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(DARK MOUNTAIN FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum aciculare. Linn. Dicranum aciculare. Hedw. Sm. Hook. Trichostomum aciculare. Schwaeg. Hook. Drum. Hobs. On stones thinly covered with mould near Llanberris, Carnarvonshire; and in the West Riding of Yorkshire. Dillenius. In the Highlands and Lowlands frequent. Lightfoot. Rocks on the side of the hill about fifty yards above Garthmeilio, the seat of R. W. Wynne, Esq. Denbighshire. Mr. Griffith. P. May-Oct.
Var. 2. Stems trailing; leaves somewhat open. Huds.
Fl. Dan. 1001-Dill. 46. 26-Hal. It. Herc. in Opusc. p. 152, f. 1 and 2, Bryum, &c.-Vaill. 27. 16-Pet. Mus. Cent. i. t. 1, f. 74-H. Ox. xv. 5,
row 4. 29.
Shoots branched, floating in the water or resting on stones. Leaves brown green. Fruit-stalks short and blachish. Capsules oblong, straight, dark green. Veil black. Dill.
On large stones that lie in the rivulets in the moors of the Peak of Derbyshire, Petiver; and in the mountain torrents near Llanberris, Carnarvonshire. Dillenius. In the first brook after crossing Pont y Alwen, between Denbigh and Cerrig y Druidion. Mr. Griffith. P. Aug.
Var. 3. Shoots slenderer, upright; leaves pointing one way.
Like var. 2, but shorter, less branched, more upright, and of a yellower green. Griff. Grows with var. 1.
M. PELLUCIDUM. Stem simple: leaves egg-shaped.
(Hook. Fl. Lond. 90-Musc. Brit. viii.-E. Bot. 1020. E.)—Schmid. 3– Fl. Dan. 300-Dill. 31. 2—Hal. Enum. 4. 8, at p. 118; Hist. 45. 8, at iii. p. 41-Vaill. 24. 7.
Shoots an inch long, seldom branched. Leaves in four rows: mid-rib pur-` ple, ending in a point. Fruit-stalks terminal, an inch long, pelucid, whitish. Capsules cylindrical, yellowish. Veil very long. Weis, (torn at the base, orange-coloured at the tip. Lid conical, reddish, thin. Teeth four, shining brown, erect, pyramidal, all separate from top to bottom. E. Bot. Even to the naked eye the size of the teeth is very remarkable, and the gemmiferous cups, unlike anything we know in other Mosses, form at once a striking character. Hook. E.)
FOUR-TOOTHED FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Tetraphis pellucida. Hedw. (Sm. Hook.
Var. 2. Leaves exceedingly narrow, and pellucid.
R. Syn. p. 78. n. 5—Dill. 31. 2. E. F.
Heaths near Woolwich.
Mar. R. Syn. M. SCOPA'RIUM. Shoot branched: leaves strap-spear-shaped, bent back, pointing one way.
Dicks. H. S.—(E. Bot. 354-Musc. Brit. xviii. E.)—Dill. 46. 16-Curt.— Vaill. 28. 12-Kniph. 6. Buxb. ii. 4. 1—Fl. Dan. 824. 1—H. Ox. xv. 7. 11 and 13.
Grows in dense patches, branched, nearly upright, one to three inches high. Leaves slender, long, ending in a long sharp point, expanding. Fruit-stalks one or two inches high, generally solitary. Capsules cylindrical, thick, a little crooked, scored. Lid, beak as long as the capsule.
Mouth toothed. Veil long. Weis. Frequently several stalks in one involucrum. Willd. (BROOM FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum scoparium. Linn. Dill. E. Bot. Dieranum scoparium. Hedw. (Sm. Hook. E.) Heaths, woods, trunks of trees, shady banks, and dry pastures. P. Winter, spring, and summer. (The above is var. a. majus stems two or three inches in length, falcatosecund. Dicranum majus, E. Bot. 1490, according to Musc. Brit. wherein is also described var. B. fuscescens; smaller, leaves sub-secund, narrower, somewhat more crisped when dry. Dicranum fuscescens. E. Bot. 1597, the latter principally in mountainous countries. E.)
(2) Capsules leaning, roundish.
Capsules roundish: lid blunt: shoot sometimes branched, upright: leaves spear-shaped, slender, bent inwards at the points.
Dill. 44. 2—(E. Bot. 390-Musc. Brit. xxiii. E.)-Vaill. 24. 10—Fl. Dan. 298-Happ. iii. 7—H. Ox. xv. 6, row 3. 8-Mich, 59. 4-Pluk. 47. 2. The old shoots covered with brown knap, and buried three inches deep. From these proceed slender cylindrical shoots, some of which end in stars. Fruit-stalks two inches long; proceeding from the shoots of the preceding year. Neck. Readily known by its stiff habit. Shoots two to four inches long. Weis. Leaves serrated, open, in the young shoots mostly pointing one way. In this species, and also in M. palustre, the fertile and barren shoots adhere so closely at bottom as to appear but one plant. Leers. The veil falls off in May. Gough.
(A smaller var. with narrower leaves, is Bartramia marchica, E. Bot. 2074; Mnium marchicum, Hedw, according to Musc. Brit. E.)` (FOUNTAIN FRINGE-MOSS. Bryum fontanum. Huds. M. fontanum. Lin. Hedw. Bartramia fontana. Sw. Hook. E.) Low wet meadows, turf bogs, and springs. P. May-Aug.
M. ULIGINO'SUM. Capsules pear-shaped: lid blunt: shoots rarely branched: leaves oblong-spear-shaped, blunt.
Dicks. H. S.-Hedw. Stirp. i. 1 and 2—(E. Bot. 1517-Musc. Brit. xxviii. E.)-Dill. 49. 58-(Schmid. 57. 4. E.)
Shoot very short. Fruit-stalks three inches long, terminal. Capsules dull yellow, inversely egg-shaped. Lid blunt. Growing in patches. Leaves scattered, two lines or more in length. Fruit-stalks terminating. Cap sules upright, afterwards bending a little; one line long. Lid short, pointed, white. Veil smooth, reaching but half way down. Pol. Primary stem not branched, but after bearing fruit it sends out a new shoot from its extremity, as is the case with many Mosses with terminal fruitstalks. Stamens and pistils in the same or in separate flowers. Ring none. Fringe double, sixteen teeth in each. The roots are so closely attached together, that without great care they break off, and the plant appears without a stem. Hedw. Short, sessile, sometimes undivided, sometimes with one or two branches. Leaves green, narrow. Fruitstalks about two inches high, of a shining gold colour. Dill.
(MARSH SESSILE FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum Trichoides. Linn. (Sm. Hook. E.) Maesia uliginosa. Hedw. Wet meadows, in dense patches. P. May-June.
(3) Capsules leaning, oblong.
M. SIMPLEX. Capsules egg-oblong: fruit-stalks lateral: leaves awlshaped.
Hedw. Stirp. ii. 34—(E. Bot. 1215-Musc. Brit. xvii. E.)-Dill. 50. 59H. Ox. xv. 7, row 2. 19-Buxb. iv. 65. 2.
Shoots half an inch long. Fruit-stalks coloured, standing on the ends of the young shoots, but on the rib of the old ones. Neck. Not branched, often one inch long, growing in patches. Leaves crowded at the ends of the stem, hair-like, not crisp when dry. Fruit-stalks one or two together, eight or nine lines long. Capsule inversely egg-shaped. Pol. Lid rather broader than the capsule, beaked. Mouth elegantly toothed. Dill. With sixteen teeth in a single row, purplish. Hedw.
(SIMPLE FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum-rubrum. Huds. Ed. i. B. simplex. Linn. Dicranum varium. Hedw. (Sm. Hook. Grassy sandy places, (and moist banks. E.) A. Mar.-May. P. Hedw. In Musc. Brit. Brya rufescens and callistomum are arranged as varieties of this species. E.)
M. HETERO-MAL'LUM. Capsules egg-shaped lid taper-pointed, bent, shoot seldom branched: leaves bristle-shaped.
Hedw. Stirp. i. 26—(E. Bot. 1272—Musc. Brit. xviii. E.)—Vaill. 27. 7— Dill. 47. 37-Fl. Dan. 479-H. Ox. xv. 6, row 3. 5, and in 7 the leaves straight-Buxb. ii. 2. 8.
Stem half an inch high, upright, but not straight. Leaves not curled when dry. Barren flower always terminating. Fruit-stalks upright, single or in pairs. Veil opening at the side, deciduous. Lid beak bent. Fringe of sixteen teeth, Hedw. Seldom branched. Leaves hair-like, fine green, gradually narrowing from the base, mostly pointing one way. Fruitstalks half an inch to one inch high, green, changing to fine red, sometimes in pairs. Veil pale green. Dill. (SILKY HEATH FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum heteromallum. Linn. Dicranum heteromallum. Hedw. (Sm. Hook. E.) Hedge-banks, heaths, and roots of trees. On Snowdon. Dillenius. Cwm Idwell. Mr. Griffith. A. March-May.
Var. 2. Leaves shorter, lower ones pointing two ways.
(E. Bot. 2508. E.)—Dill. 47. 38.
Leaves yellow green, suddenly narrowing from the base, upwards onerowed, downwards two-rowed, curled when dry. Veil very slender, pale. Dill. Leaves broad and sheathing at the base, then bristle-shaped. Fruit-stalks shorter than the shoot. Capsules egg-oblong, equal in length to twice its breadth. (Dicranum interruptum. Hedw. Sm. E.) Specimen from Mr. Griffith, who gathered it on the rocks of Clogwy Dû yr Arddu, Snowdon. (On banks near Gateshead, Durham. Mr. Winch. - E. Bot. E.)
M. GLAUCUM. Capsule egg-oblong: lid taper-pointed, bent: shoots branched: leaves egg-shaped, acute, tiled.
(E. Bot. 2166-Musc. Brit. xvi. E.)—Dill. 46. 20-Vaill. 26. 13—H. Ox. XV. 6, row the last, 22.
Leaves three lines or more in length, very entire. Lid awl-shaped, very sharp-pointed. Mouth fringed. Pol. Whole plant brittle, greyish when growing, or pale glaucous green; whitish when dry. Veil slender, white. Dill. One to three inches high; branches thick. Fruit-stalk one inch, but only half an inch higher than the shoots.
(WHITE FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum glaucum. Linn. Dill. Dicranum glaucum. Hedw. (Sm. Hook. E.) Mountainous heaths. Near the copper-works at Llanberris; but very rarely bearing fruit. Mr. Griffith. P. Aug.-Nov.
M. PELLU'CENS. Capsules egg-oblong, small: lid taper-pointed, bent: shoot hairy leaves spear-shaped, reflexed, acute.
Hedw. Theor. 8. 1 to 4-(E. Bot. 1346-Musc. Brit. xvii. E.)—Dill. 46. 23. 24—Pluk. 44. 7. Pluk. 49. 1, several shoots rising from the top of that of the last year.
Shoots from one to three inches, with rust-coloured hair-like fibres on the lower part. Leaves slender, keeled, crooked, pellucid, sometimes wrinkled. Fruit-stalks sometimes in pairs; terminating. Capsules brown when dry. Dill.
(PELLUCID FRINGE-MOSS. E.) Bryum pellucidum. Linn. Dill. (Diera-num pellucidum. Sw. Sm. Hook. E.) Marshy and shady places. Near North Bierly, not far from Bradford, Yorkshire, and on the sides of lakes on the Glyder and Snowdon mountains. P. June-Sept.
M. PALUSTRE. Capsules egg-oblong: lids conical: shoots branched, forked: leaves awl-spear-shaped, acute.
(E. Bot. 391-Musc. Brit. xxviii. E.)-Dill. 31. 3—Vaill. 24. 1—H. Ox. xv. 6, row 3. 9-Schmid. 56. 2.
Capsules crooked after shedding their seeds. Fruit-stalks slightly waved, Griff. Fruit-stalks yellow. Reyg. often two inches long, Relh. from the fork of the stem. Neck. crowded. Stems upright, two to five inches high; mostly two, sometimes with three divisions. Leaves slender, soft, pellucid, keeled, yellow green, yellow when dry. Dill. two or three inches high, branching towards the top into two, three, or four shoots. Leaves, lower ones downy. Summit-leaves flat, large, forming stars, in which are the barren flowers. Fruit-stalks from the tops of the last year's shoots, which now likewise support new shoots. Capsules leaning.
(FORKED FRINGE-MOSS. Bryum palustre. Sw. Turn. Hook. E.) Turf bogs and wet heaths, marshes and moors. P. June-July. Stem branched, upright. Fruit-stalks from the bosom of the Huds.
Var. 2. leaves.
Dill. 31. 4.
Stem sometimes simple. Dill. 236. Fertile flowers not discovered. Dill. in R. Syn. 78. n. 3. Smaller than the preceding. Fruit-stalks axillary, numerous, not terminating in capsules, but in small globular heads containing a powder. This seems to be the barren plant.
M. ramosum. Huds. Ed. i. 403, and Gmel. Syst. Veg.
M. PURPU'REUM. Capsules nearly cylindrical: fruit-stalks axillary: shoots branched: leaves oblong, acute, keeled.
(E. Bot. 2262-Hedw. 36-Musc. Brit. xx. E.)-Dill. 49. 51--H. Ox. xv. 6, row 4. 4, some of the fruit-stalks terminating.
Grows in very dense patches. Stem upright, mostly forked, and these shoots sometimes dividing again. Leaves spear-awl-shaped, in some shoots forming terminal stars. Fruit-stalks an inch high, at first upright, afterwards a little leaning. Lid conical, pointed, scarlet. Veil upright, afterwards oblique. Weis. (Fruit-stalks purple. E.) (PURPLE-STALKED FRINGE-MOSS. M. purpureum. Linn. Bryum_purpureum. Huds. Lightf. Dicranum purpureum. Hedw. Sm. (Didymodon purpureum. Musc. Brit. Under this species Drs. Hooker and Taylor also include Dicranum strictum. Sm. Trichostomum papillosum. Sm. E. Bot. 2533: Bryum strictum and tenue. Dicks. B. bipartitum. Dicks. E. Bot. 2357. and Dicranum Celsii. Hedw. E. Bot. 2418. E.) Walls, heaths, rocks, and gravelly banks and pastures. April. Var. 2. (Dicranum strictum. E. Bot. E.) Leaves less rigid; spearshaped.
(E. Bot. 2294.
E.)—Dill. 49. 52.
Leaves ending in hair-like points. Capsule finely pointed. Dill. (May not the different situations of growth account for the variation of this plant from the preceding? E.)
On Emott Moor on the borders of Lancashire; and Shobdon Marsh, Herefordshire. Near Llyn Aled Lake. Mr. Griffith. (On Prestwick Carr, Northumberland. Mr. Winch. E.)
(4) Capsules drooping.
M. ARCUA TUM. Capsules globular, toothed: shoots branched: leaves oblong-spear-shaped, taper-pointed, scored. Dicks.
Dicks. H. S. and Fasc. iii. 7. 3—(E. Bot. 1237-Musc. Brit. xxiii. E.)— Dill. 39. 36.
Leaves upright but spreading; serrulated. Barren flower terminal, starlike. Fruit-stalk terminal, crooked, surrounded by young shoots. Capsule, mouth narrow. Fringe, teeth short, upright, acute, red. Lid minute, scarcely beaked. Dicks. The fuscous woolly matter which surrounds the shoot is a constant attendant. Fruit-stalks at the base of the branches, golden red, hardly half an inch long, crooked. Capsule golden yellow, globular. Mr. Bradbury. Leaves serrulated chiefly towards the end.
(CURVED-STALKED FRINGE-MOSS. M. arcuatum. Dicks. (Bartramia arcuata. Brid. Turn. Sm. Hook. E.) Hypnum chrysocomum. With. Ed. ii. In bogs in the northern parts of Yorkshire, and on moist places on Glyder mountain. Dillenius. Boggy places in Scotland. Dickson. On bogs with Mnium palustre in Greenfield, Saddleworth, Yorkshire, and Stayley, Cheshire. Mr. Bradbury. By the side of Avon las, near Pistyllwen, in Llanberris parish. Mr. Griffith. (Foot of Pentland hills, near Edinburgh. Mr. Brown. In the recesses of the Cumberland mountains it bears fruit abundantly. Mr. Winch. This extremely beautiful Moss, though unknown on the Continent, is of common occurrence in the mountainous districts of Ireland. Musc. Brit. E.) Nov. M. NU'TANS. Capsule spear-shaped: lid blunt: shoots somewhat branched: leaves egg-shaped, acute.