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Vidushaka is the name for a ridiculous, childish man (manavaka), who is always at the side of the hero (nayaka-parsva-parivartin). He is the companion of his sports and promoter of his amusement (hdsya-kdrinarma-mlirid, or narma-sadiva). In effecting the three objects of human life, viz. religious merit, wealth, and pleasure, the family priests assist the king in the first; the heir-apparent (yuva-raja) and the army in the second; the Vidushaka, the parasite (pitha-marda), and the pimp (vita) in the third.' For vita, see Sanskrit-English Dictionary.
1 'Oh (my evil) destiny 1 I am worn out by being the associate of this king, who is so addicted to the chase. "Here's a deer," "there's a boar," "yonder's a tiger;" (in the midst of) such (cries and shouts), even at mid-day, is it wandered about from forest to forest, in the paths of the woods, where the shade of the trees is scanty in the hot season.' Vayasya is properly 'an associate or companion of about the same age' (vayas). Tti, 'so saying,' here rather, 'so crying out.' Vana-rdji,' a row of trees,' 'a long tract of forest.' Ahindyate, pres. pass, of rt. hind, with prep, a, 'to wander about' (an uncommon root); understand asmabhih, 'by us.' The Prakrit is answerable for the collocation of words in this sentence.
a 'The bad-smelling [pungent] waters of mountain-streams, astringent from the mixture of leaves, are drunk. At irregular hours a meal, consisting chiefly of meat roasted on spits, is eaten.' Katu, 'pungent,' 'ill-scented.' Stilya-mdnsa, 'roast-meat,' 'meat cooked on a spit.' Bhuyishtha, see p. 4,1. 1, with note. •
3 'Even in the night I cannot lie down comfortably (in my bed) through the dislocation of my joints by the galloping of the horse [or by my horse's pursuit of the game];' see p. 67, 1. 6, and note 1. The above is the reading of all the Deva-nagari MSS. The Bengali
have twaga-gaanam ca saddena, 'by the noise of horses and elephants.' JCand, 'to separate grain from the husk,' 'bruise,' 'break,' is not so common as khand. Kanditasandheh agrees with the gen. mama,' of me,' understood after s'ayitavyam. The instr. case is more usual after the fut. pass, part., but not more correct.
1 'Then at the very earliest dawn I am awakened by the din of taking the forest by the sons of slaves hunting the birds.' Mahati pratyiishe, lit. 'at great dawn' (cf. maka-ratra, 'mid-night,' and the French 'de grand matin'). Dasyah-putraih stands for daei-putraih, and is to be regarded as one compound. According to Pan. vi. 3, 22, the genitive in this compound is used in abusing and reviling (akroJe); so vrishalydh-putraih for vrishall-putraih. Vana-grahana,' surrounding and taking possession of a wood for the purpose of hunting the animals it contains' (mriga-grahanartham, K.) Those who do so are called, further on in this Act, vana-grahinah (=vandvarodhakdh, K.), 'those who inclose a wood and obstruct the points of egress.'
2 'Even with all this my trouble does not come to an end; (for) afterwards upon the (old) boil [scar], (another) small boil is produced.' lyata =etavata,' by this much,' 'by so much.' Ni$hkramati=sdmyati, 'ceases.' Pitakd=visphotaka, 'a pustule,' 'a small boil,' 'a pimple.' This was probably a proverbial phrase, cf. ayam aparo gandasya upari visphofali, Mudra-r. p. 120,1. 14.
3 'For indeed yesterday, while we were left behind, a hermit's daughter, named Sakuntala, through my ill-luck was presented to the
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view of his Highness, who had entered the grounds of the hermitage in pursuit of a deer,' i. e. it was all my ill-luck that made him see her. Asmdsu avahlneshu = pascat patiteshu, 'dropped behind,' 'fallen in the rear,' S*.
1 'Even to-day (the light of) dawn (broke) upon the eyes (of him) thinking of that very (damsel);' i.e. according to C. jdgrata eva rajanl nirgata, 'the night passed away whilst he was still awake.' K. remarks, 'By this it may be inferred that with thinking of her he had not closed his eyes all night.' Akshnoh, i. e. drisor unmtlatoh satoh, 'on his eyes being (still) open.' Satoh in the commentary shews that akshnoh is locative dual.
a 'What is to be done 1 Meanwhile I will (be on the look out to) see him, when he has performed (his) usual toilet. Here comes my dear friend in this very direction, attended by Yavana women, having bows in their hands, and wearing garlands of wild-flowers. Be it so; I will stand as if crippled by paralysis of my limbs.' Ka gatih,' what resource!' i. e. what remedy or what expedient can be devised 1 This is a common phrase in Prakrit; it occurs again in Act V. Kiddcara-parikammam (= Sk. kritdidra-parikarmdnam) is the reading of one of the oldest MSS. [India Office, 1060], and of C. K. reads pratikarmdnam; but parikarma and pratikarma have the same sense, viz. 'decoration after purification of the body,' 'rubbing it with perfumes after bathing.' Most of the Deva-n. MSS. have parikkamam for parikramam, 'circumambula
tion.' Yavanl, properly a Muhammadan woman, a native of Yavana or Arabia, but applied also to a native of Greece. Wilson in the Vikramorvasi (Act V, p. 261), where the same word occurs, remarks that Tartarian or Bactrian women may be intended. The business of these attendants was to act as the bearers of the king's bow and arrows. At the end of Act VI. a Yavani enters again, sdrn-ga-hastd, 'carrying a bow.' A commentator remarks, Yavanl yuddha-kdle rdjno 'strata dadati, 'the Yavani in the time of war gives weapons to the king.' K. says, Yavanl sastra-dhdrinl,' the Yavani is the weapon-bearer.' An-ga-bhan-ga, properly 'palsy or paralysis of the limbs.' K. observes that the Vidushaka here acts the vishkambha, which he defines as an adhama-pravesakah, or inferior introductory scene, coming between two acts (an-kayor madhya-vartt), and performed by inferior actors (nlca-pdtra-prayojitah). Its object is to connect or bind together the story of the drama and the subdivisions of the plot (kathd-san-gTiatfandrtham), by concisely alluding to what has happened in the intervals of the acts, or what is likely to happen at the end (bhutdnam bhdvindm api sankshepena sucanat). In the following stage-direction, danda-kashtha^yashti, 'a stick,' 'staff of wood.' Translate, 'he stands leaning on a staff.'
1 'Granted my beloved is not easy to gain, still my heart encourages (itself) by observing her gestures (of love). Even though love has not accomplished its object, the desire of both (of us) gives [causes] enjoyment.' Xdmam, see p. 55, n. 3. Na sulabhd, i.e. from her relationship to the Bishi, K. Tad-bhdva-darsancUvasi is the reading of all the Beng. MSS. and of £?. The Deva-n. read tad-bhdva-darsandydsi, where dydsi means 'active,' 'kept in activity.' But K., though the MS. gives dydsi, explains it by santushyati, 'is cheered,' and by aivdsitam, 'consoled.'
£hdva=iringdra-cesh(d, 'the expression of amorous sentiments by gestures.' The gestures here referred to are described in the next verse, 36. Darsana is either 'seeing,' 'looking at' (=avalokana, S'.), or 'exhibiting,' 'shewing' (=sdkslidt-karana, K.) In the latter case, translate, 'by her exhibition of amorous gestures.' Ubhaya = ndyaka-ndyikayoh or strl-purushayoh. Prarthana=abhilas?ia, 'longing.'
1 This is a long Bahuvrihi comp., agreeing with prdrihayitd. Translate, 'thus the suitor, who judges of the state of feeling of his beloved one by his own desires, is deluded.' Evam=vakshyamdna-prakdrena, 'in the following manner,' 'in the way about to be mentioned,' K. Abkiprdya =abhUdsha. Sambhdvita=kalpita, 'imagined,' or san-kita, 'suspected.' Ishta-jana=manogata-vyakti, 'the individual in one's thoughts.' Prarihayita—kamukah or yddakah. Vidarribyate=apahd8yate,'is mocked,'' is made a fool of;' supply kamena, 'by love.' The stage-direction smitam kritva implies that he is to smile at his own folly in supposing that she was as fond of him as he was of her, merely because her gestures were coquettish.
2 'Whereas by her, even though casting her eyes in another direction, a tender glance was given [lit. it was looked tenderly]; and whereas by the weight of (her) hips she moved [lit. it was moved by her] slowly, as if from dalliance; and whereas by (her) detained in these (words), " Do not go" [see p. 52, 1. 4], that friend was addressed with disdain; all that certainly had reference to me [or was directed at me]. Ah! (how) a lover discovers (what is) his own!' Vtkshitam is here the past pass, part., and snigdham an adverb, Sf. Avaruddhayd or, according to some MSS., uparuddhayd=^krita-gamana-bddhayd or krita-gati-vydghdtayd. Matparayanam=ztnad-vishayakam, 'relating to me.' Aho here denotes wonder
Verse 36. Sakdula-vikripita (a variety of Attdhriti). See verses 14, 30.