncatulo, fid. Sm. E.)
Dicks. Fasc. iii. 7. 9—(Musc. Brit. xx.-E. Bot. 2493. E.) From two to four lines high. Leaves crowded, upright, but expanding, acute, keeled, serrated upwards, yellow green, twisted when dry. Fruit-stalk terminal, near half an inch high, pale, yellow. Capsule cylindrical, but a little swollen at the base. Lid conical, blunt, rather thicker at the top. Veil awl-shaped.
(WAVED-LEAVED THREAD-MOSS. Trichostomum flexifolium. Sm. Brid. Didymodon flexifolium. Musc. Brit. E.) On barren sloping ground near Croydon. Dickson. Abundant on the moor, two miles from Buxton on the Manchester road. Dr. Greville. On Ben Ledi, and mountains be tween Loch Earn and Loch Tay. Mr. Arnott. Musc. Brit.
B. CONVOLUTUM. Capsules cylindrical: involucrum leaves blunt, rolled up so as to form a cylinder: leaves spear-shaped.
Dicks. H. S.-Hedw. Stirp. i. 32-(Musc. Brit. xii.-E. Bot. 2382. E.)— Dill. 48. 44-Schmid. 57. 5.
Grows in dense tufts, half an inch or more in height; branches issuing out of the thickened tops of the old shoots, which are stellated at the ends. Leaves loosely disposed, ending in hairs. Fruit-stalks from the last year's shoots, one inch long, encompassed at the base by an involucrum of awl-shaped hairy leaves. Weis. Sometimes with forked branches. Leaves very slender, hardly a quarter of a line broad at the base, very entire. Involucrum terminal, embracing closely the base of the fruitstalk. Capsule cylindrical, a line long, hardly a quarter as broad. Mouth without a ring; fringe red. Lid slender, upright, awl-shaped. Veil pointed, smooth, thread-shaped, reaching but half way. Pol. Inner involucrum-leaves heart-shaped, blunt.
(CONVOLUTED THREAD-MOSS. Tortula convoluta. Sw. Sm. Hook. E.) B. setaceum. Huds. 481. Lightf. 729. (Mnium setaceum of Linn. is a different species which has rigid bristle-shaped leaves.) Dicks. Barbula convoluta. Hedw. in the plate named setacea. Heaths, hedge banks, and walls, very common. A. March. B. DEALBA'TUM. Capsules roundish, somewhat bent, toothed and fringed leaves spear-shaped, acute, expanding. Dicks. ii. 8. Dicks. 5. 3. a. b. c.—(E. Bot. 1571-Musc. Brit. xxviii. E.)
Habit that of B. trichoides, from which it differs as follows. Leaves spearshaped, mostly pale, under the microscope reticulated, pellucid, finely but obscurely serrated at the end. Lid, beak short. Dicks.
PALE-LEAVED THREAD-MOSS. Meesia dealbata. Sw. Hedw. 41. 6-9. E.) Mountains in Scotland; on Ben Lawers.
B. EXTINCTORIUM. Capsules cylindrical, entirely covered by the bellshaped veils: shoots simple: leaves spear-shaped: (veil entire at the base. E.)
Dicks. H. S.-(E. Bot. 558-Musc. Brit. xiii.-Hedw. Stirp. i. 18—Fl. Dan. 1001-Dill. 45. 8-Vaill. 26. 1.
Fruit-stalks terminal. Capsule, mouth not fringed. Neck. Grows thick together in patches, half an inch to one inch high; sometimes a little branched towards the top; very leafy, ending in roses. Fruit-stalks not half an inch long, upright. Capsules cylindrical. Lid sharp-pointed. The veil covering the whole capsule and hanging down below it, distinguishes this from every other moss. Dill.
(EXTINGUISHER THREAD-MOSS. Encalypta vulgaris. Hedw. Turn. Sm. Hook. E.) Leersia vulgaris. Hedw. Grassy places in a sandy soil, dry heaths, and calcareous rocks. Castle walls, Bungay, Suffolk. Mr. Stone. Denbigh castle. Mr. Griffith. P. Oct.-Aug.
Var. 2. Veil cut at the base, (into a distinct fringe. E.)]
(E. Bot. 1418-Musc. Brit. xiii. E.)-Hedw. Stirp. 1. 19; Theor. 9. 10 to 14, the fructification; Hist. ii. 5. 24. a, the seeds-Fl. Dan. 1001. 2— Dill. 45. 9.
Whole plant larger and more branched. Capsule, mouth fringed. Veil cut at the base into six segments; grey, bent inwards. Linn. Suec. n. 990. Leaves retaining their green colour when dry. (B. extinctorium ß. Linn. Leersia ciliata. Hedw. Turn. Sm. Hook. Rocks about Ludlow Castle. summer; the preceding variety in winter. Dill.
Encalypta ciliata. Hedw.
Early in the Spring to July, P.
(The authors of Musc. Brit. include under this latter plant,
B. pilifera; leaves much acuminated, their points diaphanous, (teeth deciduous.) Encalypta alpina. E. Bot. 1410.
And nearly connected with the above is E. rhaptocarpa, supposed to differ principally in having a distinctly sulcated capsule, and in the more membranous ciliæ of the calyptra, Musc. Brit. Sup. ii. also Grev. Scot. Crypt. 163. E.)
B. VIRID'ULUM. Capsules egg-shaped: leaves spear-shaped, taper pointed, tiled, but expanding.
Dicks. H. S.-Curt. 132. 1—Hedw. Stirp. iii. 5-(E. Bot. 1367—Musc. Brit. XV. E.) Dill. 48. 43-Vaill. 29. 5.
So small as hardly to be discernible if it did not grow in large patches. Stems one to three lines long, upright, seldom branched. Leaves very slender, sharp at the ends. Fruit-stalks terminating the last year's shoots, one or two in a shoot. Capsules egg-shaped; fringed at the mouth. Lid red, pointed. Veil pointed. Weis. Fruit-stalks green, changing to a pale yellow. Capsules from green to yellow brown, and shining. Veil slender, the colour of the capsule. Lid very short, reddish, its point bent. Dill. Leaves awl-shaped, quite straight, curled when dry. Dicks. Fruit-stalk not twisting when wet. Capsules red at the base and at the mouth, which is small and contracted. Leaves strapawl-shaped, the mid-rib extending the whole length. Grif. (DIMINUTIVE GREEN THREAD-Moss. B. viridulum. Huds. Lightf. Curt. Weis. B. virens. Dicks. Dill. Relh. Weissia controversa. Hedw. Sw. Hook. Grev. Grimmia controversa. Sm. Turn. E.) Boggy ground. Hedge banks.
B. TRUNCA TULUM. Capsules lopped: leaves flat, sharp-pointed. Curt. 132-Hedw. Stirp. i. 5—(E. Bot. 1975-Musc. Brit. vii. E.)—Dill. 45. 7-Vaill. 26. 2-Buxb. ii. 2. 2—Fl. Dan. 537.
Capsules, when the lid is fallen off, appearing quite lopped, inversely eggshaped, and yellowish red, therefore evidently distinct from B. viridulum. Linn. Fruit-stalks three or four lines long. Capsule without a ring. Neck. One of the least of the mosses; grows in patches. Stem three or
four lines long, unbranched, ending in roses. Lid with a long slender point. Veil with a long taper point. Weis. Sheathing involucrum conical, lopped.
(LITTLE TRUNCATED THREAD-MOSS. B. truncatulum. Linn. Huds. With. Curt. Relh. Gymnostomum truncatulum. Hoffm. Turn. Sm. Hook. Grev. G. truncatum. Hedw. Sometimes confounded with B. fasciculare, as the Hyssop of Hasselquist. G. intermedium. Turn. Sm. E. Bot. 1976, is considered to differ only in the seta being a little longer, and the fruit more ovate. E.) Ditch banks, meadows, pastures, and heaths.
A. Sept.-Feb. B. RUFES CENS. Capsules egg-shaped, toothed: leaves strap-shaped, pellucid, flaccid, pointing one way. Dicks.
Dicks. iii. 8. 1—(E. Bot. 1216. E.) Shoots nearly upright, unbranched. Leaves toothed, (and reticulated. E. Bot. E.) Fruit-stalk terminal. Fringe red, (of sixteen cloven teeth. E.) Lid conical, a little bent. (Both this and the following are considered as varieties of Dicranum va◄ rium, in Musc. Brit. E.)
(RED FRINGED THREAD-MOSS. Dicranum rufescens. Turn. Sm. E.) Banks of muddy rivulets in Scotland. Dickson. (By the rivulet at the Her mitage, near Edinburgh. Smith. In wet fields near Forfar. Mr. G. Don. A. Feb. E.) B. CALLISTO MUM. Capsules egg-urn-shaped: toothed, nearly stemless: leaves upright, strap-awl-shaped. Dicks.
Dicks. 7. 10. Shoots nearly stemless, upright, leafy. Leaves upright, strap-awl-shaped, yellow green. Fruit-stalk brown; thicker upwards. Capsule egg-shaped, brown, when dry the upper part becomes twisted. Fringe with a ring, toothed; ring prominent; teeth half the length of the capsule; upright but approaching, flattish, red orange. Lid conical. Veil not observed. (STEMLESS THREAD-MOSS. Dicranum callistomum. Sm. E.) Found by Mr. Dickson on barren rocks on Highland mountains in Scotland. B. PALLIDUM. Capsules egg-cylindrical: leaves awl-shaped. Hedw. Stirp. i. 27—Dill. 49. 57.
Stem short, naked at bottom, or with a few very short minute leaves. Leaves awl-shaped, mid-ribbed, very slender, rather pointing to one side. Fruit-stalk one to one and a half inch high, pale green or reddish. Cap sules upright. Veil reaching but half way round, deciduous. Lid bluntly conical, somewhat bent.
(SLENDER-LEAVED THREAD-MOSS. E.) Specimens from J. W. Griffith, Esq. of Garn, who first found it on our island, growing on the sides of turbaries (peat holes) near Llyn Aled, Denbighshire.
B. Capsules on fruit-stalks, upright.
(3) Stems trailing.
Capsules egg-shaped: shoots ascending: branches lateral, short, fruit-bearing.
Var. 1. Lanuginosum. Shoot branched, lying down: leaves oblong, hair◄ pointed; capsules oblong; veils entire.
Hedw. Stirp. iii. 2—(E. Bot. 1348—Musc. Brił. xix. E.)—Dill. 47. 32—H. Ox. xv. 5, row 2. 7-Hall. Hist. 46. 4, at iii. p. 56.
Leaves a little toothed at the sides, but this most conspicuous in the dried plant. Capsule upright. Mouth fringed with sixteen teeth, hair-like, separate quite down to the base. Hedw. Shoots rigid, from three to twelve inches long; prostrate. Branches numerous, short, thicher than the main stem. Leaves slender, pale green, ending in a long grey hair. Fruit-stalks terminal, or nearly so; short, yellow. Capsules small, eggshaped. Lid red, sharp-pointed. Dill. Lid regularly conical, but very taper, and about one-third the length of the capsule.
(TOOTHED HOARY THREAD-MOSS. E.) B. Hypnoides a. Linn. . Huds. Trichostomum lanuginosum. Hedw. (Sw. Turn. Sm. Hook. E.) On Snowdon and Glyder; Mendip Hills; Hills in Yorkshire. Dillenius. (On the top of the Sugar Loaf mountain, Monmouthshire, in very dense patches. Purton. On heaths in Norfolk. Rev. James Layton; in Musc. Brit. Autumn. Var. 2. Leaves fasciculated, not closely set, spear-awl-shaped, mid-ribbed, doubled together, ending in a short whitish hair; curled when dry.
E. Bot. 2005-Musc. Brit. xix. E.)—Dill. 47. 28. A. something resembles it, but that is described as hairless.
Branched upwards. Fruit-stalk from one-fourth to three-fourths of an inch long, varying greatly in different specimens.
B. Hypnoides B. Linn. and Huds. (Trichostomum fasciculare. Turn. Sm. Hook. E.) On Snowdon. Dillenius and Griffith. Sometimes the branches are so short as to resemble bundles of leaves, and then the fruit-stalks are short in proportion. Dill. 47. 28. B. if furnished with hairs, would be a pretty good resemblance of it in this state.
Var. 3. Leaves fasciculated, egg-awl-shaped, mid-ribbed, keeled, pointed with a white hair.
From two to three inches long, trailing, branches and fruit-stalks longer than in var. 1. None of the figures exactly resemble it.
Var. 4. Leaves fasciculated, spear-awl-shaped, mid-ribbed, doubled together, hair-pointed, curled when dry.
Near two inches long. Less trailing than the preceding, but chiefly differing in the shape of the leaves, and being of a bright yellow green. (B. lutescens. Dicks.? E.)
Var. 5. Leaves fasciculated, spear-awl-shaped, mid-ribbed, not hair-pointed: fruit-stalks very short.
Specimen from Mr. Griffith, who thinks it ought to be considered as a distinct species; and in favour of this opinion we may observe, that all the preceding varieties have hair-pointed leaves, but this and the subsequent ones are not so. The stenis more or less trailing, and the leaves growing in bundles are always sufficient to distinguish B. Hypnoides and its reputed varieties from B. canescens, whilst the presence or absence of that hoariness which is caused by the hairs at the points of the leaves, will at once discriminate the four first varieties of B. Hypnoides from the subsequent ones.
Var. 6. Leaves fasciculated, spear-awl-shaped, mid-ribbed, doubled together, curled when dry: lid not beaked.
Dill. 47. 30.