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Hedw. Stirp. iii. 8-(Musc. Brit. xxix.-E. Bot. 1572. E,)-Dill. 51. 74. Shorter than the preceding. Capsules spear-shaped, i. e. largest at the end. Leaves deeply keeled, closing together when dry, very much crowded and compressed. Stem and leaves at the bottom black. Lids very short and blunt. Dill.

(PENDULOUS FRINGE-MOSS. E.) M. turbinatum. Hedw. (Bryum turbinatum. Sw. Sm. Hook. E.) M. triquetrum y. Huds. 491. Bryum ~ventricosum Y. With. Ed. ii. Marshy places. On Shootor's Hill near Eltham, and in Wales. Spring and Summer. Dill.

(The above species seems liable to considerable variation. Drs. Hooker and Taylor suspect Bryum interruptum, E. Bot. 2371; B. nigricans, E. Bot. 1528; and possibly B. annotinum, E. Bot. 1862, (the barren magnified figure), may not prove specifically distinct. E.)

M. HYGROMETRICUM. Capsules pear-shaped, lids flat: shoots rarely branched: leaves oblong, taper-pointed.

(Hook. Fl. Lond.-E. Bot. 342-Musc. Brit. xx. E.)-Dill. 52. 75-Vaill. 26. 16-H. Ox. xv. 7. 17-Happ. i. Mnium 2-Fuchs. 629. 2-Trag. 528. 2-J. B. iii. 760. 2—Lon. i. 222. 4-Dod. 475. 1-Ger. Em. 1559. 4, the middle one of the three lower figures.-Park. 1052, left hand upper fig-Fl. Dan. 648-Ger. 1371. 4.

Grows in large patches. Stem one to two inches high, but mostly buried in the earth. Fruit-stalk a full inch long. Cupsules pear-shaped, golden yellow. Weis. It may be found in December, very small and close to the ground, the leaves very fine, from the midst of which projects the young fruit-stalk like the point of a pin. In January the four-sided veil appears, of a straw colour; in February and March the capsules are found, which ripen in April and May. Leaves tender, pellucid, veinless. Dill. (REVOLVING FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum hygrometricum. Huds. Koelreuteria hygrometrica. Hedw. (Furaria hygrometrica. Hedw. Roth. Sm. Hook. E.) Common in woods, heaths, on garden walks, walls, old trees, decayed wood, and where coals and cinders have lain.

A. March-May. If the fruit-stalk be moistened at the bottom, the head makes three or four revolutions: if the upper part be moistened, it turns the contrary way, Linn.

M. CUSPIDA'TUM. Capsules egg-shaped leaves egg-shaped, pointed,

serrated.

(Hedw. 45. 5. 8-E. Bot. 1474-Musc. Brit. xxxi. E.)-Dill. 53. 79Vaill. 26. 18- Happ. ii. 6.

Shoots half an inch high; lower leaves smaller, blunter, alternate, upper leaves larger, more acute, pellucid, smooth, sharply serrated and pointed at the end by an extension of the mid-rib. Fruit-stalks half to one inch long, when old saffron-coloured, issuing out of a purple tubercle encompassed by slender leaves. Capsules egg-shaped. Dill. (Foliage altogether of a pale, but bright green. Musc. Brit. E.)

(HAIRY-POINTED FRINGE-MOSS. M. cuspidatum. Hedw. M. serpylli folium ß. Linn. E.) Bryum serpyllifolium cuspidatum. Huds. and With. Ed. ii. Woods, moist heaths, shady places, and in bogs on heaths and P. April.

meadows.

M. HOR'NUM. Capsules egg-shaped: leaves spear-shaped, acute, serrated.

(E. Bot. 2271-Musc. Brit. xxxi. E.)-Dill. 51. 71—Mich. 59. 2—Curt.Vaill. 24. 4 and 5-H. Ox. xv. 6, row the last, 3 and 4, as it sometimes appears before it produces capsules.

From half to one inch high, but larger in moister situations, mid-rib red, stiff. Leaves green, pellucid, finely crenated. Fruit-stalk saffron red, shining, one to two inches long, bent like a swan's neck. Capsule oblong, nodding, swollen, dark green. Lid brown. Leaves at the base of the fruit-stalk slender. Dill. Barren shoot simple; fertile_branched at the base. Leaves sharply serrated and ending in a sharp point. (Whole plant of a yellow lurid green colour. Musc. Brit. E.) (SWAN'S-NECK FRINGE-MOSS. Bryum hornum. Huds. Curt. Sm. Hook. E.) Woods, moist, shady, and boggy places. P. Feb.-May. M. CAPILLA'RE. Capsules oblong-egg-shaped: fruit-stalks from near the root leaves egg-shaped, keeled, bristle-pointed.

(E. Bot. 2007-Musc. Brit. xxix. E.)—Dill. 50. 67—(Fl. Dan. 1122. 2. E.-H. Ox. xv. 6, row 5. 19-Vaill. 24. 6.

Shoots, at the ends of some a very small brown star. Very nearly allied to B. cœspiticium. Linn. Leaves short, broad, ending in a short hair. Fruit-stalk one inch long, issuing from the last year's shoots. Capsules swollen, reflexed. Lid hemispherical, shining. Ray. Capsules less pendent when ripe. Dill. From half to one inch high. Its sessile shoots, and expanding upper leaves, distinguish it from B. cæpiticium, though it should not be in fruit. Neck. Differs from B. cæspiticium in its greater size, the lids of its capsules being sharp-pointed, and its leaves not shining. Weis.

(The authors of Musc. Brit. consider E. Bot. 1862. the fructified specimens, (Bryum annotinum), rather to represent B. capillare: and that B. stellare, E. Bot. 2343, and Dill. 50. 67. also belong to the same species, the true B. stellare never having been found in Britain. E.) (CAPILLARY FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum capillare. Linn. Huds. Mud walls, heaths, roofs. (Sm. Hook. E.) P. Feb.-March. M. ANNO TINUM. Capsules oblong-egg-shaped: fruit-stalks from near the root leaves pellucid, egg-shaped, taper-pointed.

Dill. 50. 68.

Leaves spear-shaped, pointed, not twisting when dry, turning brown when soaked in water. Fruit-stalk one inch long. Capsule oblong, pendent. Lid pointed; blunter when old. Dill. Stem half to one inch high, simple, or branched almost from the bottom. Leaves very entire, those on the stellated shoots broader.

(Doubts are entertained whether this may not prove a distinct species. The synonyms appear somewhat perplexed. E.)

(SUMMER FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum annotinum. Huds. Woods and moist shady places. Cryb y Ddescil. Mr. Griffith. Spring and Summer. M. PUNCTA'TUM. Capsules oblong-egg-shaped: stem unbranched: fruit-stalks often several together: leaves inversely egg-shaped, very entire, blunt, (broad, E.) dotted.

(E. Bot. 1183-Musc. Brit. xxx. E.)—Dill. 53. 81—Happ. ii. 4—Vaill. 26. 5-Pluk. 45. 7—H. Ox. xv. 6. 39 and 40.

It varies in the fruit-stalks being solitary or incorporated, and also in the fertile shoots being upright, and the barren shoots creeping. Wild. "Grows in large patches. Stems simple. Stems simple. Leaves with a scarlet rib, cartilaginous and purple at the edges. Fruit-stalks terminal, genenerally single, sometimes three or four together; one to two inches high; thicker downwards. Capsules nutant, egg-shaped. Seeds greenish. Shoots without capsules, ending in roses. Weis. Leaves pellucid, smooth, pale green. Fruit-stalks one to three on a plant. Dill.

(DOTTED FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum serpyllifolium punctatum. Huds. M. serpyllifolium a. Linn. (Bryum punctatum. Schreb. Turn. Sm. Hook. E.)

Var. 2. Punctatum. With. Ed. ii. Leaves longer, more pellucid.

Dill. 53. 80.

Leaves longer and blunter than ẞ of Linnæus. Capsules not so pendulous. Lid spit-pointed. Fruit-stalks three to five on a plant. Dill.

In bogs in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

Capsules half ripe in spring. Dill.

M. UNDULATUM. Capsules oblong-egg-shaped: fruit-stalks several together leaves oblong, waved, serrulated.

(Hook. Fl. Lond.-E. Bot. 1449—Musc. Brit. xxx. E.)-Dill. 52. 76— Vaill. 24. 3-Mich. 59. 5-Tourn. 326. E.-Pet. Gaz. 95. 16—H. Ox. xv. 6, row the last, 1-Neck. Meth. f. 6, at p. 273, a star-like head. Root strong, creeping. Shoots three or four, to five or six inches long, branched or unbranched. Leaves thin, pellucid, strap-spear-shaped, waved and serrated. Capsule pendent; lid blunt. Veil straight, pointed. Dill. Barren flower surrounded by strap-shaped leafits, in the centre of shoots ending in roses. Leaves strap-shaped; mid-rib-large. (UNDULATED FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum serpyllifolium undulatum. Huds. M. serpyllifolium undulatum. With. Ed. ii. Schreb. Sm. Hook. M. undulatum. Hedw. M. serpyllifolium d. Linn. Dill. (Bryum ligulatum. Hook. E.) Moist shady woods about the roots of trees and hedges.

Capsules oblong-egg-shaped

P. April.

M. PROLIFERUM. shoots proliferous: leaves spear-shaped, pointed, forming terminal roses. (E. Bot. 2395-Musc. Brit. xxix. E.)—Dill. 52. 77—Buxb. 11, 1. 3. . Stems straight, naked. Leaves terminal, large, shining, pellucid, disposed in a circle, widening upwards, ending in a point, scarce sensibly serrated. Capsules on a different plant, rarely appearing, pendent; lid reddish, blunt. Fruit-stalk one inch long, thick. Dill. Very elegant in form:

*(On the leaves of this Moss, and also upon Dicranum Bryoides, in Wallington woods, Northumberland, may sometimes be discovered one of the most elegant of the minute Gastromyci, viz. Leangeum Trevelyani, which, as Dr. Greville observes, "whether we regard the extreme symmetry of its form, or its delicate structure, and pleasing colour, forms one of the most charming little abjects the eye can possibly rest upon." It is beautifully :illustrated in Scot. Crypt. Fl. pl. 132. and thus described: "sporangium sessile, ovatoglobose, reddish-brown, splitting into regular linear, refiexed segments; columella minute; sporules pedicellated." E.)

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shrub-like. Stem naked at the bottom, foliage from one centre at the top. Leaves from three to six lines long, and two broad. Other shoots often rise from this foliage. Some of these are barren roses, but others send out fruit-stalks, one or two inches long, bearing pale orange capsules. Veils not observed. Weis.

(PROLIFEROUS FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum serpyllifolium proliferum. Huds. and With. Ed. ii. (Bryum roseum. Schreb. Sm. Hook. E.) Wet places in woods and heaths near Bishop's Castle. Dillenius. Bungay, Suffolk. Mr. Stone.

Winter.

M. CRU'DUM. Capsules oblong-egg-shaped: shoot unbranched: leaves spear-shaped, acute.

(E. Bot. 1604-Musc. Brit. xxviii. E.)-Hedw. Stirp. i. 37—Hill. 51. 70— Vaill. 26. 12.

Leaves green, almost silky. Fruit-stalks long, red. Linn. Half an inch high; not branched. Leaves, upper ones thrice as long as the lower, crowded, upright but open. Capsules upright, then pendent, and lastly upright again. Veil turning up when the capsule hangs down. Lid hemispherical, beak short, stellated plant not so tall. A powdery brown substance in the centre of the star. Leers. Fertile stem half an inch; Barren stem half an inch high, or more. Leaves, the upper ones a little toothed towards the ends. Capsule bent horizontally. Mouth, outer fringe of sixteen teeth. Hedw. Fruit-stalks from the ends of the young shoots; pale red. Dill. The whole plant has a silky gloss. Lower leaves broader and shorter than those above; a few of the uppermost sometimes very slender pointed.

(PALE FRINGE-MOSS. M. crudum. Linn. Hedw. Dill. Bryum crudum. Huds. Sm. Turn. Hook. E.) Fens in Cambridgeshire. Dillenius. Woods about Rydall, Westmoreland. Hudson. Crib y Ddescil, Carnarvonshire, Cader Idris, Merionethshire. Mr. Griffith. P. March-June. M. CESPITI CIUM. Capsules oblong-egg-shaped shoots short, but branched leaves spear-shaped, hair-pointed.

:

Curt. 106-(E. Bot. 1904-Musc. Brit. xxix. E.)—Dill. 50. 66—H. Ox. xv. 6, row 5. 15-Vaill. 29. 7.

Fruit-stalks red at the bottom, yellow green at top. Reyg. Grows in broad dense patches. Only a few lines high; branched at the top, covered with a brown knap at bottom. Leaves very small, crowded, shining. Fruit-stalks an inch (or two) high, issuing from the roses of last year's shoots, surrounded at bottom with a leafy sheath or fence. Cap sule at first uprigh; slender, egg-shaped. Lid red, shining, mammeform. Mouth slightly fringed. Veil brown, changing to tawny red. Weis. and Dill. Leaves mid-ribbed. Fruit-stalks from an oblong bulb, invested with hair-like fibres. Outer coat of the capsule with sixteen teeth.

(Under this species Hooker and Taylor include B. bicolor, Dicks. E. Bot.

1601. E.)

(LESSER MATTED FRINGE-MOSS. Bryum cæspiticium. Linn. Huds. Curt. Turn. Sm. Hook. B. erythrocarpum. Dill. Old walls, stones, roofs, grass, gravel, banks, and hillocks. P. Feb.-April.

M. PSEUDO-TRI'quetrum. Capsules oblong-egg-shaped : shoots branched: leaves egg or spear-awl-shaped, bordered, keeled, pointing in three directions.

(E. Bot. 2270-Musc. Brit. xxx. E.)-Hedw. Stirp. iii. 7—Dill. 51. 72— Vaill. 24. 2 and 2-H. Ox. xv. 6, row 5. 20.

Capsule, the neck downwards becomes gradually narrower. Dicks. Stems simple or branched: branches sometimes very slender, at others thicker and shorter; thickest where the fruit-stalks put forth, the leaves there expanding in the form of stars. Fruit-stalks near two inches long, purple. Capsules bent downwards, tumid, green. Lid small, shining, white. Veil short, brown, red. Dill.

(Messrs. Hooker and Taylor state, "It must be allowed that the differences between this Moss and B (Mnium) cœspiticium are almost insufficient, and that it is more distinguishable by its larger size, proliferous habit, and brown or purple hue, than by any more essential characters." Musc. Brit. The same authors likewise reduce to the present species, Bryum bymum, Schreb. E. Bot. 1518: and B. cubitale, Dicks. E. Bot. 2554. E.) (VENTRICOSE BOG FRINGE-MOSs. Bryum ventricosum. Dicks. Gmel. Turn. Sm. Hook. Bryum triquetrum. Huds. M. triquetrum according to Lightf. 715. Huds. and Relh. n. 786, but in the specimens of M. triquetrum in the Linnæan Herbarium and Ehrhart's phytophyllacium the capsules are upright, slanting. Dicks. (Vid. E. Bot. 2394. E.) Turf bogs and marshy places. Turf pits, Ellingham Fens, Norfolk. Mr. Stone. On mud or gravel by the sides of rivulets and springs, in the ascent of Snowdon and Glyder. Mr. Griffith. (On the sandy brink of the river at Mavis Bank, near Edinburgh. E. Bot. E.) March-May. Var. 2. Larger in all its parts.

Dill. 51. 73—(Fl. Dan. 1122. 1. E.)

Leaves spear-shaped, alternate. Fruit-stalks red, sometimes branched. Leaves pellucid, green, shining. When about to flower it sends forth some reddish shoots, with finer leaves encompassed by others of a paler green. Flowers in the summer. Dill. Leaves almost hair-pointed. Bryum triquetrum ß. Huds. 490. B. ventricosum ß. With. Ed. ii. In marshy places. The red kind is found in the mountain torrents of Snowdon, and the green in high boggy heaths about London and Oxford. Dillenius. Near Celin House, two miles from Holywell. Mr. Griffith.

BRY'UM.*

Fruit-stalk terminal, issuing out of a tubercle: Capsule with a veil.

Barr. Fl. a bud either on the same or on a different plant, often axillary.

SUBDIVISIONS OF THE BRYA.

A. Capsules sessile, or nearly so,

B. Capsules on fruit-stalks, upright.

1. Stemless.

2. Stem very short, rarely branched.

3. Stems trailing.

4. Stems upright.

(From Bouw, germino, pullulo, to sprout or shoot up: probably alluding to the perpetual viridescence of these plants. It was first used as a generic name by Dillenius, and afterwards adopted by Linnæus. E.)

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