Imatges de pÓgina
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CHAPTER VI

FORCE

This property of voice is dependent primarily on the amplitude of the vibrations of the vocal cords. When a violin string is struck, it makes a sound. If it is struck harder, it will vibrate with a greater amplitude and make a louder sound. The vocal cords are like the violin strings; the more forcefully the breath is thrown against the cords, the greater the amplitude and the louder the tone.

There are several properties of force when applied to expression,-Loudness, Volume, Intensity, and Stress.

LOUDNESS. This property is the direct result of the amplitude of the vocal cords and proper resonance. As a vocal quality, it is of great importance. Who has not been sadly disappointed in a reader or speaker because of being unable to hear what was said? One extreme is about as bad as another; speak so that you can be distinctly heard, but not too loud. Do not speak with the same degree of loudness all the time. As in pitch, avoid monotony.

A student often asks, “How can I make my voice carry?” The carrying power of the voice does not depend on mere loudness of tone-not alone on the amount of breath that is expended, but also on the amount of breath that still remains in the lungs. The first thing you do in trying to make one hear you at a distance is to take in a deep breath, -you instinctively want more breath support. Hence breathe often and deeply. When reading, always retain as much air in your lungs as possible. The degree of loudness is governed by mental concept

rather than by emotions. When the mind contrasts two ob-
jects, this contrast may be expressed by using different
degrees of loudness.
Example:

From every hill, by every sea,
In shouts proclaim the great decree,
“All chains are burst, all men are free !"

Hurrah, hurrah, hurrah! The first part should be said in a low tone; the second in a strong, loud tone.

Again, in interpreting a selection, it is necessary to be governed by the mcaning to be expressed, as:

“Halt!”—the dust brown ranks stood fast;

"Fire !”—out blazed the rifle blast. The words of command should be spoken louder than the explanations which follow.

A high key and a loud tone frequently go together; they both result from an excited mental state. Therefore, passions such as æsthetic joy, defiance, alarm, terror, or rage require a louder tone than timidity, contentment, pathos, reverence, or veneration.

EXERCISES IN LOUDNESS

Say Halt to one person, to ten, to fifty, to one thousand, as loud as you can.

Soft tone:

I. Softly! She is lying

With her lips apart.
Softly! She is dying

Of a broken heart.

II. O balmy breath that dost almost persuade

Justice to break her sword! Once more, once more.
Be this when thou art dead and I will kill thee.

And love thee after. Once more, and this the last;
So sweet was ne'er so fatal. I must weep,
But they are cruel tears: this sorrow's heavenly;

It strikes where it doth love. She awakes.
Othello.

SHAKESPEARE.
III. Jean Valjean listened but there was no sound; he pushed
the door with the tip of his finger lightly. He heard from the
end of the room the calm and regular breathing of the sleeping
bishop. Suddenly he stopped, for he was close to the bed; he had
reached it sooner than he had anticipated.
Jean Valjean.

VICTOR Hugo.
Medium tone:
I. Whither, 'midst falling dew,

While glow the heavens with the last steps of day,
Far, through their rosy depths, dost thou pursue

Thy solitary way?

Vainly the fowler's eye
Might mark thy distant flight to do thee wrong,
As, darkly seen against the crimson sky,

Thy figure floats along.

Seek'st thou the plashy brink
Of weedy lake, or marge of river wide,
Or where the rocking billows rise and sink

On the chafed ocean side?
To a Waterfowl.

BRYANT. How often is it the case, that when impossibilities have come to pass, and dreams have condensed their misty substances into tangible reality, we find ourselves calm and even coldly selfpossessed, amid circumstances which it would have been a delirium of joy or agony to anticipate.

HAWTHORNE.
Loud tone:
I.

Awake, awake!
Ring the alarum-bell.-Murder and treason !
Banquo and Donalbain !—Malcolm! awake!
Shake off this downy sleep, death's counterfeit,
And look on death itself! up, up, and see
The great doom's image!-Malcolm! Banquo!
As from our graves rise up, and walk like sprites,

To countenance this horror. Ring the bell.
Macbeth.

SHAKESPEARE.

Il.

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